Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

November 20, 2006
Single dose of antibiotics before surgery sufficient to help prevent infection
A single dose of antibiotics prior to surgery appears to prevent infections occurring at the surgical site as effectively as a 24-hour dosing regimen, and with reduced antibiotic costs, according to an article in the November issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Medicaid patients less likely than those with private insurance to receive recommended cardiac care
Medicaid patients with acute coronary syndromes were less likely to receive evidence-based therapies and had worse outcomes than patients with HMO or private insurance according to a new study in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Gene sequencing center to receive $156 million
The Genome Sequencing Center at Washington University School of Medicine in St.

Team at CNSE and Einstein receive grant to develop world's smallest cancer detection device
Researchers at the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the University at Albany and Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University will collaborate on a $2 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to study tumor

Scientists find safer ways to detect uranium minerals
The threat of

Marathon runners may be at increased risk for skin cancer
In an Austrian study, marathon runners had more atypical moles and other skin lesions suggestive of a risk for skin cancer than did a comparison group of age- and sex-matched controls, according to a report in the November issue of Archives of Dermatology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Blocking an inter-generational cycle of obesity
Being exposed to high levels of nutrition before birth can influence the development of networks within the brain that regulate appetite to permanently set a pattern of appetite for life, according to researchers from the University of South Australia.

NHGRI funds large-scale sequencing centers
The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) today announced the results of the recent competition for support of its three large-scale sequencing centers, strengthening efforts to use the power of DNA sequencing to unlock the genomic secrets of human diseases.

Prescription opioids the predominant choice among illicit opioid users
Isolated reports have pointed to substantial increases in prescription opioid abuse.

Dragonfly's metabolic disease provides clues about human obesity
Parasite-infected dragonflies suffer the same metabolic disorders that have led to an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans, according to research to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.

Researchers find docking sites for glucocorticoid receptor and Hsp90
University of Oregon researchers have identified protein interactions that regulate the response of cells to steroid hormones.

New study finds no link between Kawasaki disease and newly discovered coronavirus
A newly described virus is not a cause of Kawasaki disease, according to an article by a group of researchers in Denver, Colo.

Touch tracking bypasses mind control
For people unable to simultaneously rub their stomach while patting their head, a new twist may be at hand.

High-resolution CT scan modeling for creating facial implants aids in facial reconstruction surgery
A preliminary study suggests that high-resolution computed tomography modeling allows surgeons to custom-design acrylic implants prior to reconstructive surgery for patients with severe defects in their faces and eye cavities.

Springer launches new journal on contemporary Muslim life
Contemporary Islam: Dynamics of Muslim Life, the first socio-scientific journal to focus on contemporary issues of Muslim life, will be launched by Springer in 2007.

Low health literacy: A prescription for patient errors
The American College of Physicians Foundation and the Institute of Medicine present the 5th Annual National Health Communication Conference on November 29.

Innovative movies show real-time immune-cell activity within tumors
Using advanced new microscopy techniques in concert with sophisticated transgenic technologies, scientists have for the first time created three-dimensional, time-lapse movies showing immune cells targeting cancer cells in live tumor tissues.

Hospital-acquired infections -- Inevitable?
In a press conference held earlier today at Washington D.C.'s Press Club, David B.

Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute -- cancer study
Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute in California publishes new research that identifies a specific human enzyme that could kill cancer cells.

20 Years of Malaria Research: Outcomes and Perspectives
The Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Thailand, will be hosting a scientific seminar in Mae Sot on Dec.

NCI funds Einstein and U. Albany NanoCollege to make world's smallest cancer detection device
Researchers at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have received a $2 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to study tumor

Tip sheet Annals of Internal Medicine, Nov. 21, 2006, issue
The following articles are in the Nov. 21, 2006, issue of Annals of Internal Medicine Tip Sheet: Support program for dementia caregivers improved their lives; Coordinated support for caregivers improved dementia care; Editorial: These studies show what works, so what do we do now?; Editorial: Career changes in medicine: Part II; and Insurance coverage and care of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.

Novel program enhances dementia caregivers' quality of life
A personalized intervention significantly improved the quality of life for caregivers of people with dementia, according to a study funded by the National Institutes of Health and published in the November 21, 2006, Annals of Internal Medicine.

New moth variety disarms plants guarded by selenium
In new work, researchers report that the ability of plants to defend themselves by accumulating high levels of a toxic element can be overcome by some insects, and that such adaptation potentially echoes in the food web as other predators and parasites may in turn evolve to deal with high levels of the toxic element.

Baylor Research Institute receives $6.2 million grant to establish Center for Lupus Research
Baylor Research Institute has received a $6.2 million grant that will allow its immunology division, Baylor Institute for Immunology Research, to establish a Center for Lupus Research.

What is the best way to reduce birth defects caused by the acne drug isotretinoin?
Isotretinoin is a very effective treatment for severe acne, a condition which can be physically, emotionally and socially disabling.

Individualized dementia caregiver intervention cuts through racial, ethnic barriers to ease burden
An intervention designed to address the many ways caring for a relative with dementia can take its toll, and that can be tailored to meet individual needs can significantly ease the burden, improve quality of life and reduce the likelihood of clinical depression in the caregiver, according to a University of Pittsburgh-coordinated study.

Safer method for large-scale malaria screening developed
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Malaria Research Institute have developed a new test for detecting the malaria parasite in human urine and saliva.

Social cues and illusion: There's more to magic than meets the eye
The mechanisms that govern visual perception are only partly understood by scientists, and in fact much of what we know about how the human visual system works stems from investigations into our susceptibility to visual illusions.

Panic attacks are linked to poor outcomes for diabetic patients, Group Health study finds
There is a strong link between panic episodes and increased complications from diabetes, according to a study conducted at Group Health Cooperative, a Seattle-based health system.

NIH launches 'Health Info Rx Program' on newborn screening and related genetic disorders
After a doctor sees a patient, he or she often prescribes medications.

Extraordinary life found around deep-sea gas seeps
An international team led by scientists from the United States and New Zealand have observed, for the first time, the bizarre deep-sea communities living around methane seeps off New Zealand's east coast.

Twin star explosions fascinate astronomers
Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite stumbled upon a rare sight: Two supernovas side-by-side in one galaxy.

NHLBI and CMS launch large study of home oxygen therapy for COPD
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, one of the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services is launching the largest randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness and safety of long-term, home oxygen therapy for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

More insight into Alzheimer's disease with Stanford discovery of possible cause
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine discovered that when a molecule responsible for dialing down the immune system malfunctions in the brain cells of mice, the rodents develop symptoms of the degenerative brain disease.

OPICAN study in seven Canadian cities reveals prescription opioid abuse more prevalent than heroin
A new study conducted in seven Canadian cities reveals that prescription opioids, and not heroin, are the major form of illicit opioid use.

Big magnet ready to face the big questions of the universe
The largest superconducting magnet ever built has successfully been powered up to its operating conditions at the first attempt.

Holiday gluttony can spell disaster for undiagnosed diabetics
Hearty feasts and couch-potato marathons are holiday traditions, but UT Southwestern Medical Center experts warn that packing on pounds and not exercising could be deadly for the 6 million Americans who have diabetes and don't even know it.

Report card on Vancouver's safer injecting facility
Wood and colleagues summarize the findings from evaluations of a Vancouver safer injecting facility opened in September 2003.

UNH research uses satellite observation to track avian flu
An international, interdisciplinary team of researchers led by professor Xiangming Xiao of the University of New Hampshire is taking a novel scientific approach in an attempt to understand the ecology of the avian influenza, develop better methods of predicting its spread, and provide an accurate early warning system.

Got cotton? Texas researchers' discovery could yield protein to feed millions
Researchers at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station used RNAi to reduce the toxic compound gossypol from cottonseed to a level that is considered safe for consumption, but left the compound in the rest of the plant to ward off insects and disease.

Adult neurogenesis newly adult-born neurons are functionally similar to mature neurons
Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus generates neurons with striking functional similarity to neurons born during development, indicating that adult-born neurons incorporate normally into hippocampal circuits.

Level of important greenhouse gas has stopped growing
Scientists at UC Irvine have determined that levels of atmospheric methane -- an influential greenhouse gas -- have stayed nearly flat for the past seven years, which follows a rise that spanned at least two decades.

Important factors in compliance with HIV regimens identified; and more
In systematic review of previously published studies, researchers look at studies in both developed and developing country settings that had examined the factors that affect adherence to HIV regimens.

Carnegie and its inventors awarded new patent for diamond work
The Carnegie Institution announced today that the United States Patent Office has recently granted a patent for the work of three inventors -- Russell Hemley, Ho-kwang Mao and Chih-Shiue Yan -- related to the manufacture of a hard, single-crystal diamond.

Ritualized submission and pseudo-copulation reduce aggression among male crayfish
Pseudo-copulation -- an interaction that mimics sexual copulation -- is a behavior known in mammalian communities that reduces aggression and signifies social dominance, particularly among males.

Cincinnnati scientists pursue new target for asthma treatment
Cincinnati scientists have found further evidence that certain defensive white cells in the body cause or play a major role in the symptoms experienced by asthma patients.

Nevada Seismological Laboratory ranks top 10 states for earthquake activity
New data offers freshest list of states ranked in top 10 for seismic activity; Alaska and California unquestioned 1-2; Nevada and Hawaii very close at number 3.

Survivors of childhood leukemia, brain tumors more at risk for strokes later in life
Children who are successfully treated for brain tumors or leukemia are more likely to have strokes later in life, according to new research from UT Southwestern Medical Center.

Does student achievement really spur national economic growth?
Educational policy discourse supports the idea that increases in science and mathematics achievement correlate to nation-wide economic gains.

Advance helps explain stem cell behavior
Biochemists at Oregon State University have developed a new method to identify the

Proton beam therapy may improve treatment of rare but aggressive tumor
Proton beam radiation therapy, a very precise type of radiation treatment, may be an effective treatment for advanced adenoid cystic carcinoma that has spread to the cranial base.

Kansas State engineer focuses on the mechanics of better bullet proofing
Body armor with greater ballistics resistance is the aim of the research being carried out by Youqi Wang, associate professor of mechanical engineering at Kansas State University, with support from two US Department of Defense agencies.

Out of REACH
Europe's proposed new chemicals legislation, REACH, could disrupt the supply of important medicines.

New natural family planning options are a natural fit for nurse-midwives
Researchers from Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health report in November issue of Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health that new natural family planning methods, also known as fertility awareness-based methods, fits well with philosophy of nurse-midwives and the needs of the women they serve.

First-time analysis reveals millions of Europeans left at risk from influenza
A powerful analysis from this month's Vaccine highlights the huge gap between current vaccination coverage across Europe and the recommendations endorsed by the European Union.

Preparing for an influenza pandemic: A triage protocol in the face of limited resources
Christian and co-authors have applied a collaborative process using best evidence, expert panels, stakeholder consultations and ethical principles to develop a triage protocol for prioritizing access to critical care resources, including ventilators and antiviral medications, during a pandemic.

Blame myelin for many neuropsychiatric disorders
Neurologist George Bartzokis argues that the brain's miles of myelin are a key evolutionary change that may make us vulnerable to highly prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders.

ACS News Service Weekly PressPac -- Nov. 15, 2006
The American Chemical Society News Service Weekly Press Package with reports from 35 major peer-reviewed journals on chemistry, health, medicine, energy, environment, food, nanotechnology and other hot topics.

Male chimpanzees prefer mating with old females
Researchers studying chimpanzee mating preferences have found that although male chimpanzees prefer some females over others, they prefer older, not younger, females as mates.
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