Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

March 15, 2007
Online book helps children understand the effects of stroke
Speedy treatment is essential to saving lives and preventing brain damage during a stroke.

Singapore conclave suggests amputation prevention progress being made, worldwide
Last week, Singapore was the venue for a gathering of physicians, surgeons, industry personnel and policymakers from around South Asia for a series of workshops on amputation prevention.

Bleeding during endoscopy: Do anti-inflammatories play a role?
Does an aspirin-a-day increase the risk of bleeding during invasive diagnostic procedure?

Liverpool to trial new pancreatic cancer therapy
Patients in Liverpool are to trial a new therapy for pancreatic cancer -- a disease which sees most sufferers die within a year of diagnosis.

Study: Chest compressions without mouth-to-mouth better for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
A study published March 17, 2007, in The Lancet, one of the world's foremost medical journals, finds that the chances of surviving a cardiac arrest outside a hospital setting are almost twice as high if bystanders perform chest-compression-only resuscitation instead of traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with mouth-to-mouth breathing.

ACP: Residency match results for internal medicine underscore need to redesign primary care
The National Resident Match Program results, announced today, show that about the same number of medical students chose internal medicine residencies this year.

Gallium: A new antibacterial agent?
New antibacterial strategies are needed because more and more bacteria are antibiotic resistant and because antibiotics are not effective at eradicating chronic bacterial infections.

MMC -- mass medical culling
The Medical Training Application Service is fatally flawed and should be suspended until the process has been comprehensively piloted and evaluated, states an Editorial in this week's issue of The Lancet.

Fears learned by observing others are similar to those learned from direct experience
Humans acquire fears using similar neural processes whether they've personally experienced an aversive event or only witnessed it, according to a study by researchers at New York University's Departments of Psychology.

Nespoli focuses on complex mission
Later this year ESA astronaut Paolo Nespoli will serve as Mission Specialist on the STS-120 mission to the International Space Station.

Obstructive sleep apnea patients show silent brain infarction lesions
Patients with moderate to severe sleep apnea who have significantly higher serum levels of inflammatory markers that serve as precursors to coronary artery disease, as well as lesions associated with silent brain infarction, have an elevated risk of stroke, according to a group of Japanese medical researchers.

Are journal rankings distorting science?
This week's BMJ raises concerns over whether journal rankings (known as impact factors) are distorting publishing and science.

Assessing plaque deposits may help determine stroke risk
A study published in the March edition of Stroke looked retrospectively at the composition of plaque deposits in the carotid arteries of 102 patients treated at UVa.

Researchers create artificial enzyme that mimics the body's internal engine
Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is the ultimate enzyme responsible for all aerobic life on Earth.

Cold is hot in evolution -- UBC researchers debunk belief species evolve faster in tropics
University of British Columbia researchers have discovered that contrary to common belief, species do not evolve faster in warmer climates.

Mars Express radar gauges water quantity around Mars south pole
The amount of water trapped in frozen layers over Mars' south polar region is equivalent to a liquid layer about 11 meters deep covering the planet.

Who will care for the oldest people?
With the number of carers for frail elderly people set to fall steeply, researchers in this week's BMJ propose a way to help plan for the deficit.

Soy found protective against localized prostate cancer
The largest study examining the relationship between the traditional soy-rich Japanese diet and development of prostate cancer in Japanese men has come to a seemingly contradictory conclusion: Intake of isoflavone chemicals, derived largely from soy foods, decreased the risk of localized prostate cancer but increased the risk of advanced prostate cancer.

Tiny, spontaneous gene mutations may boost autism risk
Tiny gene mutations, each individually rare, pose more risk for autism than had been previously thought.

Follow-up endoscopic surveillance in colorectal cancer patients improves survival
Colorectal cancer patients who undergo colonoscopic surveillance during follow-up after surgery experience improved survival, according to a study to be published in the April issue of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology but currently available online.

Therapeutic unshackles p53 and causes tumor regression
Infection with Kaposi's sarcoma virus (KSHV) can cause 3 types of tumor, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL).

Study identifies risk factors for spread of respiratory infections in hospitals
The 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in China has lessons to teach hospitals on how to prevent the spread of other respiratory diseases, according to new research appearing in the April 15 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, currently available online.

Bipolar disorder -- an understudied condition
Despite a prevalence of about five percent in the community and 50 percent in depressed outpatients, the treatment of bipolar II disorder and related disorders is understudied.

Failure to meet United Nations sanitation target could affect millions of the world's poorest
Worldwide, billions of people lack access to a reliable source of safe drinking water and basic sanitation facilities.

Elsevier extends its publishing partnerships
Elsevier is pleased to announce its renewed publishing partnership with the European Materials Research Society.

Need for nuclear reactor permits powering up
Today the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission held a signing ceremony, which formally awarded the first-ever early site permit allowing construction of the first new nuclear power reactor in more than 30 years.

One Wwox isn't enough (to protect against cancer)
A new study shows that the loss of even one of the two copies of a particular tumor-suppressor gene greatly increases the risk that lung cancer will develop in experimental animals.

Apple consumers reap heart-health benefits thanks to flavonoid content, says new research
A new study of more than 34,000 women, published in the March 2007 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, found flavonoid-rich apples were found to be one of three foods that decrease the risk of mortality for both coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among post-menopausal women.

DOE JGI releases enhanced Genome Data Management System IMG 2.1 marking 2-year anniversary
As interest in the rising number of newly characterized microbial genomes mounts, powerful computational tools become critical for the management and analysis of these data to enable strategies for such challenges as harvesting the potential of carbon-neutral bioenergy sources and coping with global climate change.

Benchmark Capital co-founder invests millions
To foster radical breakthroughs in cancer, the Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation and Andrew and Debra Rachleff have created a novel grant program to provide seed funding for young scientists to conduct high risk research designed to significantly impact our understanding of cancer and approaches to its prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

UNC scientists discover cellular 'SOS' signal in response to UV skin damage
New research from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine has identified two proteins that may help protect against skin cancer.

Blood pressure drug shows potential as lung cancer treatment
A hormone that is important in the control of blood pressure also shrinks lung cancer tumors in mice, suggesting a new way to prevent or treat the deadly cancer, according to scientists at Wake Forest University School of Medicine.

Global temperature -- politics or science?
The entire debate about global warming is a mirage. The concept of

Ice created in nanoseconds by Sandia's Z machine
Sandia's huge Z machine, which generates termperatures hottter than the sun, has turned water to ice in nanoseconds.

RNA enzyme structure offers a glimpse into the origins of life
Researchers have determined the three-dimensional structure of an RNA enzyme, or

Elevated autoantibodies linked to preeclampsia
Women who develop preeclampsia during pregnancy are more likely to develop certain dangerous autoantibodies than women with normal pregnancies, and these autoantibodies are still present two years after childbirth in some women, scientists from the University of Pittsburgh report in the March issue of Hypertension, the journal of the American Heart Association.

Warming oceans threaten Antarctic glaciers
Scientists have identified four Antarctic glaciers that pose a threat to future sea levels using satellite observations, according to a study published in the journal Science.

Asthmatic children still not breathing easier, study says
Only 20 percent of children with persistent asthma have a level of control that is optimal, according to a study published today in the journal of Ambulatory Pediatrics.

Polar ice experts meet to seek consensus on Antarctic contribution to sea-level rise
Thirty of the world's top polar ice experts meet at The University of Texas at Austin March 26-28 to seek consensus on a major uncertainty concerning future sea-level rise, the fate of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

Stanford study finds no conclusive benefit from treating kleptomania
A small clinical trial of a medication to treat kleptomania has failed to find any conclusive benefit for patients with the impulsive stealing disorder, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine

Muslim schools make a positive contribution
Muslim schools could be a positive addition to the educational system and an effective way of integrating religious minorities into British citizenship concludes a study by Bristol University.

World-leading cosmologist at University of Toronto wins Canada's most prestigious science prize
A University of Toronto cosmologist who listens to

JCI table of contents: March 15, 2007
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, March 15, 2007, in the JCI, including:

Zinc supplementation found to reduce mortality in older children
A clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public concluded that daily zinc supplements reduced the risk of death among children aged 12 to 48 months by 18 percent.

Wilson Center and Pew Charitable Trusts expand efforts to examine risks/benefits of nanotechnology
With nanotechnology being described by business and government leaders as

Erectile dysfunction in diabetes is due to selective defect in the brain
A new study sheds additional light on how erectile dysfunction (ED) interacts with diabetes.

Global 'sunscreen' has likely thinned, report NASA scientists
A new NASA study has found that an important counter-balance to the warming of our planet by greenhouse gases -- sunlight blocked by dust, pollution and other aerosol particles -- appears to have lost ground.

Researchers use poliovirus to destroy neuroblastoma tumors in mice
The cause of one notorious childhood disease, poliovirus, could be used to treat the ongoing threat of another childhood disease, neuroblastoma.

Arctic sea ice decline may trigger climate change cascade, says University of Colorado study
Arctic sea ice that has been dwindling for several decades may have reached a tipping point that could trigger a cascade of climate change reaching into Earth's temperate regions, says a new University of Colorado at Boulder study.

Resuscitation practices need to be revised for cardiac arrest
Bystander cardiac-only resuscitation has a better outcome for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest than conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), according to an Article published in this week's issue of The Lancet.

Video games shown to improve vision
According to a new study from the University of Rochester, playing action video games sharpens vision.

Promoting healthy scepticism of health statistics
News headlines such as

UD physicist wins NSF Career Award for space weather research
Michael Shay, a physicist at the University of Delaware, has received a Faculty Early Career Development Award from the National Science Foundation for research on magnetic reconnection, a process that can allow high-energy particles from the solar wind to enter the Earth's magnetic field, endangering astronauts and satellites in space and electrical systems on Earth.

Biotechnology Study Center honors Joan V. Ruderman, Salvador Moncada and Charles N. Serhan
On Monday, March 26, the Biotechnology Study Center of NYU School of Medicine will hold its annual awards symposium to honor three outstanding pioneers in biomedical research.

Incidence of Fatty Liver Disease rises as obesity in children increases
As part of a national multicenter research network, Indiana University School of Medicine researchers are looking at Vitamin E and at metformin, a drug used to treat type II diabetes, as possible therapies for Fatty Liver Disease in 8 to 17 year olds.

UC research discovers new way to fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria
Research by a team at the University of Cincinnati (UC) has helped in the discovery of a new way to fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria, responsible for preventing treatment of lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis and life-threatening cases of pneumonia.

Finnish scientists discovered a new approach to treat virus-induced lymphomas
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human tumor virus and an etiological agent for Kaposi's sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL).

New blood tests for TB show exposure to disease while tuberculin skin tests do not
Two new interferon-gamma blood test assays to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) showed customers were exposed to a supermarket employee in Holland who had smear-positive tuberculosis, while traditional tuberculin skin tests (TST) did not, according to a large contact study.

Give a 'fresh start' to the health of the next generation of Indigenous Australians
TV celebrity and Aussie legend, Mr Ray Martin, has told attendees at the launch of an Indigenous health project that the health of the next generation of Indigenous Australians needs to be given a

Fiber-based light source promises improvements in food inspection
A new light source based on fiber-optic technology promises to improve the inspection of food, produce, paper, currency, recyclables and other products.

'Manly men' bounce back better from injury
For years, experts have said that the strong, silent male is not one to ask for help when he's hurt, and therefore at a disadvantage when it comes to getting better.
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