Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

April 12, 2007
Researchers associate calories from newspaper dessert recipes with community obesity rates
Research finds calorie-dense dessert recipes printed in major newspapers across the country may be contributing to obesity in large cities.

Rhesus macaque genome may hold clues for human health and evolution
An international consortium of scientists has completed a draft sequence of the rhesus macaque genome, a species of non-human primate widely used for creating models of human diseases and infections.

Technology reveals 'lock and key' proteins behind diseases
A new technology developed at the University of Toronto is revealing biochemical processes responsible for diseases such as cystic fibrosis and could one day pave the way for pharmaceutical applications.

Inaugural award honors collaborative team science
Highlighting the collaborative nature of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the inaugural AACR Team Science Award will be presented to a team comprised of researchers from the University of Michigan and Harvard University, Brigham and Women's Hospital, at the 2007 AACR Annual Meeting in Los Angeles.

JCI table of contents: April 12, 2007
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, April 12, 2007, in the JCI, including: Two heads are better than one: two dysfunctional DNA repair pathways kill tumor cells; Alternative inhibition strategy for treating acute promyleocytic leukemia; Not all leaks are bad: plugging a calcium leak linked to familial Alzheimer disease; and others.

NIST releases major update of popular REFPROP database
NIST has released an expanded and upgraded version of a popular database, a computer package for calculating the properties and modeling the behavior of fluids.

Learning visual prosthesis at the Hanover Fair
Neural computation scientists at Bonn University have created a software system that is hoped to improve the function of retinal implants significantly.

Minister Lunn to speak at COFI Convention
On Friday, April 13, the Honourable Gary Lunn, Minister of Natural Resources, will be the luncheon speaker at the Council of Forest Industries (COFI) Annual Convention.

OHSU Cancer Institute, 1 of largest in GIST study and Gleevec
Gleevec, a pill developed in conjunction with Oregon Health & Science University is again showing excellent results in preventing cancer recurrence in GIST patients after complete removal of their tumors.

Mortality rate increases for kidney recipients with anemia
According to a new study in American Journal of Transplantation, kidney transplant patients suffering from anemia, a treatable blood deficiency, are more likely to die or suffer from organ failure than other transplant recipients.

Third primate genome, the rhesus macaque, helps illuminate what makes us human
Researchers have sequenced the genome of the relatively ancient rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), providing perspective into how humans are genetically different from our primate relatives.

Treasure trove of fossils found in Kendall County cave
UIC geologists discovered and excavated fossils from a cave in a Kendall County limestone quarry that has shed new light on living conditions in the area some 310 million years ago.

Complex structure observed in Tonga mantle wedge has implications for the evolution of volcanic arcs
The subduction zones where oceanic plates sink beneath the continents produce volcanic arcs such as those that make up the

New class of HIV drug attacks previously untargeted enzyme
A new class of anti-HIV drug which inhibits an as-yet untargeted enzyme in the virus has proven effective in a drug trial, according to an Article in this week's edition of the Lancet.

2 heads are better than 1: 2 dysfunctional DNA repair pathways kill tumor cells
Individuals who inherit one mutant copy of any one of about 12 genes that make the proteins of the Fanconi Anemia pathway are at increased risk of developing cancer.

Gleevec decreases cancer recurrence for patients with primary gastrointestinal stromal tumor
Preliminary results from a large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial for patients with primary gastrointestinal stromal tumor, a type of tumor usually found in the stomach or small intestine, showed that patients who received imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) after complete removal of their tumor were significantly less likely to have a recurrence of their cancer compared to those who did not receive imatinib.

Chandra sees remarkable eclipse of black hole
A remarkable eclipse of a supermassive black hole and the hot gas disk around it has been observed with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory.

EPA selects Phylonix to screen compound library in zebrafish
Phylonix Pharmaceuticals has been awarded a major, two-year contract for up to $4.3 million by the Environmental Protection Agency as part of the agency's ToxCast project to correlate compounds having known toxicities with biological activities in a zebrafish test system.

Soft tissue taken from Tyrannosaurus rex fossil yields original protein
Dr. Mary Schweitzer, a North Carolina State University researcher, and colleagues at Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center have confirmed the existence of protein in soft tissue recovered from the bone of a 68 million-year-old T. rex.

Electrons caught in the act of tunneling
An international team of researchers has observed the quantum mechanical tunneling effect for the first time.

RAND study finds Qatar successfully implements redesign of education system
In only a few years, the state of Qatar has successfully implemented a bold redesign of its K-12 education system, incorporating school autonomy, variety in curriculum, parental choice and accountability measures, according to a report issued today by the RAND Corp.

UCLA chemists design world's lowest-density crystals for use in clean energy
Chemists at UCLA have designed new organic structures for the storage of voluminous amounts of gases for use in alternative energy technologies.

Quantum dot lasers -- 1 dot makes all the difference
Physicists at NIST and Stanford and Northwestern Universities have built micron-sized solid-state lasers in which a single quantum dot can play a dominant role in the device's performance.

Aggie physicists unite with Ivy League to develop anthrax detection method
Texas A&M University and Princeton University physicists have joined forces to perfect a powerful new weapon in the war on terrorism -- a laser technique to identify deadly anthrax spores.

International Best Cases Competition returns to Vancouver
Five major organizations will compete for the 2007 Franz Edelman Award for Achievement in Operations Research and the Management Sciences in Vancouver at the end of this month.

Early-stage sperm cells created from human bone marrow
Adult stem cells extracted from human bone marrow have been coaxed into becoming male reproductive cells.

Worried nurses react differently to attacks on staff and patients in psychiatric wards
Psychiatric nurses face real and highly understandable fears, but they take firmer action when patients attack staff than when they attack other patients.

Feather-light touch all that's needed for Darwin's frictionless optics
ESA's Darwin mission will look for extrasolar planets and signs of life.

Research shows men and women look at sexual photographs differently
Researchers analyzing the viewing patterns of men and women looking at sexual photographs were surprised to find that men are more likely than women to first look at a woman's face before other parts of the body, and women focused longer on photographs of men performing sexual acts with women than did the males.

Low education predicts lower quality of life for prostate cancer patients
Among men who have received similar treatments for prostate cancer, those with less education -- particularly those who did not graduate from high school -- experience a significant drop in their quality of life after treatment compared with men who have more education, according to a study led by researchers at the San Francisco VA Medical Center.

DNA sequence of Rhesus macaque has evolutionary, medical implications
The completed DNA sequence of the rhesus macaque -- an Old World monkey -- has advanced understanding of primate evolution and will enhance medical research in neuroscience, behavioral biology, reproductive physiology, endocrinology, heart and blood vessel disease, and immunodeficiency.

Developmental and behavioral problems can plague children with asthma
Much of the research surrounding childhood asthma has sought new approaches to managing the disease.

Majority of state Medicaid programs have or plan to have 'pay-for-performance' programs
In the first published nationwide survey of state Medicaid programs on

Analysis of rhesus monkey genome uncovers genetic differences with humans, chimps
An international consortium of researchers has published the genome sequence of the rhesus macaque monkey and aligned it with the chimpanzee and human genomes.

Where is the proton? Yale scientists discover footprints of shared protons
This week in Science, Yale researchers present

UCLA study finds severe shortage of Latino dentists
A study from UCLA's Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture finds that the number of Latinos who graduated from dental schools, and hence able to acquire licenses to practice dentistry in California, fell by nearly 80 percent between 1982 and 1999 from 74 to 15 percent, even as the state's Latino population increased by 42.7 percent (7.7 million to 10 million) during that time.

Major genetic study identifies clearest link yet to obesity risk
Scientists have identified the most clear genetic link yet to obesity in the general population as part of a major study of diseases funded by the Wellcome Trust, the UK's largest medical research charity.

JRRD news tips -- Wheelchairs, lower limb prosthesis, TBI and more
Now available online and in print, JRRD (Vol. 43, No.

Cluster sees tsunamis in space
Cluster is providing new insights into the working of a

Sex and prenatal hormone exposure affect cognitive performance, Yerkes scientists find
In one of the first research studies to assess sex differences in cognitive performance in nonhuman primates, researchers at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center have found the tendency to use landmarks for navigation is typical only of females.

BioMed Central brings open access publishing to physics and math
BioMed Central, the world's largest publisher of open access, peer-reviewed journals, is pleased to announce the first three journals to be launched by PhysMath Central: PMC Physics A, PMC Physics B and PMC Physics C.

School bullying affects majority of elementary students
Nine out of 10 elementary students have been bullied by their peers, according to a simple questionnaire developed by researchers at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital and the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Bovine tuberculosis could spread by human-human contact
The source of a cluster of six cases of tuberculosis in central England in 2005 originated from one person's exposure to bovine TB, strongly suggesting that bovine tuberculosis can be spread by human to human contact, conclude authors of research published in this week's issue of the Lancet.

Medical students should be taught about rape
Medical students should be given training on how to examine and deal with victims of rape, says an Editorial in this week's edition of the Lancet.

Mass weddings -- NIST's new efficient 2-photon source
NIST physicists have developed a highly efficient, low-noise system for producing pairs of photons for applications in quantum information theory and telecommunications.

New way to catch cancer's spread, rapid 3-D retinal imaging, more at CLEO/QELS 2007
Researchers from around the world will present new breakthroughs in optics, photonics and their applications at the 2007 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS) from May 6-11 at the Baltimore Convention Center in Baltimore, Md.

Hô Hai Phùng receives the 2006 von Kaven Prize in Mathematics
The Vietnamese mathematician Hô Hai Phùng was awarded the von Kaven Prize in Mathematics on March 26, 2007.

Protein fragments sequenced in 68 million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex
In a venture once thought to lie outside the reach of science, researchers from Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center have captured and sequenced tiny pieces of collagen protein from a 68 million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex.

Major hurdle seen for the future of digital interaction
A recent study featured in Human Communication Research details a study in which users interacted with an automated system using combinations of human and artificial voices and faces.

Study finds holding eye contact is critical when police confront hysterical citizens
Holding eye contact, or

Heightened risk taking during adolescence likely biologically driven and possibly inevitable
While the government spends billions of dollars on educational and prevention programs to persuade teens not to do things like smoke, drink or do drugs, a Temple University psychologist suggests that competing systems within the brain make adolescents more susceptible to engaging in risky or dangerous behavior, and that educational interventions alone are unlikely to be effective.

Gene that governs toxin production in deadly mold found
For the growing number of people with diminished immune systems -- cancer patients, transplant recipients, those with HIV/AIDS -- infection by a ubiquitous mold known as Aspergillus fumigatus can be a death sentence.

Lip-read me now, hear me better later
As reported in the May issue of Psychological Science, new research shows that experience seeing a person's face enhances ability to hear them.

LSU professors monkey around with the Rhesus Macaque genome
Scientists at LSU recently took part in the International Rhesus Macaque Sequence and Analysis Consortium, which successfully detailed the full DNA sequence of the rhesus macaque, the third primate -- including humans -- to undergo sequencing.

Link found between immune system and high plasma lipid levels
Researchers have found an unsuspected link between the immune system and high lipid levels (cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood) in mice.

By airship to the North Pole -- Zeppelin expedition will survey sea ice in the Arctic
At the core of the project lies the crossing of the North Pole by zeppelin.

NIST work enhances shop floor productivity
NIST engineers, together with colleagues from industry and other standards organizations have completed a five-part series of standards designed to evaluate the accuracy -- and thus usability -- of dimensional measurements in manufacturing.

Experts to discuss health and aging
More than 800 of the foremost scientists, humanists and leaders in business and public affairs will gather in Washington, D.C., April 27-29 when the nation's two oldest learned societies -- the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society -- meet jointly for the first time, in collaboration with the National Academies.

NIST, industry produce improved shock tests
NIST has worked with industry, government, professional societies and standards developing organizations to help develop an international standard for characterizing mechanical vibration and shock and its effect on systems and components.

Global burden of childhood deafness overlooked
The consequences of childhood hearing impairment are often overlooked, according to a Viewpoint published in this week's edition of the Lancet.

Mobile waste treatment system provides safe hygienic sanitation in isolated areas
Hygienically treating human waste is essential in refugee camps, but also in more commercial or leisure situations such as trade fairs, festivals and on camp sites.

The Clorox company's new personal care product lends a hand
Today, Clorox's Professional Products Division extends the Clorox brand's health and wellness efforts beyond surfaces to hand hygiene with the launch of Clorox Anywhere Hand Sanitizing Spray, representing the company's first entry into the personal care category.

Experts to discuss energy and global warming
More than 800 of the foremost scientists, humanists and leaders in business and public affairs will gather in Washington, D.C., April 27-29 when the nation's two oldest learned societies -- the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society -- meet jointly for the first time, in collaboration with the National Academies.

Macaque genome analysis will help find human disease genes
Cornell University experts in computational biology and bioinformatics have made key contributions to the analysis of the genome of the rhesus macaque.

Mildred Dresselhaus wins L'Oréal-UNESCO Award for Women in Science
Long-time Springer author and editor Mildred Dresselhaus is the North American winner of a 2007 L'Oréal-UNESCO Award for Women in Science.

Bacteria control how infectious they become, study finds
The results of a new study suggest that bacteria that cause diseases like bubonic plague and serious gastric illness can turn the genes that make them infectious on or off.

Rhode Island Hospital studies chronic effects of smoke inhalation through Station fire survivors
New research at Rhode Island Hospital studied the chronic effects of smoke inhalation by examining the lungs of 21 survivors of The Station fire (February 20, 2003).

Quantum secrets of photosynthesis revealed
The mystery of how nature, through photosynthesis, is able to transfer solar energy through molecular systems with nearly 100-percent efficiency appears to have been solved.

Will nanotechnology revolutionize medicine?
On Monday, April 23, 2007, Dr. Samuel I. Stupp, a leading nanomedicine scientist from Northwestern University will present the findings from his latest research in applying nanotechnology to jump start cell regeneration.

NIST's stretching exercises shed new light on nanotubes
Stretching a carbon nanotube composite like taffy, researchers at NIST and the Rochester Institute of Technology have made some of the first measurements of how single-walled carbon nanotubes both scatter and absorb polarized light, a key optical and electronic property.

U of M study shows physical activity reduces risk of hypertension in young adults
Young adults who spend more time participating in physical activity have a reduced risk of developing high blood pressure within the next 15 years, according to researchers at the University of Minnesota.

Ancient T. rex and mastodon protein fragments discovered, sequenced
Scientists have confirmed the existence of protein in soft tissue recovered from the fossil bones of a 68 million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex (T. rex) and a half-million-year-old mastodon.
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