Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 10, 2005
Earliest European farmers left little genetic mark on modern Europe, Science study finds
The farmers who brought agriculture to central Europe about 7,500 years ago did not contribute heavily to the genetic makeup of modern Europeans, according to the first detailed analysis of ancient DNA extracted from skeletons of early European farmers

Getting to know you: How familiarity breeds respect
When someone in our social group makes friends with someone from another background, the chances are that our own prejudices will break down, according to new Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded research.

Preventing another Vioxx
The arthritis drug Vioxx eased the pain of millions of patients -- but also increased heart attack and stroke risk among some of them.

Sandia workshop to help gauge nation's energy and water concerns
The National Nuclear Security Administration's Sandia National Laboratories will conduct a workshop in Kansas City, Mo., Nov.

EURYI expands horizons for young scientific researchers in Europe
Compelling curiosity and the desire to excel are common traits among each of the 25 winners of the 2005 European Young Investigator (EURYI) Awards scheme, who will have ample opportunities to put their ideas into action starting right now.

Why children of parents with type 2 diabetes are at risk themselves
Young, lean, insulin-resistant offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes have reduced mitochondrial function.

Pitt professor, student win Feynman prizes for work on 'molecular Lego® set'
A University of Pittsburgh researcher and his student have been awarded prestigious prizes from the Foresight Nanotech Institute for their work in developing a

From passive applications to sentient machines
We are close to the point where new types of automated routines and software applications could operate independently of direct human control to carry out prescribed tasks.

God's bioethics?
The Women's Bioethics Project, a non-partisan, public policy think tank, announced today the release of a report detailing a concerted effort by conservative groups to dominate so-called

Mental illness exacts 'enormous toll' for US businesses and institutions
A study led by a Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine psychiatrist highlights the toll anxiety and depressive disorders exact on workplace performance and profits and points to employer-guaranteed specialized psychiatric care as both cost effective and humane.

OSC showcases initiatives at International Supercomputing Conference
The Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) will showcase its Blue Collar Computing™ and Third Frontier Network (TFN) initiatives by highlighting these projects and more at Supercomputing 2005 (SC|05).

Government plans for NHS more aggressive than Tories ever were
The Government's use of private health care in the NHS is a much more open and aggressive version of the

Airport protection guidelines to be distributed to emergency planners and airport executives
A published report developed by a joint team of researchers from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is being distributed to airport executives and emergency planners and is expected to aid security managers of airports and other transportation facilities in reducing the risk of chemical and biological attacks.

FleetSmart: Campaign to reduce unnecessary vehicle idling
Natural Resources Canada is gearing up to launch a nation-wide campaign to educate Canadians on the harmful effects of unnecessary idling.

Students discover 11,000 year old remains of Irish Elk
A group of history students have discovered the antler of an Irish Elk in cliffs near Kirk Michael on the Isle of Man.

How could a Roberts-Alito court support the Republican political agenda?
New research indicates the authority of the Supreme Court may be at its peak when it is working with elected leaders who seek to advance contested ideological commitments while managing established but fractious coalitions -- much like the current political context.

Stanford scientists' discovery of hormone offers hope for obesity drug
Stanford researchers have discovered a hormone that suppresses appetite. The finding, to be published in the Nov.

Heredity may be the reason some people feel lonely
Heredity helps determine why some adults are persistently lonely, research co-authored by psychologists at the University of Chicago shows.

Bird flu virus triggers worse inflammation in human lung cells than human flu viruses
Scientists might have identified one of the reasons why the bird flu virus H5N1 is so deadly to humans.

Women are receiving less aggressive treatment for chest pain and heart attacks than men, study finds
Women with one of a group of heart problems known as acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are almost one-third less likely to receive invasive treatments when compared with men with the same conditions, according to data from an international study of more than 12,000 people.

AGU Fall Meeting - media advisory 4
Fall Meeting press conference will number 15-20 and cover a wide range of Earth and space science discoveries.

Ink4c and Ptch1 genes collaborate to suppress medulloblastoma
The Ink4c and Ptch1 genes collaborate to suppress the development of medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric brain tumor, according to investigators at St.

Olfactory system detects pheromones that control reproduction
Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers have discovered that pheromones essential for mating behavior in mice are recognized by the nose and not by the vomeronasal system, as researchers had long suspected.

Get ready for 2006 nuclear medicine coding and payment changes with SNM's reimbursement seminars
The Society of Nuclear Medicine wants to prepare nuclear medicine professionals for the ins and outs of coding, coverage and payments for procedures and products -- especially in light of the more than 60 changes recently made to the 2006 Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) Level II code set by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.

Physicists show coherence of Bose-Einstein condensates extends to spin state of atoms
New research shows that the unique properties of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates extend to the internal spin states of the atoms from which the condensates are formed.

Can anthrax be controlled?
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin discovered why lung, but not skin, anthrax infections are lethal.

Monash secures $32 million in ARC funding
Monash University researchers have received $32 million, including $6 million from industry partners, for 85 projects announced today through the Australian Research Council's (ARC) National Competitive Grants Program.

2005 Cy Young winners correctly predicted by mathematical model
A mathematical model for predicting the Cy Young award voting results yielded both of the 2005 winners, Chris Carpenter of the St.

Research finds cigarette manufacturers target youth market with candy flavored cigarette brands
New research from the Harvard School of Public Health finds that cigarette makers are targeting young smokers with candy and liqueur-flavored new brands that mask the harsh and toxic properties found in tobacco smoke, and in one case, embedding a hidden flavor pellet within the filter.

UF Researcher: Global warming dramatically changed ancient forests
Palmettos in Pennsylvania? Magnolias in Minnesota? The migration of subtropical plants to northern climates may not be too far-fetched if future global warming patterns mirror a monumental shift that took place in the past, new research by an international team of scientists suggests.

MIT researcher presents new view of how the cortex forms
How does the cortex, the brain's executive in charge of high-level thinking and planning, go from a uniform blob of brain matter to well-defined areas with specific sensing, cognition and movement tasks?

Researchers find gravitational wakes in Saturn's rings
Cornell astronomers involved with NASA's Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn have found the most direct evidence to date of thin, parallel striations within the planet's outer rings.

Jupiter's massive winds likely generated from deep inside its interior, scientists report
A new computer model indicates Jupiter's massive winds are generated from deep within the giant planet's interior, a UCLA scientist and international colleagues report.

Messengers from the extreme universe
A unique observatory in a remote location in Argentina is starting to unravel the mysteries of High Energy Cosmic Rays.

Genes involved in biofilms
A biologist, Alejandro Toledo Arana, has identified two new genes that operate as regulators in the formation process of the biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus - one of the bacterias most frequently involved in infections following medical implants.

Study finds billions of health insurance dollars used for administrative costs
Billing and insurance paperwork consume at least one out of every five dollars of private insurance health spending in California, according to a new study by health policy researchers.

People eat more stale popcorn if served in a big bucket
Large portions push people to overeat foods they don't even like, according to Cornell University's Brian Wansink.

Olfactory input dominates reproductive behavior in mice
Scientists at Harvard University have found strong signs that the pheromones driving reproduction and fertility in mice are detected primarily by the nose -- not by the specialized vomeronasal system that many researchers had suspected of receiving and processing the bodily chemicals that govern mating behavior.

Rutgers' Wise Young named to Esquire's 'Best and Brightest of 2005'
Rutgers' Wise Young, world-renowned neuroscientist and spinal cord injury researcher, has been selected by Esquire magazine as one of the

Lateral thinking produces first map of gene transmission
A University of Queensland (UQ) study mapping the evolution of genes has shed light on the role of gene transfer in bacterial diseases.

From one cell, many possible cures
A Florida State University research team in Tallahassee, Fla. reports that it has designed a biomedical device that will allow stem cells derived from adult bone marrow to be grown in sufficient quantities to permit far more research -- and allow faster growth of tissues that can be transplanted into patients.

Pierre Auger Observatory celebrates progress on detector array and presents first science results
Scientists of the Pierre Auger Observatory, a project to discover the origins of rare and mysterious ultra-high energy cosmic rays, began a celebration today (November 10) in Malargüe, Argentina, to mark the progress on installation of the Observatory's detectors on the Argentina Pampas, and the presentation of the first physics results.

Statins reduce the risk of stroke and death after carotid artery surgery
Carotid artery endarterectomy (CEA) is the most commonly performed operation to prevent stroke in the United States.

Sexually satisfied but feeling frumpy: It's body image, not 'the change'
Penn State researchers, who analyzed the responses of midlife women, ages 35 to 55, to a survey on body image, have concluded that the emphasis in US culture on being young and thin has a more important influence than menopause on sexual functioning and satisfaction.

Rapid warming caused vegetation changes
Fossil leaves buried 55 million years ago show, for the first time, that rapid warming not only changed animal communities, but plant communities as well; and that the ancient warm spell may be representative of global warming's effects in Earth's future, according to an international team of researchers.

December GEOLOGY and GSA TODAY media highlights
Topics in the December issue of GEOLOGY include: new insights into the size, magnitude, and environmental impact of the Chesapeake Bay impact event; new evidence for catastrophic soil erosion associated with the end-Permian mass extinction; evidence for dramatic grassland expansion and retreat in northeast Africa; and the first direct determination of the ages of Australia's stony deserts.

Poorest countries well behind global health goals agreed years ago
Despite a world strategy for health agreed five years ago, most of the poorest countries on earth are lagging far behind achieving it, say a series of papers published on
University of Queensland a leader in world-first minerals institute
The University of Queensland is pivotal to a new world-first minerals research institute that today attracted a record grant from the Australian Research Council (ARC).

Research to improve trauma patient care neglected
The ability to improve outcomes and treatment for trauma patients is seriously hampered by a 'dearth of clinical trials,' according to an editorial in this week's British Medical Journal.

Neurologists refine multiple sclerosis diagnostic criteria
An international panel of neurologists has updated the current guidelines for diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS), strengthening the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

The Lancet highlights the global burden of foot disease and amputation in diabetic patients
Every 30 seconds a lower limb is amputated somewhere in the world as a consequence of diabetes, states a review in this week's issue of The Lancet.

Allied health professionals meet at IOF World Congress on Osteoporosis
The first program dedicated to allied health professionals will be held as part of the IOF World Congress on Osteoporosis, to be held in Toronto, Canada, next June.

Exercise adds years to life and improves quality, researchers say
Exercise is a lot like spinach ... everybody knows it's good for you; yet many people still avoid it, forgoing its potential health benefits.

Giant ape lived alongside humans
McMaster University geochronologist solves the puzzle of when Gigantopithecus blackii roamed the Earth.

Complete smoking ban leads to marked rise in smoking cessation efforts
The public has made significantly more enquiries to a national Quitline for smokers, and demand for nicotine replacement treatment vouchers has increased, following a total ban on smoking in indoor public places in New Zealand, according to a letter in this week's BMJ.

Risks of taking sedatives for insomnia in older people may be greater than the benefits
For older people, the risks outweigh the benefits of taking sleeping pills and other sedatives, say researchers in this week's BMJ.

Fossil find: 'Godzilla' crocodile had head of a dinosaur, fins like a fish
Researchers have discovered evidence of an ancient sea creature that would have made Tyrannosaurus rex, think twice before stepping into the ocean.

Mayo Clinic Cancer Center finds better predictors for outcomes after radical prostatectomy
In the largest study of its kind to date, Mayo Clinic researchers report that prostate specific antigen (PSA) kinetics, both velocity and doubling time, can be used to predict disease progression and likelihood of death after radical prostatectomy surgery, suggesting that this could be used to guide treatment decisions.

The brain is broadly wired for reproduction
Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have discovered a vast network of neurons in the brain of mice that governs reproduction and controls the effects of reproductive status on other brain functions.

Good neighbor relations may help prevent early sex among teens
Having the right kind of neighbors can help prevent teens from having sex at an early age, according to new research.

Government spin on success of NHS cataract privatisation criticised
Patricia Hewitt, the UK's Secretary of State for Health, is wrong to announce that independent sector-treatment centers (IS-TCs) reduced waiting times for cataract operations, states the author of a correspondence letter in this week's issue of The Lancet.

2005 EURYI Awards highlight the future excellence of science in Europe
The 25 winners of the 2005 EURYI Awards received diplomas on 9 November in a ceremony at the Academy of Sciences in Budapest, Hungary.

JCI table of contents December, 2005
This press release contains summaries, links to PDFs and author contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online November 10 in the JCI: Why children of parents with type 2 diabetes are at risk themselves, Arrhythmias: how the mitochondria can break the heart, Reversing obesity and diabetes works when leptin signaling is on the brain, New target in autoimmune skin blistering disease pops up, and Coughing up a new player in emphysema.

Properties revealed of amorphous carbon thin films prepared by electron-gun evaporation
A great deal of work has been done into understanding the physical properties of amorphous carbon (a-C).

Meditation associated with increased grey matter in the brain
Meditation is known to alter resting brain patterns, suggesting long lasting brain changes, but a new study by researchers from Yale, Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology shows meditation also is associated with increased cortical thickness.

Less sleep, more struggles for elementary and middle school students
Elementary and middle school students have more learning and attention problems when they sleep eight hours or less at night, according to Brown Medical School and Bradley Hospital researchers.

Clinical study on heart failure to use cholesterol-lowering statin
An advanced study launched at Yale School of Medicine is evaluating the role of statin therapy in patients with heart failure, one of the leading causes of hospitalization in people over age 65.

A good night's sleep can mean a better day at school
When children stay up late, they have more academic and attention problems at school, according to a new study from Brown Medical School to be published in the December issue of the journal SLEEP.
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