Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 17, 2007
Children's Hospital and Pitt lead national trial of hypothermia to treat pediatric brain injury
A renowned Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC neurosurgeon will lead a $11.5 million National Institutes of Health-funded clinical trial examining the effectiveness of induced hypothermia as a therapy for brain swelling in children who have suffered traumatic brain injuries.

Emotional rollercoaster? Scientists examine affect across the lifespan
The Association for Psychological Science is proud to present

Ocean observing contracts awarded to UC San Diego and University of Washington
Joint Oceanographic Institutions has awarded multimillion dollar contracts to the University of California, San Diego and the University of Washington to support the development and operations for the Ocean Observatories Initiative.

The end of the end of ideology?
New research may have identified the characteristics that lead us to lean ideologically to the left or right.

NASA presents at the 2007 American Geophysical Union meeting
NASA researchers will present findings on a variety of Earth and space science topics at the 2007 Joint Assembly Meeting of the American Geophysical Union.

Jaap Sinninghe Damsté awarded the Vernadsky Medal for innovative use of biomarkers
In April 2007, the Dutch scientist Jaap Sinninghe Damsté was presented with the prestigious Vernadsky Medal at the European Geosciences Union General Assembly.

UT Southwestern joins national clinical trial to uncover long-term effects of West Nile virus
UT Southwestern Medical Center has joined a national clinical trial to identify the long-term health effects of West Nile virus infection and to learn more about the disease's progression, symptoms and mortality.

Alternative hormone treatment could help fight against breast cancer
Luteinising-hormone-releasing hormone agonists, have proven effective when used alone or combined with existing treatments used in the fight against hormone receptor positive breast cancer, conclude authors of an article published in this week's edition of the Lancet.

Improving security through satellite telecommunications
Two companies are implementing an ESA-supported project to introduce an innovative solution for alarm monitoring and video surveillance via satellite to meet the increasing demand for security systems from the government and corporate market.

FSU researchers reap $1-million grant to make medical implants safer
A pair of Florida State University researchers have received a major grant from the National Institutes of Health to study ways of preventing the body from developing scar tissue around biomedical devices such as coronary artery stents -- a problem that affects thousands of patients each year.

Insignia -- A new way to identify viruses and bacteria
Phillippy et al. describe a new computational system, called Insignia, that can identify DNA signatures of pathogens with a higher degree of accuracy than ever before.

Oceanic storms create oases in the watery desert
For two decades, scientists have puzzled over why vast blooms of microscopic plant life grow in the middle of otherwise barren mid-ocean regions.

'Bigger the baby, the better' axiom is incorrect
Contrary to popular belief and alerts by the World Health Organization, new research by the George Institute for International Health indicates that the importance of the reported relationship between birth weight and coronary heart disease has been overestimated.

Back to the future at the APS 19th annual convention
The Association for Psychological Science is proud to present

ORNL laser-based device offers alternative to video surveillance
Surveillance systems take on a new look with a technology developed by researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

Tests show healthy humans not harmed by Taser
A study conducted by emergency medicine physicians at the University of California, San Diego Medical Center showed no lasting effects of the Taser on healthy test subjects.

Adolescents with high-risk sexual attitudes attract peers with similar attitudes
An analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Peers has found that adolescents select friends whose attitudes about sex are consistent with their own attitudes.

How insulin-producing cells develop -- new finding could help fight against diabetes
A key aspect of how embryos create the cells which secrete insulin is revealed in a new study published tomorrow in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

Researchers begin randomized double-blind trial of airway bypass treatment for emphysema
Broncus Technologies Inc., today announced the start of its EASE (Exhale Airway Stents for Emphysema) Trial to explore an investigational procedure that may offer a new, minimally-invasive treatment option for millions of emphysema sufferers.

Scientists develop method to track immune system enzyme in live animals
Scientists supported by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases at the National Institutes of Health have created two mouse strains that will permit researchers to trace, in a live animal, the activity of an enzyme believed to play a crucial role both in the normal immune response as well as autoimmunity and B cell tumor development.

Antarctic lake experts to gather June 6, 7 in Montana
An international group of experts on subglacial Antarctic lakes will gather June 6 and 7 in Big Sky, Mont.

MTAS will cause irreparable harm to 10,000 junior doctors
A group of doctors from across the UK have expressed fears that the careers of 10,000 junior doctors could be irreparably damaged because of the disastrous mistakes in the Medical Training and Application Service.

Role of autophagy in tumorigenesis
In the June 1 issue of G&D, Dr. Eileen White and colleagues at Rutgers University/University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey/Cancer Institute of New Jersey, report, for the first time, that the cellular self-digesting process of autophagy can protect genome integrity -- lending new insight into the seemingly contradictory roles of autophagy as both a cell survival and tumor suppressor pathway.

Lipoic acid explored as anti-aging compound
Researchers said today they have identified the mechanism of action of lipoic acid, a remarkable compound that in animal experiments appears to slow down the process of aging, improve blood flow, enhance immune function and perform many other functions.

Commonly used drug offers promise for premature babies
Scientists have found evidence that the cox-2 inhibitor celecoxib, a common pain reliever used to treat arthritis, may offer a new way to reduce the risk of the most common cause of brain damage in babies born prematurely.

Ulcerative colitis sufferers find UC quite disruptive to many aspects of daily life
Nearly three out of four ulcerative colitis sufferers (73 percent) responding to a new nationwide survey say not feeling well has become a normal part of life.

International award
A Cardiff University scientist is to receive a prestigious international prize in recognition of outstanding research breaking new ground in the understanding of the eye and its disorders.

Clock gene plays role in weight gain, study finds
Scientists have discovered that a gene that participates in the regulation of the body's biological rhythms may also be a major control in regulating metabolism.

Soft contacts designed for cone-shaped cornea
Custom-designed contacts improved vision for subjects with keratoconic eyes and offer hope of nonsurgical treatment instead of corneal transplants.

Adaptive optics leads the way to supermassive black holes
Astronomers have discovered the exact location and makeup of a pair of supermassive black holes at the center of a collision of two galaxies more than 300 million light years away.

Hyperactivity and academic achievement could be linked by genetics
New research shows that the existence of overactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness in children who also exhibit poor achievement in math, reading, and language may be due to shared genetic influences.

High-quality child care for poor children found to offset the risk of later depression
Young adults from low-income families who received full-time early educational childcare as young children reported fewer symptoms of depression than their peers who did not receive such services.

No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention
Tomatoes might be nutritious and tasty, but don't count on them to prevent prostate cancer.

Mayor of New York proposes preventing 100 million deaths from tobacco
Around 100 million lives could be saved if every country around the world reduced its adult smoking rate to below 20 percent or by 5 percent if already below 20 percent.

Multimedia, Vision and Visualization Group to chair workshop at IEEE Computer Vision Conference
Stevens Institute of Technology Professors John Oliensis, Elli Angelopoulou, George Kamberov and Quynh Dinh of the Multimedia, Vision and Visualization Group in the Department of Computer Science are chairing an IEEE International workshop, titled

JCI table of contents -- May 17, 2007
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, May 17, 2007, in the JCI, including: Role of TRPM8 in the development of prostate cancer; Blocking aggrecanase-2 activity prevents cartilage erosion in arthritis; Keeping red blood cells hydrated in sickle cell disease; Enzymes and exercise curb muscle insulin resistance; Endothelial progenitor cells mend vessel damage with a little help from EphB4; and others.

Climate change affects Southern Ocean carbon sink
The first evidence that recent climate change has weakened one the Earth's natural carbon

Ski area affects mountain watershed, UVM study shows
In the first-ever study to document the effects of ski resort development on water flows and quality in the northeastern US, University of Vermont researchers studied side-by-side watersheds on Mount Mansfield.

Adaptive optics pinpoints 2 supermassive black holes in colliding galaxies
Astronomers have used powerful adaptive optics technology at the W.

New technology enables astronomers to detect two supermassive black holes in colliding galaxies
Astronomers, including UCR's Gabriela Canalizo, have used powerful adaptive optics technology at the W.M.

UPMC performs first beating heart transplant procedure in the US
Protected by its own nutrients and blood supply, a beating heart supported by an investigational organ preservation device was successfully transplanted into a 47-year-old man with heart failure on Sunday, April 8.

Antibody-based therapies effective at controlling malaria
Passive immunization through the development of fully human antibodies specific to Plasmodium falciparum may be effective at controlling the disease.

Landmark study details demographic, ecological and genetic spread of rabies in raccoon outbreak
Analyzing 30 years of data detailing a large rabies virus outbreak among North American raccoons, researchers have revealed how initial demographic, ecological and genetic processes simultaneously shaped the virus's geographic spread over time.

Latent memory of cells comes to life
New Danish research has examined the mechanisms behind latent cell memory, which can come to life and cause previously nonexistent capacities suddenly to appear.

Lowering body temperature could aid standard stroke treatment
University of Cincinnati scientists have developed a model that could help physicians combine current clot-busting medication with below-normal body temperatures (hypothermia) to improve the treatment of ischemic stroke patients.

Children with both autism and ADHD often bully, parents say
Children with both autism and attention deficit or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders are four times more likely to bully than children in the general population, according to a study released today in the journal, Ambulatory Pediatrics.

Texas A&M scientist probes bullet evidence to challenge findings in JFK assassination
Researchers at Texas A&M University are combining statistics and chemistry to shoot holes in traditional bullet-lead analysis techniques and the accuracy of so-called

Study warns deep-sea mining may pose serious threat to fragile marine ecosystems
A study finds undersea habitats supporting rare and potentially valuable organisms are at risk from seafloor mining scheduled to begin within this decade.

Genome of yellow fever/dengue fever mosquito sequenced
Developing new strategies to prevent and control yellow fever and dengue fever has become more possible with the completion of the first draft of the genome sequence of Aedes aegypti mosquito.

Bali bomb lessons helped shape Australia's mental health response to terrorism and trauma
Victims of terrorist incidents can suffer profound mental health issues, but priority is often given to treating their physical wounds in the critical days after the incident.

Executable biology -- Computer science sheds light on animal development
By applying the techniques of computer engineering to a mechanistic diagram describing the development of the Nematode C. elegans, a group of researchers in Switzerland has been able to tease out how the crucial cross-talk between cellular signaling pathways takes place.

Chronic pain can drive you to distraction
Researchers at the University of Alberta have confirmed that chronic pain doesn't just cause physical discomfort; it can impair your memory and your concentration.

Youth's attitudes about women's roles influenced by many family factors
By the time they are adults, men and women have distinctive attitudes about the roles women should play in society, but little is known about how these views develop.

Young people's development of attitudes about gender reflect family characteristics
Findings from the first longitudinal study to track the development of young people's attitudes about gender have demonstrated that there is no single course of gender attitude development.

SCAI highlights study using wireless technology to speed care of heart attack patients
Imagine paramedics mobilizing a team of cardiologists and nurses within minutes of arriving at the home of a person who is having a heart attack, simply by pressing a button that sends an electrocardiogram over a wireless network.

Colorado River streamflow history reveals megadrought before 1490
An epic drought during the mid-1100s dwarfs any drought previously documented for a region that includes areas of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming.

Combining NSAIDs with chemotherapy, radiation may improve cancer treatment
Certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be better suited to treating cancer, in combination with standard therapies, rather than preventing it, according to new research by scientists at the University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A.

Why Lincoln fell gravely ill after delivering his Gettysburg Address
According to two medical researchers at University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, when Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address on Nov.

Papillomavirus vaccine could reduce rate of vulval and vaginal cancers
Administration of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has proven effective in preventing high-grade vulval and vaginal lesions that can lead to cancers in those areas, conclude authors of a study published in this week's edition of the Lancet.

25,000 needless deaths each year due to failure to tackle blood clots in hospital
Up to 25,000 people may die needlessly each year due to the failure to prevent blood clots known as venous thromboembolisms in UK hospitals, say experts in this week's BMJ.

Innovative education scheme sees fewer rugby players suffering spinal injuries
A scheme educating coaches and referees in the dangers of the rugby scrum could be a key reason for a reduction in the number of spinal injuries suffered by rugby players, says a researcher writing in this week's BMJ.

Natural immune-control system may aid treatment of autoimmune disease and tissue rejection
The immune system's ability to police itself may offer a new method of arresting the cells responsible for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and for the rejection of transplanted organs and tissues, report scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.

Teaching mediation skills to parents helps siblings resolve conflicts
A new study has demonstrated promising results of parents' use of mediation skills to resolve conflicts in children.

Good decision-makers may be made, not born, says Carnegie Mellon study
People who do well on a series of decision-making tasks involving hypothetical situations tend to have more positive decision outcomes in their lives, according to a study by decision scientists at Carnegie Mellon University and the RAND Corp.

Making strides in quantum dot infrared photodetectors
Northwestern University researchers have made significant strides in the development of quantum dot infrared photodetectors -- technology that may provide new imaging techniques with applications in medical and biological imaging, environmental and chemical monitoring, night vision and infrared imaging from space.

Revealing the origins of morality -- good and evil, liberal and conservative
In a review to be published in the May 18 issue of the journal Science, a University of Virginia social-psychologist, discusses a new consensus scientists are reaching on the origins and mechanisms of morality.

Revamped, renewed, restarted -- Oak Ridge High Flux Isotope Reactor back on line
The research reactor at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory is back in action and better than ever.

Role of TRPM8 in the development of prostate cancer
In normal prostate epithelium, cells coexist in many stages of development-differentiation, and disrupted differentiation and proliferation are major causes of cancer.

Public health impact of climate change, poverty, disaster response and housing design
Leading global experts provide insight into protecting public health and promoting health equity in urban settings in a supplement to the May/June 2007 issue of the New York Academy of Medicine's Journal of Urban Health.

The benefits of social contact
Have you ever wondered why people surrounded by friends or family appear happier and healthier?

Television just got brighter: UCLA engineers are obsessed with the next generation of LEDs
Making LEDs, or light-emitting diodes -- which illuminate today's plasma TV screens and cell phones more efficient -- cheaper and higher quality is the obsession that occupies the daily thoughts of UCLA Engineering professor Yang Yang and researcher Jinsong Huang.

Blood transfusions from precancerous blood donors do not increase risk of cancer
There is no evidence to suggest that blood transfusions from donors with undiagnosed cancer are associated with increased risk of cancer among recipients.

$50 million gift from T. Boone Pickens Foundation to benefit UT Southwestern
The T. Boone Pickens Foundation, named for the Texas icon and energy entrepreneur who founded it in 2006, has donated $50 million to ensure the continued excellence and prominence of UT Southwestern Medical Center into the future.

New technique provides continual view of approaching hurricanes
Hurricane forecasters will test a new technique this summer that provides a detailed 3-D view of an approaching storm every six minutes and shows whether the storm is gathering strength as it nears land.

Commercializing university research -- Hopping robots, liquid shoes, electricity from heat
The William J. von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement at the University of California, San Diego has awarded $430,000 to nine projects led by faculty members of the Jacobs School of Engineering, the School of Medicine, and the Moores Cancer Center.

Long-term anti-clotting therapy sweetens stenting outcomes in diabetic patients
A study showing that diabetic patients who are treated with long-term anti-clotting therapy are less likely to have a heart attack or die more than a year after stenting has been named among the best research papers presented at the 30th annual Scientific Sessions of the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions.

UCLA Stroke Center receives American Stroke Association's Initial Achievement Award
The UCLA Stroke Center recently received the American Stroke Association's Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Initial Performance Achievement Award.

Left-right wiring determined by neural communication in the embryonic worm
The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has nerves on its left and right sides that perform different functions.

Fatalistic beliefs about cancer cause many to ignore cancer prevention advice
If you feel that you are fated for cancer, your belief could turn into a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Hair relaxers do not increase risk
According to researchers at Boston University's Slone Epidemiology Center, hair relaxers are not associated with increased risk of breast cancer in black women.

Theme party at the APS annual convention
A hallmark of the Association for Psychological Science convention is the theme program: An assortment of invited addresses, a roundtable discussion of distinguished panelists and a poster session on the latest research in one of the most fascinating areas in psychological research.

Quality versus quantity -- transforming kidney transplant policy
A new article published in American Journal of Transplantation examines the dilemmas faced in trying to change kidney transplant policy; addressing the need to balance the benefits of immediate transplants with those to be had from waiting for a more suitable match.

Tracking a hot spot
Using a state-of-the-art satellite imagery technique, researchers can more precisely predict volcanic activity, bringing them closer to understanding where eruptions may occur.

A new portable biosensor detects traces of contaminants in food more quickly and cheaply
Scientists at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and the CSIC, have developed a new electrochemical biosensor which detects the presence of herbicides as well as antibiotics in food.
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