Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 18, 2005
Making states work
What mechanisms make for a successful state? Although much has been written about state failures and the reasons for such occurrences, very little attention has been paid to what constitutes state success and what are the mechanisms for achieving success.

Nature as important as nurture in developing ability for flexible self-control
Your ability to follow the rules of the road when driving on unfamiliar streets exists thanks to the way your pre-teen life experiences influenced the development of your brain.

To stop evolution: New way of fighting antibiotic resistance demonstrated by Scripps scientists
A team of scientists at The Scripps Research Institute and the University of Wisconsin have demonstrated a new way of fighting antibiotic resistance: by stopping evolution.

Academic, science groups urge accelerated visa reforms
A group of 40 leading academic, science and engineering associations urged the U.S. government to accelerate its effort to reform the visa process for international students, scholars and researchers.

New purification process joins high throughput with high selectivity
Penn State chemical engineers have demonstrated proof of concept for a new protein purification process that combines ultrafiltration's high throughput with high specificity achievable through electrically-charged dyes that bind to the protein.

Dietary vitamin E may lower risk of Parkinson's disease
Diets rich in vitamin E could protect against the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), suggests a meta-analysis in the June issue of The Lancet Neurology published online today (Thursday May 19, 2005).

Small, open-label study shows potential use of novel antibiotic rifaximin for Crohn's disease
Findings presented at Digestive Disease Week suggest that rifaximin may be a potential treatment option for Crohn's Disease.

World's first UV 'ruler' sizes up atomic world
The world's most accurate

Go to the tape: Video replay improves radiology residents' performance
An innovative combination of traditional teaching rounds and individual videotaped feedback, similar to what sports instructors use to teach students proper form, is a beneficial educational tool for improving the performance of radiology residents, say researchers from McGill University Hospital Center in Montreal, Canada.

Book argues for change in society's view of pregnancy
The public at large should take a greater interest in pregnancy and child care because society has a responsibility to ensure children begin their lives with as many advantages as possible, contends University of Toronto at Mississauga philosophy professor Amy Mullin.

Testicular cancer gene in mice may offer clues to origins of cancer in men
Researchers have located a gene dubbed dead end that when mutated or lost, causes testicular tumors in mice.

Studies on HRT for breast cancer patients can give false hopes
Women treated for breast cancer who are considering taking Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) should be cautious when using published research to inform their decision.

DuPont announces additional $25 million funding for DuPont MIT alliance
DuPont Chief Technology Officer Thomas M. Connelly Jr. joined Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) President Susan Hockfield and Provost Robert A.

Group-based education improves diabetes self-management, studies find
Patients with type 2 diabetes who participate in group education programs to manage their disease show measurable improvement and require less medication, according to a systematic review of current evidence.

Ultrasound images transmitted over the phone allow radiologists to diagnose patients in real time
Over-the-phone transmission of diagnostic-quality ultrasound images is possible, potentially paving the way for ultrasound examinations to be performed in poorer areas of the world, inexpensively transmitted via the Internet, and read by experienced radiologists elsewhere, a new Dartmouth Medical School study shows.

Colleagues, friends gather to commemorate Nobel Laureate Axelrod
Luminaries from the fields of neuroscience and mental health will gather at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on Monday, May 23, to celebrate the life and achievements of one of their most honored colleagues, the late Nobel Laureate Julius Axelrod, Ph.D.

NYU chemist wins teaching & research award
New York University's Paramjit Arora, an assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry, has been awarded a $100,000 Cottrell Scholar Award, which recognizes excellence in both teaching and research.

Searching for the Queen of Sheba
The queen of Sheba was once one of the most powerful leaders in the world but there are few clues left anywhere about this woman who ruled a rich and powerful nation somewhere in Africa - perhaps, as some archeologists maintain, in what is now southwest Nigeria.

Umbilical cord-blood transplants save lives of babies with rare genetic disorder
Umbilical cord-blood transplants save the lives of newborns with a rare genetic disorder called Krabbe's disease and helps their brains develop more normally, a study led by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University Medical Center concludes.

Penn researchers find relief for gastrointestinal illnesses
Research presented at Digestive Disease Week indicates that rifaximin may provide promise in the treatment of pouchitis and small bowel bacterial overgrowth.

Don't skip chest CT in the ER just because x-ray checks out okay, warns study
Chest X-rays may miss 40% of clinically significant thoracic injuries in multiple trauma patients that can be caught by chest CT, say researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

International alliance to unlock secrets of Egyptian mummies
Two world-renowned teams of experts on Egyptian mummies have joined forces in an international effort to better understand disease and its treatment in ancient Egypt.

Scientists develop novel multi-color light-emitting diodes
A team of University of California scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed the first completely inorganic, multi-color light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on colloidal quantum dots encapsulated in a gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor.

'Sister Mary' the robo-doc to start making ward rounds at St Mary's Hospital
St Mary's NHS Trust and Imperial College London are piloting a scheme where medical robots will cover ward rounds.

Researchers find first gene for inherited testicular cancer in mice
In this week's journal Nature, researchers report finding the first gene responsible for inherited susceptibility of testicular cancer in mice.

Media invited to international conference on bipolar disorder June 16-18 in Pittsburgh
More than 1,000 researchers, clinicians and mental health advocates are expected to attend the Sixth International Conference on Bipolar Disorder June 16-18 at the David L.

Alarm pheromone causes aphids to sprout wings
When aphids are attacked by predators such as ladybird beetles, they release an alarm pheromone, (E)-รข-farnesene, that has long been known to cause other aphids to walk around or drop from the plant.

NSF grant to Carnegie Mellon establishes research experiences for undergraduates site
The Department of Biological Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University has received a $407,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to establish a Research Experiences for Undergraduates site.

Satellites join watch on Naples' volcanic hinterland
The world's oldest volcano observatory has added satellites to its repertoire of instruments to monitor volcanic features flanking Naples.

University of Manchester develops vision chip for new generation of 'human' robots
The University of Manchester is to help develop a new generation of robots with 'human' instincts.

Hydroxycitric acid slows glucose uptake, cuts insulin peaks/valleys a la South Beach Diet
A dietetic aid, hydroxycitric acid (HCA) looks great in animal studies, but human trials show neither food nor weight reduction.

Lighting of the future among topics at BGSU Emerging Technology Forum
The potential next generation of lighting will be among the subjects discussed by representatives of academia and industry when they meet June 3 at Bowling Green State University for an Emerging Technology Forum.

Calif. institute wins 10-year contract with international research program
The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International (IODP-MI) is moving ahead with plans to turn the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site Survey Data Bank (SSDB) into a fully electronic, Web-based, science information resource.

An-Pang Tsai wins inaugural Dubois Award
Citing his

Patient receives heart turbocharger
An artery-squeezing balloon could one day treat millions of patients who suffer from

NIMH research showcased at APA meeting
At the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) annual meeting in Atlanta next week, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) will showcase advances in translating new scientific knowledge into improved treatments for mental disorders.

New kidney function test better than standard at predicting death and cardiovascular outcomes
Cystatin-C, a new blood test for kidney function, is a better predictor of death and cardiovascular risk among the elderly than the standard measure of kidney function, according to a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-funded study published in the May 19 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Infants with rare genetic disease saved by cord blood stem cells
Children with a fatal genetic disorder called Krabbe Disease can be saved and their brain development preserved if they receive stem cells from umbilical cord blood before symptoms of the disease develop, according to a study published in the May 19, 2005, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Comprehensive biodefense text published
A new book, Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Disease and Counterbioterrorism, authoritatively explains the universe of scientific, medical, and legal issues facing the biodefense research community.

Virtual reality therapy may ease fear of public speaking
For many people, the mere thought of public speaking makes their palms sweat, heart race and stomach reel.

Particle smasher gets a super-brain
When the world's most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), fires up in 2007, it will begin to churn out a torrent of information.

Hidden costs and invisible contributions of adults characterized as dependent
An international symposium to present and discuss interdisciplinary research findings on the hidden costs and invisible contributions of adults who are older or living with disabilities is being held at Trent University from June 8-10 2005.

New kidney test better elder mortality predictor
A study at the San Francisco VA Medical Center (SFVAMC) has found that a test of kidney function that measures blood levels of cystatin C -- a protein produced by most cells in the body -- is a far more accurate predictor of mortality risk in elderly people than the current standard kidney function test, which measures levels of the protein creatinine.

Discovery of a 'drug anticipation' brain signal
In studies with rats, researchers have distinguished a burst of the brain chemical dopamine from a reward-related brain region that is associated with anticipating the delivery of cocaine.

Colonoscopy: A woman's best defense against colon cancer
A study being published in the New England Journal of Medicine has reaffirmed the difference between the sexes - at least when it comes to colon cancer detection.

Robotic telescope discovery sheds new light
A new type of light was detected from a recent gamma-ray burst, as discovered by Los Alamos National Laboratory and NASA scientists using both burst-detection satellites and a Los Alamos-based robotic telescope.

Researchers find gene that may be at root of potato blight
Researchers have found a gene they suspect plays an important role in triggering the blight that wiped out Ireland's potato crops a century-and-a-half ago.

Scientists team up for multiyear studies of microbial mysteries
More than two dozen researchers from 16 institutions will participate in $10 million, three- to- five-year

Same fold in viral shells point to common ancestry
New findings in research led by Purdue University biologists provide further evidence that the protein envelope protecting DNA in viruses evolved billions of years ago from a common ancestor and uses the same basic protein

Dye to pinpoint diseases and pathogens
University of Toronto researchers have designed a chemical screening tool that will light up when dangerous pathogens and diseases in air, water and bodily fluids are present.

German-American Frontiers of Science Meeting
This annual symposium, sponsored by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation brings together outstanding young scientists from the United States and Germany to interact and discuss their research.

Judges think children more honest but less reliable than adults, says Queen's study
Judges perceive child witnesses as being more honest than adults when testifying in court, but recognize that children's limited memory and communication skills, and greater suggestibility may make them less reliable than adults.

Pilot studies to look at how mind drives or prevents disease
The newly formed Rochester Center for Mind-Body Research (RCMBR) today launched its first three pilot programs to explore how depression, personality and stress contribute to disease in the aging body.

Words influence smells
In a finding that holds lessons for restaurateurs and advertisers, researchers have found that visual words can influence the perception of smells--with pleasant words influencing olfactory brain regions to perceive an odor as pleasant.

New method of administering anti-cancer drug may be more effective, safer
A novel way of administering an anti-cancer drug to bone-marrow transplant patients using continuous infusion may be more effective and safer than the method currently used, new study findings indicate.

Trumpeting vaccination may only entrench opposition
Extolling the safety and benefits of childhood vaccinations may only serve to strengthen and entrench the positions of those philosophically opposed to them, says new research led by University of Toronto scientists.

U.S. ranks highest worldwide in use of high-tech imaging
The U.S. ranks highest in utilization of high-tech imaging compared to other countries worldwide, while Germany and Singapore ranks high in utilization of both high and low tech imaging, a new study shows.

Marshes tell story of medieval drought, little ice age, and European settlers near NYC
Sediment layers from a tidal marsh in the Hudson River Estuary provide great details on the area's climate.
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