Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 12, 2006
New minority fellowships tackle shortage of physicians from hardest-hit communities
The leading organization of HIV care providers has created clinical fellowships designed to encourage physicians from some of the most-affected communities to enter the field of HIV care.

Flies in a spider's web: Galaxy caught in the making
New Hubble images have provided a dramatic glimpse of a large massive galaxy under assembly as smaller galaxies merge.

Shrinking ponds signal warmer, dryer Alaska
A first-of-its kind analysis of 50 years of remotely sensed imagery from the 1950s to 2002 shows a dramatic reduction in the size and number of more than 10,000 ponds in Alaska.

Physicians have cure for senior's medication bill woes
A recent study directed by Mount Sinai School of Medicine suggests that seniors with low incomes or no prescription coverage were less likely to use generic cardiovascular drugs than more affluent seniors and those with prescription drug coverage.

Stylish launch for new textile print center
Top fashion designer Nigel Cabourn officially launched a new computer-driven textile printing center at the University of Manchester Oct.

First detailed pictures of asteroid reveal bizarre system
The first detailed images of a binary asteroid system reveal a bizarre world where the highest points on the surface are actually the lowest, and the two asteroids dance in each other's gravitational pull.

Northern bogs may have helped kick-start past global warming
Methane gas released by peat bogs in the northern-most third of the globe helped fuel the last major round of global warming, which drew the ice age to a close between 11,000 and 12,000 years ago, conclude scientists from UCLA and the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Waste not, want not: Role for caveolin-3 in muscular dystrophy
Muscular dystrophies are characterized by skeletal muscle weakness due to muscle fiber wasting and loss.

Embryo fossils reveal animal complexity 10 million years before Cambrian Explosion
Fossilized embryos predating the Cambrian Explosion by 10 million years provide evidence that early animals had already begun to adopt some of the structures and processes seen in today's embryos, say researchers from Indiana University Bloomington and nine other institutions in this week's Science.

Effective booster shot a bit of good news against bird flu
An initial priming shot given in advance of a booster shot may be an effective way to protect people against bird flu, researchers say in a presentation at the annual meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Lennart Nilsson Award for outstanding photography of the world of insects
The 2006 Lennart Nilsson Award prize for scientific photography has been awarded to Satoshi Kuribayashi, a Japanese nature photographer.

Einstein College of Medicine receives $10 million grant to study health of Hispanic population
Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University announced today that it has been awarded a $10 million grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute for a landmark and unprecedented large-scale study of the health status of 4,000 people of Hispanic/Latino origin in the Bronx.

Stroke rates falling in the West
The incidence of stroke in Perth, Western Australia has declined 43 percent over the last decade, according to new research announced today by the George Institute for International Health at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Stroke Society of Australasia held in Adelaide.

UCF, UCLA astronomers first to measure night and day on extrasolar planet
UCF Professor Joseph Harrington says that studying planetary atmospheres under such exotic conditions puts terrestrial and solar-system meteorology into a universal context, which aids in our understanding of weather on all planets.

Updates on pandemic flu vaccine trials to be presented at 44th annual IDSA meeting
Preliminary results from clinical trials testing two different pandemic flu vaccine approaches -- one a prime-boost strategy using different subtypes of H5N1 vaccines, the other an H5N1 vaccine delivered into the skin rather than the muscle -- will be presented at the 44th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America being held in Toronto on Oct.

Killing resistant germs
UCSD/Scripps Professor K.C. Nicoalou's group succeeded to synthesize platensomycin, an antibiotic found in mushrooms, which inhibits an important step of bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis and in this way paralyzes a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacterial strains.

American College of Rheumatology and Wiley to launch the Rheumatologist
Global publisher John Wiley & Sons, Inc., and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) today announced an agreement to launch the Rheumatologist, a new controlled-circulation newsmagazine that will provide breaking news and information to rheumatology and rheumatologist health professionals in a unique and visually compelling format.

New nationwide study will evaluate effect of antioxidants and fish oil on progression of AMD
This new study, called the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2), will build upon results from the earlier Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS).

Scientists make atomic clock breakthrough
In a battle against time, a team of researchers at the University of Nevada, Reno have helped the world tell time more accurately.

Algae provide new clues to cancer
A microscopic green alga helped scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies identify a novel function for the retinoblastoma protein (RB), which is known for its role as a tumor suppressor in mammalian cells.

Effective preventive drug against bird flu developed in the mouse
Researchers have developed what could be used as an effective preventive drug against bird flu.

Antique whale oil provides insights to origin of pre-industrial chemicals
One of the last remaining New England whaling ships has provided unexpected insights into the origin of halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) that have chemical and physical properties similar to toxic PCBs and the pesticide DDT.

Day and night temps measured on an extrasolar planet
For the first time, astronomers have measured the day and night temperatures of a planet outside our solar system.

Down syndrome: It's not just the age factor
Whether or not a pregnant woman will give birth to a child with Down syndrome is not simply a matter of how old she is.

National Academies advisory: Pollinators in North America
Status of Pollinators in North America, new from the National Research Council, assesses population trends among bees, birds, bats and other animals and insects that spread pollen so plant fertilization can occur.

Caterpillars tell us how bacteria cause disease
Caterpillars and other invertebrates are helping to provide a cheap, easy and safe way to identify the genes which help bacteria cause infections in humans.

New fertilizer SRM can help control heavy metal content
A new reference material developed by NIST can help the agriculture industry and state regulators monitor the concentrations of several potentially hazardous heavy metal contaminants in fertilizers.

Molecular spintronic action confirmed in nanostructure
Researchers at NIST have made the first confirmed

NASA'S live tropical sea surface temperature Web site gives climate, hurricane clues
Sea surface temperatures give scientists information about ocean currents, climate, climate change and how a hurricane may evolve.

Fossilized liquid assembly: Nanomaterials research tool
From a butterfly's iridescent wing to a gecko's sticky foot, nature derives extraordinary properties from ordinary materials like wax and keratin.

A new approach to the treatment of malaria in pregnant women in West Africa
A new approach to treatment for pregnant women suffering from malaria in West Africa has been found to be both safe and effective, following a randomised trial carried out by a team based in Ghana and at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM).

Penn researchers provide insights into how the immune system avoids attacking itself
A finding by University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine researchers about how immune cells

University of Penn chemists reinvent the science and industry of making plastics
Chemists at the University of Pennsylvania have created a new process for free radical polymerization, the chemical reaction responsible for creating an enormous array of everyday plastic products, from Styrofoam cups to PVC tubing to car parts.

Satellites help ensure safe sunning
Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation is responsible for up to 60,000 deaths a year worldwide, according to a report released this summer by the World Health Organization.

How can we make nanoscale capacitors even smaller?
Researchers at UC Santa Barbara have discovered what limits our ability to reduce the size of capacitors, often the largest components in integrated circuits, down to the nanoscale.

Mayo discovers protein as potential tactic to prevent tumors
Mayo Clinic researchers have found that a protein that initiates a

New research to cut animal testing
Researchers at the University of Manchester have been awarded £130,000 to develop new techniques to reduce the need for animals in drug testing.

UT Southwestern researchers refocus studies on patients with HIV, hepatitis
As HIV patients live longer thanks to advanced therapies, researchers are looking for better ways to treat accompanying maladies such as hepatitis that traditionally were not emphasized.

NRC team uses new Quantum Technology to control molecules
Researchers at the National Research Council Canada have developed a new Quantum Technology, described in the October 13 Web release of Science, which uses laser pulses to control quantum processes.

Comparing chimp, human DNA
Most of the big differences between human and chimpanzee DNA lie in regions that do not code for genes, according to a new study.

NIST releases new standard for semiconductor industry
A wide range of optical electronic devices, from laser disk players to traffic lights, may be improved in the future thanks to a small piece of semiconductor, about the size of a button, coated with aluminum, gallium and arsenic.

NIH grant to K-State a Bridge to Future for minorities in biomedical sciences field
A partnership between Kansas State University and several Kansas community colleges to increase the number of underrepresented minorities pursuing degrees in the biomedical sciences at four-year institutions has been renewed for another three years.

JCI table of contents: Oct. 12, 2006
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, Oct.

After North Korea test, what can be done to reduce the growing nuclear threat?
In the wake of the announcement of a nuclear test by North Korea, new questions have been raised about proliferation and the threat of nuclear terrorism.

Intergovernmental Forum on Sustainable Development for Mining, Minerals and Metals
Delegates from more than 36 countries and multilateral agencies will be in Geneva for the second meeting of the Intergovernmental Forum on Sustainable Development for Mining, Minerals and Metals.

Launch of the HFSP journal
HFSP Publishing is proud to announce the launch of the HFSP journal, Frontiers of Interdisciplinary Research in the Life Sciences.

Symposium at Yale to honor Mary Helen Goldsmith and auxin research
A symposium honoring the career of Yale Biology Professor Mary Helen Goldsmith will be held at the Peabody Museum of Natural History, 170 Whitney Ave. on October 27 beginning at 8:30 a.m., and will feature talks by prominent plant biologists.

Leading reason for corneal transplants comes into focus
Guided by families with an unusual number of cases, scientists at Johns Hopkins have discovered the genetic origins of at least one form of Fuchs corneal dystrophy (FCD) the leading reason for corneal transplantation in the United States.

Extreme environment changes fish appearance
The world of the Devils Hole pupfish is a small place.

ASU discovery may aid counter-terrorism efforts
The thwarted 2006 London airline bomb plot not only heightened summer travel fears and created new passenger screening inconveniences, but also greatly underscored the urgent need for improved national security measures.

It's 2006, but 'coming out' is still difficult for Korean American daughters
A Korean American daughter's difficulty in

New method edges closer to holy grail of modern chemistry
University of Chicago chemist David Mazziotti has developed a new method for determining the behavior of electrons in atoms and molecules, a key ingredient in predicting chemical properties and reactions.

Polarized particles join toolbox for building unique structures
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have created polarized, spherical particles that spontaneously self-assemble into clusters with specific shapes and distributions of electric charge.

Mayo Clinic study could lead to safer pesticides
Each year millions of dollars in crops are lost to two insects notorious for devastating farms -- the greenbug and the English grain aphid.

Comparing chimp and human DNA
Scientists look to the chimpanzee genome to better understand our own.

Researchers make nanosheets that mimic protein formation
How to direct and control the self-assembly of nanoparticles is a fundamental question in nanotechnology.

UW-Madison joins Google's worldwide book digitization project
The University of Wisconsin-Madison and Google announced an agreement today to expand access to hundreds of thousands of public and historical books and documents from more than 7.2 million holdings at the UW-Madison libraries and the Wisconsin Historical Society Library.

NIST issues 4-pack of computer security pubs
NIST recently issued four publications to provide computer security advice on issues ranging from securing home computers and exercising IT plans to guidance on security log management and access control policies, models and mechanisms.

UA researchers find smallest cellular genome
The smallest collection of genes ever found for a cellular organism comes from tiny symbiotic bacteria that live inside special cells inside a small insect.

NIH director announces 2007 Pioneer Award competition
NIH Director Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., today launched a new round of competition for the NIH Director's Pioneer Award.

Possible evidence of cell division, differentiation found in oldest known embryo fossils
A group of 15 scientists from five countries has discovered evidence of cell differentiation in fossil embryos that are more than 550 million years old.

NIH launches largest long-term health study of Hispanic/Latino populations
NIH today announced contracts totaling $61 million over 6.5 years to conduct the largest long-term epidemiological study of health and disease in Latin American populations living in the United States.

'Yarning about Mental Health' during International Mental Health Week
A new booklet, supported by the Menzies School of Health Research, which uses pictures and traditional aboriginal stories to identify and explain mental-health problems, has been developed by researchers for use in remote Top End aboriginal communities.

New tool helps identify mysterious viruses that caused New York respiratory illnesses in 2004
A fast, sensitive and inexpensive diagnostic tool called MassTag PCR has been developed that can identify the specific pathogen that causes a particular case of respiratory infection, according to a new study funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, one of the National Institutes of Health.

Molecular 'signature' protects cells from viruses
Viruses are cunning little parasites: they breed by forcing the affected cells to do what they want.

Flies in a spider's web: Galaxy caught in the making
New Hubble images have provided a dramatic glimpse of a large massive galaxy under assembly as smaller galaxies merge.

Tissue geometry plays crucial role in breast cell invasion
Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have created a first-of-its-kind model for studying how breast tissue is shaped and structured during development.

Binghamton University researcher makes major biofilm dispersion breakthrough
A Binghamton University biologist's discovery of a molecule that induces the dispersion of biofilms will likely mean a sea change in health care, manufacturing, shipping and pharmaceutics over the coming years.
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