Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 21, 2005
An 'evildoer' by any other name: How labels shape our attitudes toward violence
What difference does it make if a prosecutor describes a defendant as a

Guarding giants with tiny protectors
The Office of Naval Research is supporting development of a nanofabrication process that will make possible ultrasmall sensors.

National Academies advisory: Oct. 27-29 US Frontiers of Science
Next week the National Academy of Sciences will hold its 2005 US Frontiers of Science symposium, which brings together outstanding young scientists to discuss cutting-edge research.

UT Southwestern researchers find alterations in brain's circuitry caused by cocaine
Cocaine causes specific alterations in the brain's circuitry at a genetic level, including short-term changes that result in a high from the cocaine, as well as long-term changes seen in addiction, researchers from UT Southwestern Medical Center have found.

Situation-specific policies can reduce antibiotic resistance in hospital and community care
The mass use of antibiotics has caused a rise of bacterial resistance to these drugs that is threatening to destroy the power of these life saving drugs.

Al Gore recipient of Harvard Global Environmental Citizen Award
Former Vice President Al Gore has been chosen as the recipient of the 2005 Global Environmental Citizen Award by the Center for Health and the Global Environment at Harvard Medical School.

Inhaled nitric oxide may help sickle cell disease
Inhaling a small dose of nitric oxide gas may one day help sickle cell patients avoid pain crises and live healthier lives, researchers say.

Rutgers findings a step toward safer chemicals in labs and industry
Safe, versatile and environmentally friendly chemicals could replace hazardous, petroleum-based solvents used in science labs and industrial plants.

Tiny worms paving way for better anesthetics
Ten genes that may make patients more or less susceptible to a common anesthetic agent have been identified by researchers using tiny worms and sophisticated technology that eliminates the activity of individual genes.

Local anesthetics are effective for neuropathic pain
Lidocaine and similar local anesthetics are effective for treating pain that emanates from damaged nerves, according to a systematic review of current evidence.

New antifreeze protein found in fleas may allow longer storage of transplant organs
A new antifreeze protein discovered in tiny snow fleas by Queen's University researchers may lengthen the shelf life of human organs for transplantation.

'Orphan medication' in Europe
The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) has designated, as an orphan medicine, one of the 18 patents of the Centro de Investigacion Medica Aplicada (CIMA) at the University of Navarre.

Testosterone therapy improves sexual function in post-menopausal women
The addition of testosterone to hormone therapy in women after menopause enhances their sexual function.

ESA's new Earth Images Gallery: Typhoon Kirogi makes stormy entry
This Envisat acquisition showing Typhoon Kirogi passing beneath Japan is the latest of more than 480 satellite images so far available for viewing in ESA's new Earth Images Gallery.

BOLDER II study confirms therapeutic potential of SEROQUEL in bipolar depression
Newly released top-line results from the BOLDER II (BipOLar DEpRession) study have underlined the potential for SEROQUEL (quetiapine fumarate) in the treatment of patients with major depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder.

RIT and Cal State promote science and math education
A unique program, funded by the National Science Foundation, will bring students from New York's Rochester Institute of Technology to California State University San Marcos to earn their teaching credentials.

UVa Health System wins renewal of $6.2 million grant for Crohn's disease research
A federal grant to The Digestive Health Center of Excellence at the University of Virginia Health System to study the cause of Crohn's disease has been renewed for another five years.

VCU Massey Cancer Center researchers find new agent inhibits Leukemia cell survival
A team of researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center has discovered an entirely new mechanism of action for a novel pharmacological agent currently in clinical trials in patients - the kinase inhibitor BAY 43-9006 - which was designed to disrupt the survival pathways of tumor cells.

Why 'filling-it-up' takes more than 'tank capacity'
You fill up your

Research on premature birth boosted with $10 Million NIH grant
Researchers at Yale School of Medicine have received over $10 million from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for four and a half years to fund research initiatives in preterm births.

Advancing saltwater fish farming
On Oct. 20 and 21, industry, research, and government experts in the saltwater fish aquaculture field will meet at the 2nd International Sustainable Marine Fish Culture Conference to discuss new advances, and identify the most promising current commercial opportunities, including the potential for use of large cages to raise fish off Florida's coasts.

Ossur one of Europe's 500 fastest growing companies
For the fourth time since 1996, Ossur, a trusted and leading global supplier of prosthetic and orthotic devices, has made the ranks of Europe's fastest growing companies.

Physicists gather in Denver for world's largest annual plasma conference
The 47th Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society's Division of Plasma Physics, will be held October 24-28, 2005, at the Colorado Convention Center in Denver.

Important factors involved in the synthesis of starch in plants
The classic model for explaining the biosynthesis of starch in plant leaves has been seriously called in to question.

Carbon nanoparticles stimulate blood clotting, researchers report
Carbon nanoparticles - both those unleashed in the air by engine exhaust and the engineered structures thought to have great potential in medical applications - promote blood-clotting, scientists from The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston and Ohio University report.

Plant wounds trigger bacteria
A common soil bacteria can 'smell' a wound on plants like roses and wine grapevines, which triggers the microbes to copy their DNA many times over and insert them into plant cells, causing tumors associated with crown gall disease, according to new research by a Cornell microbiologist Steve Winans.

Manchester awarded £1.9m to pioneer e-science software
The University of Manchester has been awarded £1.9m to form part of a new institute which will pioneer the development of software designed to aid UK research.

University group receives $1 million for hydrogen-generating research
The University of Nevada, Reno's Materials Nanotechnolgy Research Group, under the direction of Manoranjan Misra, professor of materials science in the Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, has developed titanium dioxide nanotube arrays for generating hydrogen by splitting water using solar light.

Researchers question persistent cough treatments for kids
Two new reviews of previous medical studies suggest that traditional medical treatment of persistent cough may not be the most effective.

UW study shows deer in CWD zone stick to home
White-tailed deer, it seems, are homebodies. That is the upshot of an intensive study of the traveling behaviors of 173 radio-collared white-tailed deer in south central Wisconsin.

Centres join to forge e-Science tools for researchers
Three UK centres are joining forces to make Grid middleware, developed under the UK e-Science Programme, available and easy to use by e-researchers in all disciplines.

NIST develops health care IT standards repository
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), along with standards development groups and others, are developing a Web-based repository of information called the Health Care Standards Landscape (HCSL).

A new turn-on for genes
Researchers discovered a special type of molecular structure that helps keep genes properly turned off until the structure is ejected from those genes in a regulated manner to help turn the genes on.

Seeing the forest and the trees
Simulated tree extinctions find that less diverse tropical forests have reduced capacity to sequester carbon and to provide critical ecosystem services.

Brains response to visual stimuli helps us to focus on what we should see, rather than all there is to see
Delving ever deeper into the intricate architecture of the brain, researchers at The Salk Institute have now described how two different types of nerve cells, called neurons, work together in tiny sub-networks to pass on just the right amount and the right kind of sensory information.

New book explores campus legends and folklore
Campus legends are an important part of popular culture, says Elizabeth Tucker, Binghamton University associate professor of English.

Cornell finds natural selection in humans
The most detailed analysis to date of how humans differ from one another at the DNA level shows strong evidence that natural selection has shaped the recent evolution of our species, according to a study by researchers from Cornell University, Celera Genomics and Celera Diagnostics published in the Oct.

Molecular studies in cancer of the colon
According to Dr. Jesús García-Foncillas, Director of the Department of Oncology at the University Hospital (University of Navarra), molecular studies in cancer of the colon will contribute to the establishment of more efficient and less toxic treatments.

Exercise improves cardiopulmonary fitness in asthma
Although exercise can trigger asthma attacks in some people, a new review of studies has found that exercise improved cardiopulmonary fitness in people with asthma.
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