Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

June 15, 2007
Ultra deep sequencing identifies HIV drug resistance at early stage
Rare, previously undetectable drug-resistant forms of HIV have been identified by Yale School of Medicine researcher Michael Kozal, M.D., using an innovative genome sequencing technology that quickly detects rare viral mutations.

Vehicle emissions monitoring validates inspection program and offers policy insights
A long-term Georgia Institute of Technology study continues to validate the effectiveness of Georgia's vehicle emissions inspection program in 13 metro Atlanta counties that are part of a federal ozone level nonattainment area.

Cancer stem cells similar to normal stem cells can thwart anti-cancer agents
Current cancer therapies often are thwarted because they cannot eliminate a small reservoir of multiple-drug-resistant tumor cells.

Runners -- Let thirst be your guide
Many people are drinking too much water, including sports drinks, when exercising, a practice that could put some individuals engaging in prolonged types of endurance exercise at risk of potentially lethal water intoxication, say international experts who study disorders of water metabolism.

Case School of Medicine professor receives prestigious award by the American Cancer Society
Kurt C. Stange, M.D., Ph.D., named an American Cancer Society Clinical Research Professor.

New York City reports decline in childhood lead poisoning
Though childhood lead poisoning remains a serious problem in NYC, the number of new cases identified in 2006 marks the lowest level in more than a decade.

Remicade data in ankylosing spondylitis show improvement in spinal mobility and spinal inflammation
Data presented today at the European League Against Rheumatism Annual European Congress of Rheumatology showed that patients with ankylosing spondylitis who received Remicade over two years experienced significant improvement in spinal mobility.

Smoking, low levels of education and glucose tolerance increase risk of rheumatoid arthritis
New data presented today at EULAR 2007, the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology sheds light on the role of environmental and genetic risk factors in the development of rheumatoid arthritis.

First multinational study of Tocilizumab reports in
Nearly half -- 43.9 percent -- of rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving tocilizumab 8mg/kg, in addition to ongoing methotrexate therapy experienced a 50 percent improvement in symptoms at 24 weeks and more than one fifth achieved a 70 percent symptom improvement, according to results of a European study presented today at EULAR 2007, the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology in Barcelona, Spain.

Damon Runyon renews its $2.25 million investment to support young clinical cancer investigators
The Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation named five new Damon Runyon Clinical Investigators.

The kapok connection -- Study explains rainforest similarities
Celebrated in Buddhist temples and cultivated for its wood and cottony fibers, the kapok tree now is upsetting an idea that biologists have clung to for decades: the notion that African and South American rainforests are similar because the continents were connected 96 million years ago.

Bone erosion reduced by denosumab in phase 2 trial
Treatment with denosumab 60 mg and 180 mg, with background methotrexate, reduces the progression of bone erosion according to results of a 227 patient-Phase II trial presented today at EULAR 2007, the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology in Barcelona, Spain.

CSHL scientists successfully target tumor microenvironment to stop cancer growth
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory researchers led by Daniel Nolan and Assistant Professor Vivek Mittal have found that bone marrow (BM) derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in the early stages of tumor progression and that eliminating EPCs stops cancer growth.

Doctoral research without borders
DFG promotes internationality in the research training group program.

Marine phytoplankton changes form to protect itself from different predators
A tiny single-celled organism that plays a key role in the carbon cycle of cold-water oceans may be a lot smarter than scientists had suspected.

Academy vows to retain mineral collection
A court filing makes it official: The Academy of Natural Sciences has no intention of giving up its historic William S.

Premature vascular and bone changes occur in COPD patients
Researchers in the United Kingdom have found that patients with COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, have greater arterial stiffness.

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine researchers develop 'off-the-shelf' vascular grafts
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine investigators have engineered artificial blood vessels from muscle-derived stem cells and a biodegradable polymer that exhibit extensive remodeling and remain free of blockages when grafted into rats.

Increased alcohol intake associated with decreased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis
New data presented today at EULAR 2007 suggest that alcohol may protect against rheumatoid arthritis, with three units a week exhibiting protective effects and ten units a week being more protective still.

The perks and pitfalls of pride
Pride has perplexed philosophers and theologians for centuries, and it is an especially paradoxical emotion in American culture.

Warning from Asian bees
Four swarms of Asian bees found in Cairns have been cleared of carrying the dreaded Varroa destructor mite, but the intruders themselves could pose the beginning of a serious threat to Australian honey bee populations.

UD awarded $11M for osteoarthritis research and unique mentoring program for women scientists
The University of Delaware has been awarded $11 million from the National Institutes of Health for leading-edge,

Recycling is not enough -- we need to consume less
Recycling rates have risen, and the UK is on schedule to meet EU targets, but the key to dealing with our escalating waste problem lies in changing our buying habits and our attitudes to consumption, according to the authors of a new Economic and Social Research Council publication.

NSF funding to advance research on interplay between biology and society
Scientists will find new ways of understanding the interactions of the biological sciences with society, as a result of awards from the National Science Foundation's directorates for biological sciences and for social, behavioral, and economic sciences.

New survey uncovers how insomnia affects job performance and safety
Alertness Solutions presented results of a new survey this week at the annual SLEEP meeting showing the significant impact our 24/7 culture has on healthcare professionals' job performance and patient safety.

Colon cancer proteins show promise for blood test
Searching for less invasive screening tests for cancer, Johns Hopkins scientists have discovered proteins present in blood that accurately identify colon cancer and precancerous polyps.

Brookhaven Lab's NASA summer school helps create pipeline of space scientists
Students and scientists from around the globe and from throughout the US have come to New York this month to participate in the fourth annual NASA Space Radiation Summer School at the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Newspaper articles on organ transplantation mostly positive, study shows
A content analysis of newspaper stories about organ and tissue donation, conducted by researchers at the University at Buffalo, found an almost 4-to-1 ratio of positive-to-negative articles on the subject.

Columbia dentists to improve oral health in sub-Saharan Africa
A new initiative from Columbia University Medical Center will be the first to target chronic oral health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, where the vast majority of chronic diseases are left undetected and untreated.

Gum disease in postmenopausal women linked to oral bone loss
A study conducted in a large sample of postmenopausal women by University at Buffalo epidemiologists has provided new information on the prevalence of certain gum-disease-causing oral bacteria in this population and the association of the bacteria with oral bone loss.

454 sequencing identifies HIV drug resistance at early stage
454 Life Sciences, a member of the Roche group, and a Yale School of Medicine researcher today announced that they have used the company's Genome Sequencer system to identify previously undetectable rare drug resistant HIV variants in samples from an earlier performed clinical trial.

Study demonstrated ROZEREM (ramelteon) does not affect body sway
Two studies presented today demonstrated that ROZEREM did not affect body sway at peak plasma levels, nor did it impair middle-of-the-night balance, mobility or memory performance in patients who suffer from chronic insomnia.

Infectious diseases experts issue blueprint to avert
New vaccines are available to make significant gains against cervical cancer deaths and debilitating pain from shingles, but infectious diseases experts warn that their full potential will not be realized without changes in the way vaccines for adults and adolescents are promoted, financed and delivered in the United States.

First ATV leaves Europe to prepare for launch from Europe's Spaceport in French Guiana
Time to bid farewell to the most sophisticated spacecraft ever built in Europe.

Fruit bats are not 'blind as a bat'
German-American research team finds daylight photoreceptors in the retinas of nocturnal fruit bats.

Elevated pepsin levels may lead to rejection of lung transplants
Researchers in the United Kingdom have demonstrated that high levels of pepsin, a digestive enzyme that is a marker for gastric aspiration, are associated with acute rejection of a lung transplant.

Longer term breast feeding protects mother from risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis
Breast feeding for a period of 13 months or more has been shown to reduce the mother's the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, according to new data presented today at EULAR 2007, the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology in Barcelona, Spain.
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