Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 23, 2007
Ground-based observatories join forces with Venus Express
Data from Venus Express, which has been revealing new and crucial details about our closest planetary neighbour, will now be augmented by synoptic data from a coordinated ground-based observation campaign.

Ireland Cancer Center researcher lays out benefits of aspirin to prevent colon cancer
In an editorial in today's New England Journal of Medicine, a colon cancer researcher at the Ireland Cancer Center of University Hospitals Case Medical Center has laid out the roadmap for how medical science should employ aspirin and new aspirin-like drugs for use in preventing colon cancer in certain high-risk individuals.

Scientists from the UGR are using olive stones to depollute industrial sewage water
Research carried out by the Department of Chemical Engineering makes it possible to remove chrome, a hard metal which can be dangerous for humans.

El Niño and African monsoon have strongly influenced intense hurricane frequency in the past
The frequency of intense hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean appears to be closely connected to long-term trends in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the West African monsoon, according to new research from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

Sauser awarded NASA faculty fellowship for 2007
Dr. Brian Sauser, assistant professor in the School of Systems and Enterprises at Stevens Institute of Technology, has been awarded a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Faculty Fellowship for 2007.

Cleaner manure burns hotter in ethanol processing
Clean manure may sound like an oxymoron, but Dr. Brent Auvermann is working with feedyard owners to help them get the most

NY-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center doctors present at 2007 AUA Meeting
NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center physician-scientists are presenting exciting new research at the 2007 American Urological Association (AUA) annual meeting in Anaheim, Calif., May 19-24.

New system for soil analysis
The department for environmental engineering at the National Research Center for Environment and Health (GSF) in Neuherberg has developed a new system for soil analysis in cooperation with the company Umwelt-Geräte-Technik GmbH (UGT).

Sexual orientation affects how we navigate and recall lost objects, but age just targets gender
Researchers at the University of Warwick have found that sexual orientation has a real effect on how we perform mental tasks such as navigating with a map in a car but that old age does not discriminate on grounds of sexual orientation and withers all men's minds alike just ahead of women's.

In utero exposure to smoking by mother can increase risk of ADHD
Women smokers who become pregnant have long been encouraged to reduce or eliminate their nicotine intake.

Botox: More than cosmetic
Injecting botulinum toxin A, or Botox, into the prostate gland of men with enlarged prostate, eased symptoms and improved quality of life up to a year, according to a study by the Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan, and the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.

COX inhibitors may weaken protective qualities of estrogen hormone therapy
Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine found in a database study of women heart patients that COX inhibitors such as traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may undermine any purported protection against heart disease in participants taking estrogen therapy.

Canadian paper innovation holds promise for improved global health safety
Researchers from 10 universities across Canada, nine industry partners, and federal and provincial government agencies have formed a research consortium named the SENTINEL Bioactive Paper Network to develop low-cost and easy-to-use paper-based products with biologically active chemicals that can protect the public against increasing incidents of food-, water- and air-borne illnesses.

Bacteria show promise in fending off global amphibian killer
First in a petri dish and now on live salamanders, probiotic bacteria seem to repel a deadly fungus being blamed for worldwide amphibian deaths and even extinctions.

Small infants have greater survival rate in high level intensive care facilities
Very low birth weight infants are significantly more likely to survive when delivered in hospitals with high-level neonatal intensive care units that care for more than 100 such newborns annually than are those delivered in comparable facilities that provide care to fewer than 100 such children every year.

Resistance genes in our food supply
Could the food we eat be contributing to the continuing rise of antibiotic-resistant infections?

Management professor says McDonald's commercial is on track
McDonald's new advertising campaign to promote high-level career opportunities within the company is a great way to fight the connotation of dead-end drudgery and low wages that comes with

Stem cells may look malignant, not act it
Bone marrow stem cells attracted to the site of a cancerous growth frequently take on the outward appearance of the malignant cells around them.

Tiny newborns face higher risk of death at community hospitals, Stanford/VA study finds
More than 20 percent of very small babies who died in California between 1991 and 2000 might have lived had they been born in different hospitals, say researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System.

New adult brain cells may be central to lifelong learning
The steady formation of new brain cells in adults may represent more than merely a patching up of aging brains, a new study has shown.

Nanotechnology requires immediate changes in EPA
Regulatory oversight of nanotechnology is urgently needed and the Environmental Protection Agency should act now, reports a new study released today.

Fragile X syndrome -- A stimulating environment restores neuronal function in mice
A new study of the malfunctioning neuronal machinery of Fragile X syndrome reveals that it can be restored by a stimulating environment.

Koshland Science Museum announces Summer events
This summer, the Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences will offer a sample of public programs about an essential resource -- water.

Long-term treatment with VYVANSE, first prodrug stimulant, demonstrates significant efficacy in ADHD
Shire plc today announced that VYVANSE effectively controlled ADHD symptoms in children aged 6 to 12 years.

Making science personal: Lilly Oncology to unveil 76 studies at ASCO 2007
Lilly Oncology will unveil 76 studies at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Chicago, Ill., from June 1-5, 2007.

Panel offers guidelines on skin reactions to new class of cancer drugs
Skin reactions to a powerful new class of anti-cancer drugs are frequent, but manageable through a simple and rational treatment approach -- usually without the need to reduce the dose or interrupt treatment with potentially life-prolonging chemotherapy, according to an article in the May issue of

A nurse makes the decision on who will live
Thymic nurse cells are specialized cells of the thymus capable of taking up as many as 50 developing T cells into their cytoplasm.

Disadvantaged TB patients urgently need social support to make medical treatment more effective
TB continues to rise worldwide, but healthcare professionals can't treat the disease effectively if their patients aren't receiving the social support they need.

UD scientists build an 'ice top' at the bottom of the world
University of Delaware researchers are building the

Disruptive Technologies Roundtable series to discuss revolution in embedded digital advertising
Dr. Helena S. Wisniewski, vice president for University Research & Enterprise Development at Stevens Institute of Technology, will host the third in a series of monthly

Leading the fight against food poisoning
University of Nottingham experts have joined forces with Canadian biotech company GangaGen Life Sciences Inc to develop new weapons in the fight against food poisoning.

Delaware researchers receive nearly $1M in US Department of Defense grants
The US Department of Defense has awarded scientists at the University of Delaware and Delaware State University nearly $1 million for research on blast-resistant materials and wall-penetrating radar.

Bronchial thermoplasty may allow severe asthma patients to wean off oral corticosteroids
Positive results from the Research in Severe Asthma (RISA) Trial of Bronchial Thermoplasty were reported today at the annual scientific assembly of the American Thoracic Society (ATS).

New study indicates that people may need more dietary choline than previously thought
A new study published in the May issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition indicates that the current recommended Adequate Intake (AI) for choline may, in fact, be inadequate for some people.

Study evaluates the effectiveness of Aripiprazole in adolescents with schizophrenia
In a study in adolescents (13-17 years) with schizophrenia, the atypical antipsychotic Abilify demonstrated significant improvement compared to placebo on the primary efficacy endpoint, Panns Total Score.

NHLBI Asthma Clinical Research Networks and ALA ACRC Network to present at ATS 2007
Researchers studying inhaled steroids and children with asthma, as well as asthma and obesity, will present new findings from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Asthma Clinical Research Networks at the American Thoracic Society 2007 International Conference in San Francisco on Wednesday, May 23.

Follow the 'green' brick road?
Researchers have found that bricks made from fly ash -- fine ash particles captured as waste by coal-fired power plants -- may be even safer than predicted.

$2M award funds intelligent tutoring system aimed at improving math education
With a $2 million Department of Education award, researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute and Carnegie Mellon University will continue development of an intelligent tutoring system for middle school mathematical education, transforming it into an unparalleled tool for educating students and tracking their progress.

New technique effective in closing accidental colonoscopy wounds
In a series of animal studies, researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have developed a technique for closing colonoscopy-caused perforations promptly after they are recognized by using clips or sutures that can be inserted through the anus via endoscope, thus avoiding invasive surgery.

Vaccine hope for malaria
One person dies of it every 30 seconds, it rivals HIV and tuberculosis as the world's most deadly infection and the vast majority of its victims are under five years old.

Advances in screening and markers improve early detection of colorectal cancer
Although colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, when detected early, it has one of the highest cure rates.

Study reveals aspirin's colorectal cancer prevention mechanism
Aspirin therapy's ability to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, seen in a large number of studies, appears to depend on the drug's inhibition of the COX-2 enzyme, the action that also underlies aspirin's usefulness for treating pain and inflammation.

New guideline for treating Lyme disease
A guideline developed by the American Academy of Neurology finds conventionally recommended courses of antibiotics are highly effective for treating nervous system Lyme disease.

Long-term ulcerative colitis study shows Remicade responders maintained improvement
Findings presented today at Digestive Disease Week 2007, from long-term extensions of the ACT trials show that subjects with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis who had responded to REMICADE in the blinded phase of the trials maintained improvement in their clinical symptoms for up to two years.

UGA study reveals function of ubiquitous yet poorly understood microorganisms
A new study led by University of Georgia researchers and announced on Wednesday at the American Society for Microbiology meeting in Toronto finds that crenarchaeota, one of the most common groups of archaea and a group that includes members that live in hot springs, use ammonia as their energy source.

New genetic data overturn long-held theory of limb development
Long before animals with limbs came onto the scene about 365 million years ago, fish already possessed the genes associated with helping to grow hands and feet report University of Chicago researchers in the May 24, 2007 issue of Nature.

Follow-up care for breast cancer patients is 'devalued and deregulated'
Follow-up of breast cancer patients after their initial treatment is becoming

Dyson Foundation gives $5 Million for ophthalmology research at Weill Cornell Medical College
The Dyson Foundation has given $5 million to Weill Cornell Medical College towards the Dyson Family Ophthalmology Floor in the Weill Greenberg Center, the new ambulatory care and medical education building.

12-month study demonstrated tolerability and efficacy of Daytrana
Shire plc announced that Daytrana, the first and only non-oral medication approved for treatment of ADHD in children aged 6 to 12 years, provided significant improvement in symptom control and tolerability, according to results of a 12-month open-label study presented at the American Psychiatric Association annual meeting.

Flaws in colonoscopies may increase risk of colon cancer
Colonoscopies are considered the gold standard for detecting colon cancer, the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States.

Aboriginal Peoples given stronger voice in health research
Aboriginal Peoples will now have greater involvement in the planning, execution and sharing of research outcomes conducted with their communities, as a result of new research ethics guidelines recently released by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR).

When it comes to preventing amputation in diabetics, site, not size, matters
Researchers at Scholl College, Leiden University and Texas A&M have published data in the journal Diabetes Care that indicates that the location of the foot ulcer on a diabetic patient can help predict dangerous recurrent wounds that can lead to amputation.

Botulism bug has few genome wrinkles
The genome of the organism that produces the world's most lethal toxin is revealed today.

Tiny genes may increase cancer susceptibility, Jefferson scientists find
New evidence indicates that small pieces of noncoding genetic material known as microRNAs (miRNAs), which play various roles in biological regulation, including development and cell differentiation, might influence cancer susceptibility.

Jefferson scientists use gene therapy to reverse heart failure in animals
Heart researchers have used gene therapy to reverse heart failure in animals.

A brown dwarf joins the jet-set
Jets of matter have been discovered around a very low mass

Rosiglitazone -- Seeking a balanced approach to avoid panic among patients
A calmer and more considered approach to the safety of rosiglitazone (Avandia) -- the GlaxoSmithKline treatment for type 2 diabetes -- is needed to avoid unnecessary panic among patients, says an Editorial published early Online today and in an upcoming edition of The Lancet.

Emory University researchers find persistent and severe asthma associated with obesity
After analyzing results of a survey of more than 3,000 adults with asthma, researchers at Emory Crawford Long Hospital have found that obese patients with asthma are more likely to have severe asthma when compared to those who are not overweight.

Check and balance for neuron activity provides insight into schizophrenia, seizures
Two genes important for human development and implicated in cancer and schizophrenia also help keep a healthy balance between excitation and inhibition of brain cells, researchers say.

In new statistical approach, data decide model
A data-driven computational approach developed by a University of Illinois statistician is revealing secrets about inner Earth and discovering unique gene expressions in fruit flies, zebra fish and other living organisms.

$5M gift will attack Lou Gehrig's disease from all angles
Twenty years ago, retail pioneer A. Alfred Taubman lost a good friend to Lou Gehrig's disease.

Daytrana provides significant effectiveness in both boys and girls with ADHD
Shire plc announced that DAYTRANA, its ADHD patch medication, had significant efficacy in reducing the symptoms of ADHD in both male and female children aged 6 to 12 years, according to clinical trial results reported at the American Psychiatric Association annual meeting.

Plants that produce more vitamin C may result from UCLA-Dartmouth discovery
UCLA and Dartmouth scientists have identified a crucial enzyme in plant vitamin C synthesis, which could lead to enhanced crops.

Moderate drinking lowers women's risk of heart attack
Women who regularly enjoy an alcoholic drink or two have a significantly lower risk of having a non-fatal heart attack than women who are life-time abstainers, epidemiologists at the University at Buffalo have shown.

Hurricane risks higher than usual for most of US coasts
UCF statistics professor Mark Johnson and his Georgia colleague Chuck Watson analyzed the probability of 852 counties getting struck by hurricane-force winds this year.

'Supersize me' mice research offers grim warning for America's fast food consumers
New Saint Louis University research presented this week found fatty liver disease and signs of type 2 diabetes after only four weeks of a high-fat, high-sugar diet.

Investigational nonstimulant Guanfacine XR significantly improved child, adolescent ADHD symptoms
Shire plc announced positive results of four studies of the investigational medication guanfacine extended release (GXR, previously referred to as SPD503), a selective alpha-2A-adrenoceptor agonist.

Free public talk on epilepsy research ... and progress towards better treatment
With epilepsy affecting over one million people in Australia, and with nearly one third of them not responding to current medications, there are some big questions that need to be answered.

Quasicrystals: Somewhere between order and disorder
Until 1982, quasicrystals weren't just undiscovered, they were believed to be physically impossible.

Evacuating New Orleans: LSU and Los Alamos team up
Brian Wolshon, associate professor of civil and environmental engineering at LSU and member of the LSU Hurricane Center, has been getting international recognition for his research and application of emergency evacuations and traffic modeling.

2007 Alzheimer Award to Jing Zhang, M.D., Ph.D.
The Journal of Alzheimer's Disease has named Dr. Jing Zhang, associate professor of pathology and opthalmology at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle as the winner of it's 2007 Alzheimer Award.

Sheep offer model for undernourishment in pregnant teen girls
In a pair of studies posted on Biology of Reproduction -- Papers in Press, researchers report that results from studies of adolescent female sheep suggest that teenaged girls who become pregnant before reaching full growth may not be able to supply their fetuses with adequate nourishment.

The first issue of the HFSP Journal is now available
HFSP Publishing is proud to announce the publication of the first issue of the HFSP Journal, Frontiers of Interdisciplinary Research in the Life Sciences which is available online free of charge.

Leading research libraries sample ScienceDirect eBooks Program
Elsevier, a leading publisher of scientific, technical and medical (STM) information, today announced that more than 900 leading research libraries and corporations from all over the world are participating in the trial of eBooks on ScienceDirect.

Adult brain cells rediscover their inner child
Johns Hopkins researchers have found that newly made nerves in an adult brain's learning center experience a one-month period when they are just as active as the nerves in a developing child.

Boston University School of Medicine faculty member receives honorary degree from alma mater
Boston University School of Medicine researcher Dr. Philip Wolf was a recipient of the honorary degree, doctor of science from his alma mater, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University.

Pointing a finger at the source of fecal bacteria
In order to halt the pollution of streams with fecal bacteria, researchers must first determine the source of the contamination.

Same-day coronary angiography and surgery safe for many patients
Mayo Clinic researchers discovered it is safe -- and much more convenient and less costly -- for many patients to undergo coronary angiography and elective valve surgery on the same day, it is reported in the current issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

Psychological bullying hits just as hard
School bullying doesn't have to leave physical bumps and bruises to contribute to a hostile and potentially dangerous school environment.
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