Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 04, 2006
New study reveals structure of E. coli multidrug transporter protein
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have determined the x-ray structure of EmrD, a multidrug transporter protein from Escherichia coli (E. coli), a common bacteria known to cause several food-borne illnesses.

Founding member of Pitt's Biology Department to be honored in Harrisburg, Pa., ceremony
Max A. Lauffer, who was in 1949 the first chair of the Department of Biophysics at the University of Pittsburgh (now known as the Department of Biological Sciences in the School of Arts and Sciences), will be recognized by the department at a May 6 event in Harrisburg, Pa., as a Distinguished Founding Member of the Department of Biological Sciences.

K-State professors study risk attitudes and consequences of college drinking
Professors at Kansas State University have found that males tend to be greater risk takers when it comes to alcohol, while women tend to use more protective strategies, including drinking only with friends, counting the number of drinks, limiting the amount of money spent on drinking and eating food before drinking.

Eminent inventor of DNA fingerprinting gains new recognition
The inventor of DNA fingerprinting at the University of Leicester, Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys, is to be honoured with a prestigious international accolade later this year, it has been announced.

Independent review process welcomed by pharmaceutical industry
Medicines Australia is delighted that the Federal Government has established a process that allows an independent review of decisions made by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC).

IOF announces Strong Bones Strong Women participants
The International Osteoporosis Foundation today announced the names of participants who will join Queen Rania of Jordan, IOF Patron, at the 2nd IOF Women Leaders Roundtable, to be held in Toronto, Canada on June 2, as part of the IOF World Congress on Osteoporosis.

Urgent action required to tackle escalating road-traffic crashes worldwide
A review in this week's issue of THE LANCET highlights how concerted action is urgently needed worldwide to tackle the global burden of injuries and deaths caused by road-traffic crashes.

Halting histamine action means hallelujah for hay fever sufferers
Histamine release during asthma and hay fever causes itching and wheezing.

Webcast: Media coverage of health
Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) will sponsor a special colloquium to examine practical steps that might be taken by journalists, health researchers, journal editors and communication specialists to strengthen news coverage of health research.

Weizmann Institute scientists discover a molecular security mechanism for keeping mutations in check
Everyone knows mutations - genetic mistakes in DNA, the material of heredity - are bad: The more mutations in the cell's DNA, the higher the risk of cancer developing.

Some ethnic groups more susceptible to adverse drug reactions
Some ethnic groups may be more susceptible to adverse drug reactions, finds a study published on bmj.com today.

Diverse sea 'bugs' revealed on landmark Atlantic cruise to census zooplankton
Census of Marine Life scientists trawl rarely explored tropical ocean depths between the southeast US coast and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge to inventory and photograph the variety and abundance of zooplankton - small sea

What users really want from online public services
How do public administrations actually know what end users want and expect of their public services so as to set about satisfying their needs?

NIH holds state-of-the-science conference on multivitamin/mineral supplements, May 15 - 17, 2006
An impartial, independent panel will be charged with reviewing the available scientific evidence on the effectiveness and safety of multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplement use for chronic disease prevention on May 15 - 17.

New bridges for the next generation
The presidents of the Max Planck Society and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Prof.

Social mealtimes boost wellbeing of nursing home residents
Providing a convivial and social environment at mealtimes improves the quality of life of nursing home residents, finds a study published on bmj.com today.

Researcher wins award from American Diabetes Association
A researcher at the University of Rochester Medical Center has won the 2006 Thomas R.

Follow the nitrogen to extraterrestrial life
Writing in the Perspectives section of Science magazine, USC researchers argue for parallel water and nitrogen detection programs in planetary probes.

Evolution reveals an independent route for diversity in animal form
Researchers have found that Cnidaria, a group of marine animals noted for diverse morphology among its constituent species, actually lacks the ancient

Unique soybean lines hold promise for producing allergy-free soybeans
Researchers have isolated two Chinese soybean lines that grow without the primary protein linked to soy allergies in children and adults.

Karolinska Institute and Harvard in a unique training initiative
The healthcare services of the future will place heavy demands on medical universities and the education they provide.

Landing on Titan: The new movies
Scientists at the University of Arizona have used images from the Descent Imager/Spectral Radiometer on the Huygens probe to make two new movies of the descent on Saturn's giant moon, Titan, on Jan.

By combining different CT views, radiologists can better evaluate the GI tract
Combined evaluation of transverse images -- horizontal slices of a standing body -- and multiplanar coronal reformats -- vertical slices from head to foot -- from CT scans give radiologists more information about the GI tract to better diagnose problems, according to a new study by researchers from Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, GA.

'Cellular antennae' on algae give clues to how human cells receive signals
By studying microscopic hairs called cilia on algae, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have found that an internal structure that helps build cilia is also responsible for a cell's response to external signals.

Carnegie Mellon researchers say use of switchgrass could solve energy woes
Carnegie Mellon University reseasrchers say the use of switchgrass could help break US dependence on fossil fuels and crub costly transportation costs.

New technology enables faster, more efficient cell harvest: Cell therapy meeting study
A new, transformative filtration-based technology for the isolation and enrichment of cells, first step in developing therapies to repair or replace damaged tissues and organs, was found to be more efficient and faster than traditional cell separation technology.

Rutgers-Newark chemistry professor earns Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship
Rutgers-Newark Professor Frieder Jaekle earns Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship which is awarded annually to a small number of outstanding researchers throughout the United States and Canada who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers.

Broad Institute scientists awarded $18M CARE grant
A team of scientists from the Broad Institute has received an $18M grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) to fund genomic studies aimed at identifying the genetic variations that underlie common human diseases.

Making a healthy lunch a greater national priority
Dual Commonwealth Games gold medal marathon runner Kerryn McCann, best-selling author Dr John Tickell and award-winning chef Michael Moore have teamed up to champion the importance of a nutritious lunch in maintaining a healthy weight.

UCLA engineers announce breakthrough in semiconductor spin wave research
UCLA Engineering adjunct professor Mary Mehrnoosh Eshaghian-Wilner, researcher Alexander Khitun and professor Kang Wang have created three novel nanoscale computational architectures using a technology they pioneered called

Breast conservation a good option for non-invasive, 'early' breast cancer, U-M study shows
For women diagnosed with a type of non-invasive breast cancer, removing the breast is not the only treatment option.

La Nina will have no effect on 2006 Atlantic hurricanes
NASA oceanographers agree that the recent La Niña in the eastern Pacific Ocean is not expected to have an effect on the Atlantic hurricane season this year.

Expanding waistlines triggered by your genes
A gene that degrades the body's collagen infrastructure has been shown to make fat cells fatter and expand girth.

Titan's seas are sand
Until a couple of years ago, scientists thought the dark equatorial regions of Titan might be liquid oceans.

Researchers find protein that silences genes
A team of researchers, including biologists at Washington University in St.

'Puppy fat' is a myth which puts children's health at risk
The idea that 'puppy fat' in children disappears as they progress to adolescence is a myth which may put the future health of children at risk, says a paper published on bmj.com today.

AGU journal highlights - 4 May 2006
In this issue: Himalayan topography influences distribution of monsoon rainfall; Density and gravity variations within Saturn's A ring; Composition of Titan's ionosphere; Seasonal electrical nature of Saturn's rings; China's Three-Gorges Dam is affecting the nutrients to East China Sea; Autonomous underwater vehicle explores beneath Antarctic ice shelf; Intense gravity waves recorded in the polar mesosphere; Earthquakes on the southern San Andreas may cause strong Los Angeles shaking; Using surface topography to predict groundwater flow patterns.

Rutgers-Newark student conducts research abroad as part of $1.3 million NSF grant
Rutgers-Chemistry Professor's efforts help student perform research abroad as part of $1.3 National Science Foundation-funded Nanoscale Interdisciplinary Research Team.

New strategy developed to combat West Nile Virus
The spread of West Nile Virus appears to be triggered by a complex interaction of mosquitoes, nesting birds and specific weather patterns, scientists say, which leads to

Five Spanish hospitals in international phase III trial with H5N1 influenza pandemic vaccine
The vaccine under study is fractionated - it only contains parts of the viral proteins that activate our immune system.

Important gene controlling tree growth and development found
Scientists at the Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC) and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) report today about a breakthrough in our understanding of how the growth and development of forest trees is controlled.

Stomach receptor for H. pylori discovered
Scientists have determined that decay-accelerating factor (DAF), a protein found in epithelial cells in the stomach, acts as a receptor for the bacteria Helicobacter pylori.

Fire ants: Their true story told by the scientist who loves them
When it comes to fire ants, most people prefer to wipe the venomous little varmints off the face of the Earth - or at least out of their own back yards.

Excess folate linked to increased birth of twins after in-vitro fertilisation
With the UK government currently considering whether to fortify flour with folic acid, results of a study in this week's issue of THE LANCET highlight how such fortification may increase the rate of twin births after in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) where more than one embryo is transferred.

In 3D, early fat development first requires 'remodeling'
In the May 5, 2006 Cell, researchers report the serendipitous discovery that the initial development of fat requires a

Embryos exposed in 3-D
Utah and Texas researchers combined miniature medical CT scans with high-tech computer methods to produce detailed three-dimensional images of mouse embryos - an efficient new method to test the safety of medicines and learn how mutant genes cause birth defects or cancer.

Pitt trains budding engineers to 'think green'
Dwindling natural resources mean that engineers of the 21st century, more than ever before, must be conscious of environmental constraints.

H5N1 threat puts human flu back in spotlight
The emergence of the avian influenza virus H5N1 that is currently devastating chicken flocks in many countries and threatening to unleash a worldwide epidemic among humans has triggered a renewed interest among scientists in studying influenza A viruses, according to investigators at St.

Chemists get electrons to 'break on through to the other side'
In the famous Robert Frost poem,

Short term follow-up proves to be helpful
Significant changes in tumor growth can be detected through short interval follow-up CT in patients receiving chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer, a recent study found.

Near 100 percent mammagraphy recall compliance costs less than a quarter per patient
The hidden costs of achieving a 99.5 percent mammography recall compliance rate is 16 cents per screening patient, according to a recent study administered by the radiology department at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, MI.

Neurobiology of dread gives scientists clues about human decision making
FMRI studies of brain anatomy suggest that the subjective experience of the

Scientists discover that ancient genes dictate flowering, fall bud set
Scientists at the Umea Plant Science Centre at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and at Virginia Tech and Oregon State University in the United State report that the gene previously shown to control flowering time in annual plants also controls tree flowering, and trees can be stimulated to flower in weeks instead of years.

Patients have high expectations about screening mammography
A substantial proportion of women have beliefs about their personal risk of breast cancer, and expectations about the performance of mammography that are abnormally high or unrealistic, according to a survey conducted at University of Michigan Health Systems in Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Man may have caused pre-historic extinctions
New research shows that pre-historic horses in Alaska may have been hunted into extinction by man, rather than by climate change as previously thought.

UK grid helps fight avian flu
During April, computers in the UK have been working overtime in the fight against avian flu.

Kentucky vies for FutureGen power plant project
Kentucky Governor Ernie Fletcher has announced that the state's proposal for the FutureGen power plant project has been completed and submitted for review by the FutureGen Industrial Alliance, an international non-profit consortium of coal producers, utility companies, and the US Department of Energy.

JCI table of contents: May 4, 2006
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online on May 4, 2006 in the JCI, including: Halting histamine action means hallelujah for hay fever sufferers; CEACAM1 is key for blood vessel growth in mice; and Peptide inhibitor may prevent bone loss in osteoporosis.

Meteorites discovered to carry interstellar carbon
Scientists at the Carnegie Institution have discovered that meteorites can carry primitive, organic particles that originated billions of years ago either in interstellar space, or in the outer reaches of the solar system when it was beginning to coalesce.

Research into salt, oil, ice and fossils
The research fields of the winners of the 2005 Bernd Rendel Prize cover various areas of geoscience.
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