Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

June 07, 2005
Blood-based TB test matches up to old skin test in study among health workers in India
A UC Berkeley-led study has found that a new blood-based tuberculosis (TB) test is as useful as the traditional tuberculin skin test in a head-to-head matchup between the two methods of detecting latent infection.

Temple virologist receives $6.1 million NIH grant for neuro-AIDS research
Temple University rsearcher Kamel Khalili has been awarded a $6.1 million NIH grant for Neuro-AIDS research to continue the ongoing investigation into the molecular biology and genetics of the interaction between viruses and host cells in the central nervous system.

Eliminating affirmative action would devastate most minority college enrollment
According to the latest issue of Social Science Quarterly, eliminating affirmative action would devastate most minority college enrollment and virtually no gain for white students.

Possible treatment found for 'chemobrain'
Researchers have identified a medication effective for treating the side effects that result from chemotherapy and radiation treatments in breast and ovarian cancer patients.

Scientists help develop first single molecule transistor
A scientist at the University of Liverpool has helped to create the world's smallest transistor - by proving that a single molecule can power electric circuits.

Risk factors for tuberculosis and homelessness often overlap in US
Risk factors for tuberculosis in the United States overlap with many of the risk factors associated with persistent homelessness, including being male or having a history of incarceration or substance abuse, according to a report in the June 8 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on tuberculosis.

Endocrine Society honors UNC physician for key contributions to hormone research
Dr. David R. Clemmons of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill received the Endocrine Society's Gerald Aurbach Award at the 87th annual meeting of the society Friday (June 3) in San Diego.

Women overestimate breast cancer risk, U-M study finds
When asked to estimate the lifetime risk of breast cancer, 89 percent of women overestimated their risk, with an average estimate of 46 percent - more than three times the actual risk of 13 percent, according to a study by University of Michigan Health System researchers.

After the yeast is gone bacteria continue to develop flavor of sparkling wine
Researchers at the University of Barcelona, Spain, show for the first time that bacteria, in addition to yeast, are involved in the secondary fermentation of the sparkling wine known as Cava.

Sandia researchers develop unique 'surfactant' material
A unique class of materials developed by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, Calif., may prove useful in textile manufacturing, biomedical diagnostics, and other applications requiring the modification of surface properties of liquids or solids.

SHRO signs agreement with Temple to continue biomedical research
The Sbarro Health Research Organization (SHRO) has reached an agreement with Temple University to continue funding the Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine in Temple's College of Science and Technology.

Methane doesn't necessarily mean life on Mars, says Dartmouth study
Two Dartmouth researchers have weighed in on the debate over whether the presence of methane gas on Mars indicates life on the red planet.

Raisins fight oral bacteria
Compounds found in raisins fight bacteria in the mouth that cause cavities and gum disease, according to researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

Chest x-rays not effective in determining when TB acquired
There is little correlation between the appearance of tuberculosis on chest x-rays and how recently the disease was acquired, according to a study in the June 8 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on tuberculosis.

New benefits of soy revealed
The labels in the snack food aisle promise low-fat, no-fat, low-cal and low-carb tasty treats.

Tibetan monks yield clues to brain's regulation of attention
University of Queensland researchers have teamed up with Tibetan Buddhist monks to uncover clues to how meditation can affect perception.

Study of high-pressure process to inactivate Norwalk virus underway
Norwalk and Norwalk-like viruses are the most common cause of food borne disease outbreaks in the United States, with 22 million cases reported annually.

Pollution-eating bacteria produce electricity
Microbiologists seeking ways to eliminate pollution from waterways with microbes instead discovered that some pollution-eating bacteria commonly found in freshwater ponds can generate electricity.

Cancer research finds targets for new cholesterol-lowering therapies
A team of investigators from the Uppsala Branch of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR) and Harvard Medical School has uncovered novel targets for the development of drugs that would potentially complement, or replace, statins in treating heart disease.

Rensselaer opens new $20 million center for future energy systems
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute today marked the opening of the Center for Future Energy Systems, a New York State Center for Advanced Technology.

Joslin's new textbook is leading source for advances in diabetes care
Joslin Diabetes Center, the world's leading authority in diabetes research, care and education, has published the fourteenth edition of Joslin Diabetes Mellitus, providing the medical profession with valuable new insights on diabetes research and treatments.

Study links regions of two chromosomes to susceptibility for type of autism
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center study links regions of two chromosomes to susceptibility for a type of autism characterized by regression in development.

NC woman is now insulin-free after series of three islet cell transplants
A North Carolina woman has been successfully treated for Type 1 diabetes, and is now insulin-free, as a result of three islet cell transplants performed at Carolinas Medical Center in Charlotte.

3D atlas will help navigate the spinal cord
Professor George Paxinos and Dr Yuri Koutcherov of the Spinal Injuries Research Centre at the Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute have been awarded ~$200,000 by the Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation to prepare a three-dimensional (3D) atlas of the rat spinal cord over the next two years.

Treatment helps in preventing TB among those at high risk
The drug isoniazid reduced the incidence of tuberculosis among HIV-infected miners in South Africa, a population at high risk of TB, according to a study in the June 8 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on tuberculosis.

Supernova remnant menagerie
A violent and chaotic-looking mass of gas and dust is seen in this Hubble Space Telescope image of a nearby supernova remnant.

Omega-3 offers hope for new anti-breast cancer drugs
Omega-3, the fatty acid found in oily fish, could be combined with a commonly used anesthetic to develop drugs to treat breast cancer, according to research published today in the journal Breast Cancer Research.

World Ocean Day: How satellites safeguard our waters
Earth's oceans are what make this a Blue Planet. Our seas influence the climate, produce most of the oxygen we breathe, serve as a means of transport and a major source of food and resources.

African-Americans more prone to higher heart weight than whites, study shows
Adult African-Americans have higher heart weight - a condition that can lead to serious heart disease - at two to three times the rates of whites, researchers from UT Southwestern Medical Center have shown.

CT significantly reduces the need for appendectomy
Five years ago, the negative appendectomy rate at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston was 20%, but since the advent of CT screening, it has dropped to 3%, say MGH researchers.

UCLA awarded more than $6 million for biodefense and infectious disease research
UCLA has been awarded more than $6 million over four years by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to support research for countering threats from bioterrorism agents and infectious diseases.

Goddard technologist proposes sensitive high-tech robot skin
A NASA scientist has begun setting up a laboratory at NASA Goddard to develop a high-tech covering that would enable robots to sense their environment and react to it, much like humans respond when something or someone touches their skin.

Zero increase in prescription drug spending with generic promotion programs
Prescription drug spending stopped its upward trend in 2004, with no year-to-year increase, for sponsors of drug benefit programs that adopted two or more cost-management programs, according to the 2004 Express Scripts Drug Trend Report.

MIT's nanoprinter could mass-produce nano-devices
Just as the printing press revolutionized the creation of reading matter, a

Shampoo detergent added to paint makes surfaces self-sterilizing
Adding a common ingredient in shampoo to paints and varnishes can create self-sanitizing coatings for frequently touched surfaces in public buildings that continue killing germs for months, according to research conducted by a multi-state consortium of high school students and retirees.

Tercica presents two pharmacokinetic studies in an oral session at Endocrine Society Meeting
The studies demonstrate that following a dose of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1), there is a prompt increase in serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3).

Mutation in mouse circulatory gene mimics a form of congenital heart disease
Mutations in a critical gene that controls heart and blood vessel development in mouse embryos mimics a type of congenital heart disease in humans, according to new research by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.

Multi-drug resistant TB persists in California
Despite significant advances in reducing the number of cases of tuberculosis in California, the proportion of multi-drug resistant cases has not decreased but remains steady, according to a study in the June 8 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on tuberculosis.

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience
The current issue of the Journal of Neuroscience features the following article: Endogenous Cannabinoids and Reward in Monkeys.

Georgia Tech develops mass spectrometry device that analyzes proteins faster and at a lower cost
Researchers at the Georgia Tech have developed a device that has the potential to significantly reduce the time needed to analyze proteins, shortening development time for new drugs and bringing down the overall cost of protein analysis technology.

Link between mothers' poor diets, kids' obesity
New work may have found the missing link between mothers' diets and obesity in kids.

Control of TB epidemic requires more effective drugs, better tests, and focus on latent infection
With approximately 9 million individuals expected to develop tuberculosis this year and more than 2 million expected to die from it, tuberculosis has become a global epidemic that increasingly impacts the U.S., where the majority of TB cases are among people born outside the country.

New eye treatment technology wins Kaye Award for Hebrew University researcher
A method using positively charged emulsions for improving drug delivery to treat eye diseases has won for Prof.

University of Chicago study overturns conventional theory in evolution
A study by University of Chicago researchers contradicts conventional theory by showing that the percentage of mutations accepted in evolution is also strongly swayed by the speed at which new mutations arrive at a gene.

Unlocking the mystery behind lightning's puzzling friend
A study led by Steven Cummer of Duke University, Durham, N.C. and Walter Lyons of FMA Research, Inc., Fort Collins, Colo. has found more evidence that sprites are generated by major lightning strikes.

French Chemical Society award for Peter Gölitz
On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of Chemistry - A European Journal, the founding Editor of the journal, Peter Gölitz, was recently awarded the Medal of the French Chemical Society (Société Française de Chimie, SFC) during a symposium at the Institut de Science et d'Ingénierie Supramoléculaires (ISIS) in Strasbourg.

Diabetics susceptible to compromised cardiovascular function from high levels of air pollution
Researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health and colleagues assessed the effect of high air pollution levels, specifically emissions from coal-burning power plants and diesel vehicles, on Boston-area adults with diabetes.

Men, women disagree on number of guns at home, new study finds
Many couples with small children living at home disagree not only about how they have firearms stored but also about the number and types of guns they possess, a new study shows.

Z fires objects faster than Earth moves through space
Sandia National Labs has accelerated a small plate from zero to 76,000 mph in less than a second.

Cell's power plants also sense low oxygen
Researchers have produced the strongest evidence yet that mitochondria -- the organelles that generate energy to power the cell -- also monitor oxygen concentration in the cell.

Tourism offers lifeline to fishing communities
Tourism is becoming increasingly important for fishing communities looking to offset economic decline and preserve links with their maritime heritage, say researchers who surveyed four UK North Sea fishing communities.

Temple engineers recieve NSF grant to develop interactive high school biology curriculum
To help high-school students better understand and apply scientific methodologies to biology problems, the Intelligent Systems Application Center (ISAC) in Temple University's College of Engineering has been awarded a three-year, $843,000 grant by the National Science Foundation to develop three intelligent, interactive, multimedia modules for use in high-school biology curriculums.

JAMA editorial: Tuberculosis - a global problem
In a JAMA editorial on TB, the authors write:

Breast cancer uses growth factors to lure stem cells
Like a siren song, breast cancer secretes growth factors to attract stem cells then uses those cells - which normally promote healing - to help it survive, researchers have found.

Research links heavy drinking and increased mental health risk
Women who drink to excess are more likely to experience depression and anxiety according to new research.

Geckos: It's not always about sex
Australia's Bynoe's gecko -- a line of all-female geckos -- doesn't need sex or a male to reproduce and, contrary to expectations, these

Study in Royal Society journal on heritability of female orgasm
Releases from the Royal Society journals include a twin study into the heritability of the female orgasm and a study on avian collisions with offshore windfarms.

Use of high hydrostatic pressure to inactivate Hepatitis A virus in oysters studied
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the more serious illnesses transmissible by shellfish.

Prehistoric decline of freshwater mussels tied to large-scale maize cultivation
USDA Forest Service (FS) research suggests that a decline in the abundance of freshwater mussels about 1000 years ago may have been caused the large-scale cultivation of maize by Native Americans.

Studies reveal how cells sense oxygen
Three studies in the June issue of Cell Metabolism offer additional insight into how the cells of mammals sense oxygen.

Resettling the 'Lost Boys of Sudan' in the United States
Since their resettlement in the U.S. in 2000, many of the 300 or so

Goals for TB control reachable for most of world
International goals for reducing the number of tuberculosis cases and deaths to a certain number by the year 2015 can be achieved, but African and Eastern European countries could pose the greatest challenges, according to a study in the June 8 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on tuberculosis.
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