Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 07, 2007
Study shows that many children of HIV-positive parents are not in their custody
A new study shows that more than half of children with an HIV-infected parent are not consistently in that parent's custody.

The 'healthy immigrant effect' and pregnancy outcomes
New immigrants to Western nations are believed to experience fewer chronic health problems -- e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease -- than long-time residents of those countries.

UQ research heralds vaccine technology breakthrough
New Queensland research may lead to a groundbreaking vaccine technology that could wipe out an infection that commonly affects young children.

Study analyzes television, DVD and video viewing in children younger than 2 years
Approximately 40 percent of 3-month-old children and about 90 percent of children age 24 months and under regularly watch television, DVDs or videos, according to a report in the May issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Sex on the brain
New evidence on sex differences in people's brains and behaviors emerges with the publication of results from the British Broadcasting Corporation's Sex ID Internet Survey.

News you can use from the American Journal of Sports Medicine, May 2007
The following are highlights from the May 2007 issue of the American Journal of Sports Medicine, the monthly peer-reviewed journal of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine.

New 'layered-layered' materials for rechargeable lithium batteries
Researchers at the Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory have developed a new approach to increasing the capacity and stability of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

New knowledge improves rice quality
A major international initiative is being launched to try to boost the income of the world's millions of poor rice farmers and at the same time provide consumers with more nutritious, better tasting food.

XDx to present recent success with AlloMap molecular expression testing
Non-invasive blood test may help detect CMV infection in lung transplants and reduce invasive biopsies and optimize immunosuppressive therapy in heart transplant patients.

Conception date affects baby's future academic achievement
The time of year in which a child is conceived influences future academic achievement according to research by Paul Winchester, M.D., of Indiana University School of Medicine.

Researchers at the University of the Basque Country propose a simple and economic qbit structure
The research team from the Physics of Materials group at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), the UPV/EHU Mixed Centre Physics of Materials group and the European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility, led by Ángel Rubio, has just published a new article in the prestigious Physical Review Letters journal, one of the most important in the field of physics.

More than 10 percent of adults abuse or become dependent on drugs during their lifetime
Approximately 10.3 percent of US adults appear to have problems with drug use or abuse during their lives, including 2.6 percent who become drug dependent at some point, according to a report in the May issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

SUMO wrestling in the brain
Increasing the amount of SUMO, a small protein in the brain, could be a way of treating diseases such as epilepsy and schizophrenia, reveal scientists at the University of Bristol, UK.

Gene patenting -- steep cost for health care and patients
The drug trastuzumab (Herceptin) is used to treat HER2-positive breast cancer (a type of breast cancer that overexpresses the HER2 gene and accounts for about 25 percent of all breast cancers).

Scientists: As rainfall changes, tropical plants may acclimate
Tropical plants may be more adaptable than commonly thought to changing rainfall patterns expected to accompany a warming climate, new research shows.

Diabetes drug dramatically boosts power of platinum chemotherapy
A widely used diabetes drug dramatically boosted the potency of platinum-based cancer drugs when administered together to a variety of cancer cell lines and to mice with tumors, scientists from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute report.

Tropical plants go with the flow ... of nitrogen
Tropical plants are able to adapt to environmental change by extracting nitrogen from a variety of sources, according to a new study.

How to steer a moving cell
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine have developed new technology which, combined with proteomics -- the large-scale study of the structure and function of proteins and their functions -- has allowed them to map an extensive network of the signaling proteins that control cell movement.

From plastic bag to railway sleeper
Railway sleepers made from waste plastic, including recycled bumper scrap and old computer cases could be putting in an appearance on railway tracks soon.

New LSUHSC program addresses mental health of Katrina displaced
A grant in the amount of $749,695 from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation is funding a program developed by the Department of Psychiatry at LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans to enhance mental health services and capacity in Katrina-affected areas and to better meet mental health needs following future disasters.

Phillip A. Sharp to receive the 2007 Winthrop-Sears Award
The Chemists' Club of New York has announced that Phillip A.

On the nano horizon: Emerging technologies
On May 15, three of the nation's leading experts on nanoscale science and engineering will participate in a call-in program to highlight the latest nanotechnology developments.

Largest, brightest supernova ever seen may be long-sought pair-instability supernova
UC Berkeley astronomers Nathan Smith and David Pooley report the most luminous supernova ever detected, the explosion of a super-massive star in a galaxy 250 million light years away.

Stanford researchers identify immune dysfunction in melanoma patients
Researchers at Stanford have begun to shed light on why the human immune system isn't able to stop such cancers as melanoma, suggesting answers that could pave the way for better treatment of this often-fatal illness.

Regulating Californian stem cell research, and more
Regulations governing human stem cell research must strive to assure strict oversight while simultaneously fostering scientific innovation through collaboration, says a group of scientists from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, one of the world's largest supporters of such research.

Targeting sugar on blood vessels may inhibit cancer growth
In a study that could point to novel therapies to prevent cancer spread, or metastasis, researchers at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine have targeted a sugar that supports blood vessel growth in the tumor.

Is climate change likely to increase disease in corals?
High-resolution satellite data of ocean temperature across the Great Barrier Reef reveal that warm temperature anomalies can drive outbreaks of coral disease under conditions of high coral cover.

New Mailman School of PH study shows inevitability of men's infidelity across cultures
For a growing number of women in rural Mexico -- and around the world -- marital sex represents their single greatest risk for HIV infection.

Newsbriefs from May issue of the journal Chest
Newsbriefs from the May issue of the journal CHEST highlight the following studies:

'Upgrading' from secondary to primary seatbelt laws would save lives, researchers find
Recently, many states have been considering a law that would encourage seatbelt use.

Preterm infants with RDS -- surfactant replacement therapies improves neonatal survival
Large multiyear, multihospital retrospective database analysis demonstrates RDS treatment with Curosurf (poractant alfa) Intratracheal Suspension provides significantly improved neonatal survival.

Scientists encourage cells to make a meal of Huntington's disease
Scientists have developed a novel strategy for tackling neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease: encouraging an individual's own cells to

International Weinstein Cardiovascular Development Conference meets in Indy
2007 Weinstein Cardiovascular Development Conference will be held in Indianapolis on May 10-12 hosted by the Indiana University School of Medicine.

Healthy reefs hit hardest by warmer temperatures
Coral disease outbreaks hit hardest in the healthiest sections of the Great Barrier Reef, where close living quarters among coral may make it easy for infection to spread, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill researchers have found.

Bipolar spectrum disorder may be underrecognized and improperly treated
A new study supports earlier estimates of the prevalence of bipolar disorder in the US population, and suggests the illness may be more accurately characterized as a spectrum disorder.

Gladstone's Deepak Srivastava receives E. Mead Johnson Award for achievement in pediatrics
Dr. Srivastava honored for his work in cardiogenesis.

Traumatic events, but not post-traumatic stress disorder, common in childhood
Potentially traumatic events are common in children but do not typically result in post-traumatic stress symptoms or disorder, according to a report in the May issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Frequent TV viewing during adolescence linked with risk of attention and learning difficulties
Teenagers who watch television for three or more hours per day may have a higher risk of attention and learning difficulties in their adolescent and early adult years, according to a report in the May issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Venus Express' infrared camera goes filming
An exciting new series of videos from ESA's Venus Express has been capturing atmospheric details of day and night areas simultaneously, at different altitudes.

Brain scans show early Alzheimer's disease in people with memory problems
Brain scans of people with mild cognitive impairment show signs of early Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the May 8, 2007, issue of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Carnegie Mellon professor receives Microsoft New Faculty Fellowship
Carnegie Mellon University Assistant Professor of Computer Science Luis von Ahn is one of five recipients this year of Microsoft Research's New Faculty Fellowship, an award that seeks to identify young professors who are likely to become leaders in the field of computer science.

Study assesses lung treatments for premature babies
A pig-derived surfactant given to premature babies whose lungs aren't yet making the lubricant reduces mortality rates by 19 percent over two other commercially-available surfactants, researchers say.

40 percent of 3-month-old infants are regularly watching TV, DVDs or videos
By 3 months of age 40 percent of infants are regularly viewing televison, DVDs or videos and that number jumps to 90 percent by age 2, according to University of Washington and Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute researchers.

New survey ranks the nation's most and least sun-smart cities
Most Americans are familiar with the popular city rankings of the fattest cities, the fittest cities, the most livable cities and the most expensive cities.

Argonne's Joachimiak and Rosenbaum honored with the 2007 Compton Award
The Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source and the APS Users Organization have announced that the 2007 Arthur H.

WHO needs to make better use of evidence rather than expert opinion in developing its policies
The World Health Organization is too reliant on expert opinion in particular fields in developing policies and recommendations, and should instead use more systematic reviews of relevant research and seek views of representatives who will have to live with those recommendations.

Lymphocyte count found to be a predictor of survival for young patients with leukemia
One simple blood test could predict relapse or survival for children and young adults with acute leukemias, researchers from the Children's Cancer Hospital at the University of Texas M.

Cigarette marketing practices in retail stores associated with teen smoking habits
Tobacco display advertising in retail stores appears to be associated with teens experimenting with cigarette smoking, while promotional giveaways and price breaks may be associated with the transition to regular smoking among youth, according to a report in the May issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Blood test predicts mortality in hospitalized heart failure patients, says UCLA researcher
A simple blood test -- beyond standard lab tests -- taken at hospital admission strongly predicted in-hospital mortality risk for heart failure patients and may be useful in helping doctors decide which patients need higher-level monitoring and more intensive treatment.

Healthy country, healthy people
A groundbreaking study initiated by traditional owners in collaboration with researchers at Charles Darwin University's Institute of Advanced Studies, the Northern Land Council and the Menzies School of Health Research has demonstrated an association between Indigenous

Daily steroids help boys with muscular dystrophy walk longer
Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were able to walk on their own for a longer period of time and reduce their risk of scoliosis as a result of receiving daily steroid treatments for several years, according to a study published in the May 8, 2007, issue of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Study evaluates why blacks do not successfully donate kidneys
In one of the first studies of its kind, researchers from Wake Forest University School of Medicine explored why blacks are less likely than other races to become living kidney donors, and the reasons are obesity and failure to complete the donor evaluation.

ACS News Service Weekly PressPac -- May 2, 2007
The American Chemical Society News Service Weekly Press Package with reports from 35 major peer-reviewed journals on chemistry, health, medicine, energy, environment, food, nanotechnology and other hot topics.

Findings suggest current approach to drug discovery for Lou Gehrig's disease be re-examined
Most research on Lou Gehrig's disease therapeutics has been based on the assumption that its two forms (sporadic and hereditary) are similar in their underlying cause.

Melting of the Greenland ice cap may have consequences for climatic change
At the last ice age, before the great ice sheets of the Arctic Ocean began to melt, early sporadic episodes of melting of the old ice sheet which covered the British Isles had already begun to affect the circulation of the ocean currents.

New guidelines reinforce pulmonary rehab need for patients with COPD
New evidence-based guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation recommend a comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, citing that pulmonary rehabilitation can help improve a patient's exercise tolerance, dyspnea and health-related quality of life, as well as decrease hospital stay and health-care utilization.

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine researchers awarded $27M for TB research
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine has announced that the Tuberculosis Research Unit at the School of Medicine has received a $27 million, 7-year contract from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, one of the National Institutes of Health, to continue its work in TB research.

New therapies may help some end-stage heart failure patients avoid transplant
Implanted pumps improved heart function enough in a small percentage of patients awaiting a heart transplant that they were able to leave the hospital without a pump and without a new heart, according to a study in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

Cancer cells 'reprogram' energy needs to grow and spread, study suggests
Studying a rare inherited syndrome, researchers at Johns Hopkins have found that cancer cells can reprogram themselves to turn down their own energy-making machinery and use less oxygen, and that these changes might help cancer cells survive and spread.

Meditation may fine-tune control over attention
Everyday experience and psychology research both indicate that paying close attention to one thing can keep you from noticing something else.

The stem cells that weren't there
Diabetes researchers, investigating how the body supplies itself with insulin, discovered to their surprise that adult stem cells, which they expected to play a crucial role in the process, were nowhere to be found.

Plant pathologists fighting global threat to wheat supply
A new, highly destructive strain of wheat stem rust is continuing to evolve and has the potential to devastate wheat production worldwide, say plant pathologists with the American Phytopathological Society.

Cooperative science program yields results
Test fishing of a halibut excluder device on trawls used for Pacific cod in Alaska points to a significant reduction of halibut bycatch.

NASA's Chandra sees brightest supernova ever
The brightest stellar explosion ever recorded may be a long-sought new type of supernova, according to observations by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based optical telescopes.

Heritage Day 2007
Chemical Heritage Foundation's annual celebration of achievement in the chemical and molecular sciences.

2 UCSD physician-scientists named to Association of American Physicians
The Association of American Physicians has elected two physician-scientists from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine faculty as new members: Patricia Finn, M.D., Ph.D., Chief of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Anthony Wynshaw-Boris, M.D., Ph.D., Director, Center for Human Genetics and Genomics Chief, Division of Genetics, Department of Pediatrics.

New technique will produce a better chromosome map
Researchers at the University of Illinois have developed a simple and economical technique for imaging and mapping fruit fly chromosomes.

Spiritual beliefs, practices may help smokers quit
Unlike many traditional alcohol and drug dependence treatment programs, mainstream smoking cessation programs generally exclude spiritual practice and beliefs from the treatment process.

Students invent protective pouch to enhance cell therapy
Students have invented a device to improve cell therapy for diabetes patients by anchoring transplanted insulin-producing cells inside a major blood vessel.

Many older Americans not treated for glaucoma
Almost one-third of older Americans diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) are not treated medically or surgically for the condition.

US movies expose youth to billions of smoking images
Two new studies by Dartmouth pediatricians underscore the significant impact that movies have in influencing teens to smoke.

Survey estimates more than 4 percent of US adults have some form of bipolar disorder
Approximately 4.4 percent of US adults may have some form of bipolar disorder during some point in their lifetime, including about 2.4 percent with a

Animal research raises possibility of end to fat-free diets
A new study in mice raises a tantalizing possibility -- that humans may one day be able to eat any kind of fat they want without raising their risk of heart disease.

Newborn neurons like to hang with the 'in' crowd
Like any new kid on the block that tries to fit in, newborn brain cells need to find their place within the existing network of neurons.

Premature births may be linked to seasonal levels of pesticides and nitrates in surface water
The growing premature birth rate in the United States appears to be strongly associated with increased use of pesticides and nitrates, according to work conducted by Paul Winchester, M.D., of Indiana University School of Medicine.

Talking with families may help prevent childhood obesity, research shows
Physicians and registered dietitians who are trained in a new communication method called motivational interviewing may be able to help families change lifestyle behaviors, according to a study by a pediatrician at Brenner Children's Hospital, part of Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center.

Economic impacts of climate change
At a public seminar hosted by the National Research Council on May 10, William D.

BEMA Fentanyl demonstrates substantial transmucosal delivery
BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc. announced the results of a 12 subject, crossover study comparing the absorption of fentanyl from both single and multiple BEMA Fentanyl discs, as well as oral and intravenous doses of fentanyl.

AERA report provides guidance for establishing causality
The American Education Research Association (AERA) has released its latest publication directed to advancing education research and scholarship of the highest quality in this field.

Healthy coral reefs hit hard by warmer temperatures
Coral disease outbreaks have struck the healthiest sections of Australia's Great Barrier Reef, where for the first time researchers have conclusively linked disease severity and ocean temperature.
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