Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

April 17, 2006
Study reveals new genes for excessive alcohol drinking
Researchers supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), have identified new genes that may contribute to excessive alcohol consumption.

Movement of chromosome in nucleus visualized
Researchers from the University of Illinois' Chicago and Urbana-Champaign campuses offer the first images of active transport within the cell nucleus.

Smoking may cause far more cancer deaths in Asian Americans than previously recognized
Among Asian and Pacific Islander Americans, tobacco smoke exposure may cause more deaths from non-lung cancers than from lung cancer.

ASU researcher finds that as Phoenix grows so do its challenges
Development is a cornerstone of metropolitan Phoenix, and like a teenager with growing pains, Phoenix is experiencing the aches and pains of maturing into a fully grown city.

Recurrent melanoma may be more common than previously thought
Approximately 8 percent of patients with melanoma skin cancer may develop an additional melanoma within two years of their initial diagnosis, and those with atypical moles appear to be at higher risk, according to an article in the April issue of Archives of Dermatology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Insects that produce males from unfertilized eggs reveal a surprising cellular feat
One of the mysteries of parthenogenesis -- the development of an unfertilized egg into an adult -- has been the origin of the centrosome, an essential cellular component that is ordinarily derived from the sperm after fertilization.

Single microRNA causes cancer in transgenic mouse
Scientists in the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center say that just one, single, malfunctioning microRNA is sufficient to cause cancer in mice.

Nearly half of public health employees unlikely to work during pandemic
Over 40 percent of public health employees surveyed said they are unlikely to report to work during an influenza pandemic.

Doctor proposes five steps we can take to help curb child obesity
A nationally recognized expert on child obesity, Dr. Goutham Rao, uses straight talk without hype to provide an accurate appraisal of this epidemic and demonstrate how to help children avoid or overcome this health problem.

Tanning ads commonly seen in high school newspapers
A small study found that nearly half of high schools in the Denver area contained tanning advertisements in their newspapers, according to an article in the April issue of Archives of Dermatology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Does father know best?
A study forthcoming in the June 2006 issue of Current Anthropology sheds new light a contentious issue: How accurate are men's suspicions of whether or not they are a child's biological father?

Blood sugar control before surgery associated with fewer infections afterward
Patients with diabetes who have good control of blood glucose levels before having surgery may be less likely to have infections after their procedures, according to a study in the April issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

For some young fish, early gene expression is a clear harbinger of fated lifestyle
As juveniles, individuals of many fish species face a developmental choice that will profoundly affect their future: whether to adopt a sedentary or migratory lifestyle.

Paint-on laser could rescue computer chip industry
Researchers at the University of Toronto have created a laser that could help save the $200-billion dollar computer chip industry from a looming crisis dubbed the

McMaster professor leads search for 'holy grail' of green marketing
Businesses looking to boost their bottom lines should look to green products, a new study from McMaster University has found.

Markers of PCOS inherited, persist and raise risk for heart disease, diabetes
Menstrual irregularity and unhealthy metabolic traits associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are inherited and persist with age, putting women with PCOS at a high risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

Scripps-led project achieves milestone in analyzing pollutants dimming the atmosphere
A scientific research consortium led by Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, has reached an important milestone in the tracking of pollutants responsible for dimming Earth's atmosphere.

Healthcare staff not prepared for flu pandemic
Nearly half of health workers surveyed would not go to work during an influenza pandemic.

Chandra Kintala to serve as general chair at DSN 2006
Chandra Kintala, Distinguished Industry Professor in the Electrical and Computer Engineering department at Stevens Institute of Technology, will be the General Chair of the 2006 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN 2006).

Office of Naval Research supports joint US-Taiwan COSMIC satellites
At 6:40 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time, Friday, April 14, 2006, a constellation of six satellites launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., with the mission of improving weather forecasts, monitoring climate change, and enhancing space weather research and operations.

Less antibiotic use in food animals leads to less drug resistance in people, study shows
Australia's policy of restricting antibiotic use in food-producing animals may be linked with lower levels of drug-resistant bacteria found in its citizens, according to an article in the May 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, now available online.

A look at the Conservation Security Program for the 2007 farm bill
The Conservation Security Program (CSP) - a green payment system that pays farmers for good land stewardship - is up for congressional reauthorization and possible reconfiguation in the 2007 farm bill.

Scientists discover a genetic switch that links animal growth and cancer
Laboratory discoveries by scientists at two universities may lead to new directions in cancer therapy drugs.

Treating populations infected with HIV and latent TB could speed the emergence of drug-resistant TB
Harvard School of Public Health researchers have found that treating populations infected with both HIV and latent TB could speed the emergence of drug-resistant TB.

New groundbreaking findings in taste, smell and chemical irritation
Over 500 presentations will be included during the 5-day meeting of AChemS.

Crystal sieves, born anew
The porous, sieve-like minerals known as zeolites have been used for decades in purifiers, filters and other devices.

Mega-brands have mega influence on dietary behavior
Familiar brands of foods maintain a strong grip on us because consumers, food companies, and supermarkets are intertwined in a symbiotic relationship that yields benefits for all three, reports Jim Tillotson, a professor of food policy and international business at the Friedman School at Tufts.

Educating health care professionals to prescribe drugs objectively
The University of Kentucky College of Medicine Department of Family and Community Medicine has been awarded a $362,000 grant to develop a specialized prescription drug curriculum for health care professionals.

Technique could speed new medulloblastoma drugs
Investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have developed a strategy to speed future development of more effective and less toxic treatments for medulloblastoma, a type of brain cancer.

Wrong-site surgery, related injuries appear to be rare
A review of cases reported to one large malpractice insurer over 20 years indicates that wrong-site surgery and related serious injuries are rare and that current national protocols for verifying the surgical site, if applied, may have prevented only two-thirds of cases, according to a study in the April issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Binghamton University research focuses on heart health in rural women
A new study led by researchers at the Decker School of Nursing at Binghamton University, State University of New York, will look at ways to improve heart healthy behaviors among rural women.

Survey: Perceptions of male culture may deter women from a career in surgery
Even though men and women are similar in factors they consider important in deciding on a career in surgery, the perception of surgery as an

Caltech's Emmanuel Candes to receive $500,000 Waterman Award
Emmanuel Candes, a mathematician at the California Institute of Technology, has been selected to receive the National Science Board's prestigious Alan T.

Researchers now able to look deep into heart to view triggers of a heart's beat
Being able to witness the precise events that form the heart's orchestral rhythm or the rat-a-tat-tat of irregular heartbeats could help in understanding the underlying causes of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

Study points toward alternatives for Vioxx and Celebrex
Researchers at Queen's University and the University of Pennsylvania have identified one reason why drugs like Celebrex and Vioxx - once popular for the treatment of pain and inflammation - cause heart problems.

Mammography screenings for breast cancer show racial and ethnic disparities
Inadequate use of screening mammography may be an important reason that African-American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced stage breast cancer than members of other ethnic groups, according to a new study led by a University of California, San Francisco imaging specialist.

Carnegie Mellon psychologist receives Heineken Prize
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences has selected John R.

How the octopus forms an elbow
The octopus arm is extremely flexible. Despite the huge evolutionary gap and morphological differences between the octopus and vertebrates, the octopus arm acts much like a three-jointed vertebrate limb when the octopus performs precise point-to-point movements.

Carnegie Mellon artists explore the final frontier
Astronauts aren't the only ones exploring outer space. Two internationally recognized space artists, Carnegie Mellon University's STUDIO for Creative Inquiry Distinguished Fellow Lowry Burgess and associate Frank Pietronigro, are leading the space exploration community as co-chairs of the first Space Art Track during the International Space Development Conference (ISDC).

'Can you hear me now?'
Exploring ways to increase cancer screening in minority and low-income women in New York City, researchers found that a telephone could be a powerful weapon in the fight against cancer.

Abnormal sleep patterns appear common in children with Down syndrome
More than half of children with Down syndrome may have abnormal sleep patterns and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and parents may not be able to determine whether their children are among those with sleep difficulties, according to an article in the April issue of Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Chemical guidance of T cells leads to immunologic memory and long-term immunity
In the latest issue of the journal Nature, scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) describe a new understanding about how long-term immunity works -- findings that may lead to new ways of thinking about how to enhance certain immune responses and how to improve vaccines.

Study finds a high caloric diet may prevent the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
A recent study directed by the Mount Sinai School of Medicine suggests a ketogenic- high caloric diet may prevent the progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).
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