Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 31, 2005
Nicotine exposure can increase motivation to respond for food weeks after the last exposure
A study provides insight into one of the most vexing issues relating to smoking cessation, one that discourages many people from attempting to quit smoking, the prospect of weight gain.

Genomic basis of inflammation could lead to improved trauma treatment
A multi-institutional research collaborative has begun to decipher the complex interplay of genes that underlies the body's response to major injuries.

New techniques study the brain's chemistry, neuron by neuron
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed tools for studying the chemistry of the brain, neuron by neuron.

XMM-Newton probes formation of galaxy clusters
ESA's X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton, has for the first time allowed scientists to study in detail the formation history of galaxy clusters, not only with single arbitrarily selected objects, but with a complete representative sample of clusters.

Inexpensive oxidation catalyst could reduce diesel emissions
It's not a new material, but a new application of silver hollandite could make a big impact in diesel emissions control.

NYU Child Study Center raises over $165,000 at Picnic for ParentCorps
On Friday, August 5, 2005 the NYU Child Study Center raised over $165,000 at the Picnic for ParentCorps held at the Hatkoff residence in Watermill, New York.

Canine coach keeps dieters on a leash
A robot dog could help monitor what you eat every day and calculate your daily calorie intake.

Flipped, expelled, copied, and shrunk
The September 2005 issue of Genome Research presents a series of studies that provide insight into the evolution and variation of primate genomes.

Groundbreaking research sheds light on ancient mystery
A researcher at Rochester Institute of Technology is unraveling a mystery surrounding Easter Island.

Presidential sessions focus on face of chemistry in 2015
Throughout 2005 American Chemical Society President William F. Carroll, Jr., Ph.D., is leading a Society-wide effort to anticipate how the chemistry enterprise landscape will change during the next 10 years.

A picture of progress: PET imaging and biomarkers explored at ACS meeting
Doctors often have wished they could dispense with diagnostic guesswork and simply peer inside a human body -- to see the effects of a disease or if a particular medicine really works.

Preliminary study by K-State professor finds war can be hard on relationships of military couples
Serving in combat can affect the relationship satisfaction of military couples, according to preliminary results of a study by a Kansas State University professor.

Where bonehead investments come from
The ups and downs of the stock market reflect investors' balance between greed and fear, goes an old saying.

Oral contraceptive effective in controlling premenstrual disorder
A new study led by researchers at Yale School of Medicine shows for the first time that a low dose oral contraceptive is effective in treating symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), the most severe form of premenstrual syndrome.

Newly completed chimp genome helps scientists learn more about human DNA
Comparing the human genome to the chimpanzee genome has allowed scientists to identify changes in the human genetic code that were so advantageous that they rapidly became the norm throughout humanity.

Brain remembers familiar faces when choosing potential mate
Scientists at the University of Liverpool have discovered that the human brain favours familiar-looking faces when choosing a potential partner.

Bumblebee see, bumblebee do
Just as travelers figure out which restaurant is good by the numbers of cars in the parking lot, bumblebees decide which flowers to visit by seeing which ones already have bee visitors.

Scientists get look at genes' defensive playbook
More than 15 percent of our genes are mobilized to defend against infections in the bloodstream.

New algorithm for learning languages
Shimon Edelman of Cornell University and colleagues have developed a method for enabling a computer program to scan text, infer the grammar behind it and generate new sentences.

Human muscle-derived stem cells effective in animal models of incontinence
Human muscle-derived cells, pluripotent stem cells found in muscle, have been used to cure stress urinary incontinence in animal models, a finding which signals that these cells are prime candidates to treat the condition in adults.

Partial smokefree policies will leave more than 500 pubs exempt in the North West of England
The UK government proposals to make public places and workplaces smokefree in England would not apply to nearly half of all pubs and bars in the North West of England, because they do not serve food.

Human Y chromosome preserves itself better than the chimp Y
By using human and chimpanzee Y chromosomes as a genetic fossil record to examine our past, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) scientists have seen a surprising difference in the way the male-making chromosomes from the two species cope with the inexorable pressures of evolution.

Scientists discover scaramanga gene's bond with breast cancer
Breakthrough Breast Cancer today announce that UK scientists have discovered that a gene - named after the James Bond villain Scaramanga - can trigger the development of breasts.

National study: New ways to prevent stroke and reduce excess iron in sickle cell anemia
St. Jude Children's Research Hospital will lead a national Phase III clinical trial to investigate whether a new combination treatment can prevent a secondary stroke in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and eliminate the need for nightly injections with a drug that reduces iron overload in these patients.

Ethical and scientific guidelines for study of captive great apes
With genome maps adding new appreciation of the very close relationship between humans and the great apes, scientists at the University of California, San Diego have proposed a series of ethical and scientific guidelines for the expected increase in research on these, our closest evolutionary cousins.

It's electric: Cows show promise as powerplants
A new study suggests that some of the microorganisms found in cow waste may provide a reliable source of electricity.

Electronic lab notebooks useful for teaching, but not ready to replace paper
Electronic laboratory notebooks can be a valuable part of a college science education but are not yet a substitute for traditional paper laboratory notebooks, according to a Duke University chemistry instructor.

Big differences in duplicated DNA distinguish chimp and human genomes
A study comparing the genomes of both humans and chimpanzees has found that much of the genetic difference between the two species came about in events called segmental duplications, in which segments of genetic code are copied many times in the genome.

Universal software, universal appeal
The vision of global applications is a step closer with the development of tools to create software that can work on any device.

Intensive chemotherapy offers pluses, minuses in advanced endometrial cancer
Complex chemotherapy cocktails offer about one extra month of life to patients with end-stage endometrial cancer but also can result in severe, possibly fatal, side effects, according to the first systematic review of studies addressing the topic.

New method shows mushrooms a top source for one antioxidant
Using a new, more sensitive-testing approach they developed for fungi, Penn State food scientists have found that mushrooms are a better natural source of the antioxidant ergothioneine than either of the two dietary sources previously believed to be best.

Short-term bio sensors monitor from afar
A temporary under-the-skin sensor could monitor a variety of health indicators for soldiers, athletes, diabetics, infants, and critically ill patients without wires and at a distance, according to a team of Penn State chemical engineers.

NJIT ranked 9th in the nation for graduating African-American engineers
New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) ranked ninth in the nation for conferring bachelor's degrees in engineering to African-Americans, according to Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, (formerly Black Issues in Higher Education).

Marijuana-derived drug suppresses bladder overactivity and irritation in animal models
Ajulemic acid, a potent synthetic analog of a metabolite of THC -- the principal active ingredient of marijuana -- effectively suppresses pain and bladder overactivity in hypersensitive bladder disorders such as interstitial cystitis (IC), according to animal model study results presented today at the annual meeting of the International Continence Society.

Olive oil contains natural anti-inflammatory agent
A naturally occurring chemical found in extra-virgin olive oils is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, report scientists from the Monell Chemical Senses Center and collaborators.

Researchers discover gene connected to rare muscle disease
By studying the molecules that regulate the formation of muscle, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have discovered a gene that may play a role in a rare muscular disease in humans.

New study suggests mechanism of action for botox in the treatment of enlarged prostate
Botox® appears to alter specific cellular processes that contribute to prostate enlargement according to new study results presented by researchers from the University of Pittsburgh and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan at the International Continence Society annual meeting in Montreal.

Memories of terror: Can history make sense of terrorist acts?
'How to make sense out of terrorist acts?' will be considered at an international conference organised by Cardiff University's School of European Studies (September 15-17).

New genome comparison finds chimps, humans very similar at DNA level
The first comprehensive comparison of the genetic blueprints of humans and chimpanzees shows our closest living relatives share perfect identity with 96 percent of our DNA sequence, an international research consortium reported today.

VNS therapy for treatment-resistant depression proves effective for some patients
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy, a treatment recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment-resistant depression, produced a positive response in more than 25 percent of patients in a national, yearlong study led by UT Southwestern Medical Center psychiatrists.

GlaxoSmithKline announces FDA approval of Fluarix
In a major step toward increasing flu vaccine supply in the United States, GlaxoSmithKline [NYSE:GSK] announced today that the U.S.

Family businesses perform better
A new book by researchers at the University of Alberta has found that family-controlled businesses regularly and dramatically outperform public non-family-controlled businesses.

Stealth particles to target tumors
Stealth nano particles may some day target tumor cells and deliver medication to specific body locations, according to Penn State chemical engineers.

LSD finds new respectability
It was the drug of choice on university campuses, the drug that spawned psychedelic culture as well as countless jail sentences and fines, but LSD actually has respectable roots -- roots that a McMaster University researcher is uncovering.

Study reveals genomics of inflammation from severe injury
Researchers used a microarray approach to identify all the genes that change their activity in response to body-wide inflammation.

Designed peptides: Candidates for the treatment of cancer, sexual dysfunction, eating disorders
Chemists at The University of Arizona have designed molecules based on natural peptide hormones, which regulate many biological functions.

Toasty oat aroma influenced by presence of health-linked polyphenols
Penn State food scientists have shown that the amount of health-linked polyphenols present during roasting or baking influences the toasty aroma developed by oats and might be used to limit the generation of off-flavors in oat products.

Nanotechnology goes glam: Cosmetics advances, challenges discussed at ACS meeting
Cosmetics are big business, but industry researchers are thinking small, as nanotechnology brings new products and techniques to their toolkits.

MRSA risk doubled in critically ill patients with glucose in their airways
Critically ill patients with glucose in their airways seem to be at double the risk of picking up serious hospital acquired infections, including MRSA, suggests research in Thorax. The authors base their findings on a study of 98 critically ill patients in intensive care who required mechanical help with their breathing for more than 48 hours.

Scientists discover the molecular switch for nerve cells' insulating jelly rolls
Scientists identify the molecular switch that turns on the production of myelin, the fatty insulation around nerve cells that ensures swift and efficient communication in the nervous system.

Human Y chromosome stays intact while chimp Y loses genes
The human and the chimpanzee Y chromosomes went their separate ways approximately 6 million years ago.

Fuel cells might get hydrogen from water, organic material
A novel technique for producing hydrogen from water and organic material has been found recently at Purdue University, a discovery that could help speed the creation of viable hydrogen storage technology.

Prominent geologist to discuss the impending global oil shortage at NJIT
Kenneth Deffeyes, PhD, an esteemed geologist and professor emeritus at Princeton University, will come to New Jersey Institute of technology (NJIT) to give a lecture titled

The 'been there, done that' memory response
One of the neural oddities of

A new view of human-chimpanzee genome differences
Comparisons of the human genome and the newly completed draft of the chimpanzee genome have unearthed major differences between the patterns of large duplicated segments of DNA in the two species.

Biosensor reveals new information about suspected cause of Alzheimer's disease
Chemists and biologists at Northwestern University have found a way to detect and estimate the size and structure of a miniscule toxic protein suspected of triggering Alzheimer's disease.
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