Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 10, 2007
FDA finds no strong link between tomatoes and reduced cancer risk
A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review has found only limited evidence for an association between eating tomatoes and a decreased risk of certain cancers, according to an article published online July 10 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Class of medications may offer alternative option for treating type 2 diabetes
A review of previous studies indicates that use of a class of medications known as

Kaposi sarcoma arises independently from multiple cells
Kaposi sarcoma is unique among cancers because most tumors grow from a small number of different cells, whereas nearly all other cancers arise from a single cell, according to a study published online July 10 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Study urges compensation-based approach to drug patent compulsory licensing
A Penn State researcher argues that ambiguous international rules outlining when and how governments may

Piecing together the cyanobacteria puzzle
Blue green algae are significant species in the global carbon cycle because they transform nitrogen gas from the atmosphere into a useable nutrient, enabling photosynthesis in nutrient-poor waters.

Norwegian council names ASU researcher 'Outstanding Young Investigator'
Gro Amdam, an assistant professor in Arizona State University's School of Life Sciences who heads social insect studies in laboratories at both ASU and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, is a new

Researchers probe risks, benefits of folic acid fortification
Researchers at Tufts University report a temporal relationship between nationwide folic acid fortification and an increase in rates of colorectal cancer.

Late nights may impact preteen behavior
A propensity for activities in the evening rather than in the morning may offer clues to behavioral problems in early adolescence, according to psychologists who have found that kids who prefer evenings are more likely to exhibit antisocial behavior, rule-breaking and attention problems.

Neuroscientist comments on stem cell study's success in helping primates with Parkinson's
A University of South Florida neuroscientist reports that the cutting-edge research study of human stem cells in primates with Parkinson's disease is compelling on several fronts -- particularly how the transplanted cells did their job of easing disease symptoms.

Aphids make 'chemical weapons' to fight off killer ladybirds
Cabbage aphids have developed an internal chemical defence system which enables them to disable attacking predators by setting off a mustard oil

Supercomputing on demand: SDSC supports event-driven science
Somewhere in Southern California a large earthquake strikes without warning, and the news media and the public clamor for information about the temblor -- Where was the epicenter?

The new wildlife refuge -- Golf courses?
Golf courses are known as centers for human recreation, but if managed properly, they also could be important wildlife sanctuaries, a University of Missouri-Columbia researcher has found.

Common rheumatoid arthritis treatment shows potential for diabetes prevention
Fewer rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with the drug hydroxychloroquine went on to develop diabetes compared to those who never took the drug, according to a 20-plus-year University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine-led study reported today in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

UIC and Japanese chemists close in on molecular switch
A team of chemists from the University of Illinois at Chicago and Japan's RIKEN institute have demonstrated the ability to remove an atom from a molecule, then replace that atom without disturbing neighboring chemical bonds on the molecule.

Study finds Western-style 'meat-sweet' diet increases risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women
A new study finds that the more

Modified herpes virus keeps arteries 'free-flowing' following procedures
A genetically engineered herpes simplex virus, primarily known for causing cold sores, may help keep arteries

Obesity rates continue to climb in the United States
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Human Nutrition report that the prevalence of obesity and overweight in the United States has increased at an average rate of 0.3-0.8 percentage points across different sociodemographic groups over the past three decades.

More women authors and collaboration now the norm for communication faculty, MU study finds
In academia, the discipline of communication has changed significantly, according to University of Missouri-Columbia researchers.

New blood test might offer early warning of deep belly fat
Measuring levels of a chemical found in blood offers the best indicator yet of the amount of fat surrounding abdominal organs, according to a new study of lean and obese individuals reported in the July issue of Cell Metabolism, a publication of Cell Press.

Mild stress in the womb may worsen risk of cerebral palsy
Chronic mild stress in pregnant mothers may increase the risk that their offspring will develop cerebral palsy -- a group of neurological disorders marked by physical disability -- according to new research in mice.

Biodesign Institute leads innovative project to prevent cancer
Biodesign Institute researchers Stephen Albert Johnston and Douglas Lake have received nearly $9 million in grants from the Department of Defense's Innovator Award and the W.

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience
The following articles are featured in the upcoming issue of the Journal of Neuroscience:

Citrus greening continues to spread in citrus growing areas
The latest on the rapid spread of citrus greening within Florida and its potential to spread into California and other citrus growing areas will be presented during a news conference on plant diseases and issues that are of importance to California's economy and agriculture.

Retired Argonne scientist named inaugural fellow of Neutron Scattering Society of America
Gian Piero Felcher, retired senior physicist in the Materials Science Division of the US Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, has been named an inaugural fellow of the Neutron Scattering Society of America.

Boosting key milk nutrients may help lower type 2 diabetes risk
Most Americans fail to get the calcium and vitamin D they need, but this shortfall could be affecting more than their bones.

Carnegie Mellon researchers use Web images to add realism to edited photos
Computer graphics researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have developed systems for editing or altering photographs using segments of the millions of images available on the Web.

QUT's top researchers honored with fellowships
A Queensland University of Technology health researcher has been honured with a prestigious Smart State Fellowship to develop a genetic test that has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of people with schizophrenia.

Decorated UH professor to help choose nation's top scientists
Former National Medal of Science Winner Paul Chu is appointed to presidential committee.

Antibiotics don't prevent future urinary tract infections, may cause resistance in future infections
After a first childhood urinary tract infection (UTI), daily antibiotics may not prevent another such infection, and may actually increase the risk that the next urinary tract infection is caused by resistant bacteria, according to a new study from The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

Insulin sensitizer also serves as energy-conserving signal to the brain
A fat-derived protein known for its effects on the liver and skeletal muscle might also serve as an energy-conserving signal to the brain during periods of starvation, suggests a new study in the July issue of Cell Metabolism, a publication of Cell Press.

Screening for behavioral health first step to getting treatment
Health plans seldom require screening for substance abuse and mental health in primary care even though it can improve detection, according to a new Brandeis University study published in the July issue of the Journal of General Internal Medicine.

Speeding up CT scans with cellphone technology, ultrasound warning signal for breast cancer
Expected to be one of the most highly attended meetings of its kind, the conference will feature over 1,100 scientific papers on subjects at the intersection of medicine and physics.

Is milk thistle effective in cancer treatment?
Milk thistle extract, an herbal remedy since the times of the ancient Greeks and Romans, is today one of the most popular herbal supplements, with U.S. retail sales of nearly nine million dollars.

Cicardian system suffers and protects from prenatal cocaine exposure
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine have shown that prenatal cocaine exposure in zebrafish (which share the majority of the same genes with humans) can alter neuronal development and acutely dysregulate the expression of circadian genes and those affecting melatonin signaling, growth and neurotransmission.

Homestake strikes gold again
The National Science Foundation has chosen Homestake, a former gold mine in the Black Hills, near Lead, S.D., as the site for a multipurpose deep underground science and engineering laboratory.

Simple interventions may increase prostate cancer screening
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American men (estimated incidence of 234,460 cases, 27,360 deaths in 2006).

Nearly 90 percent of babies receive recommended newborn screening tests
Nearly 90 percent of U.S. babies are born in states that require screening for at least 21 life-threatening disorders, according to the 2007 March of Dimes Newborn Screening Report Card.

Team selected for the proposed design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory
The National Science Foundation today announced selection of a University of California-Berkeley proposal to produce a technical design for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory at the former Homestake gold mine near Lead, S.D.

UCLA/VA develops tool to gauge quality of life of hepatitis B patients
In a new study, UCLA/VA researchers measured the effect of hepatitis B on patients' quality of life -- beyond just the physical symptoms of the disease -- and created a new tool to better assess patients' overall well-being, which may help clinicians guide treatment.

Wiley extends publishing partnership with the American Institute of Chemical Engineers
Global publisher John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (NYSE: JWa), (NYSE: JWb), and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) today announced the renewal and extension of their agreement for publication of the Institute's flagship journals, AIChE Journal, Environmental Progress, and Process Safety Progress.

Western diet linked to increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal Asian women
Postmenopausal Asian women who eat a

High blood pressure may mask potentially deadly heart condition
New research published in Psychophysiology finds a relationship between increased blood pressure and decreased pain perception in a variety of circumstances, including among individuals with heart disease.

Study shows cane sugar, corn sweeteners have similar effects on appetite
A new study of sweetened beverages shows that cane sugar and high fructose corn syrup have similar effects on hunger, fullness and food consumption at lunch.

Macrochem acquires option to license pexiganan
Macrochem acquires option to license pexiganan, a novel topical anti-infective for treatment of diabetic foot infection, from Genaera.

Study finds minimal racial bias in charitable giving to victims of Hurricane Katrina
The perceived neediness of Hurricane Katrina victims is a better determinant of charitable giving than the victims' race, according to study by Christina M.

Illinois-based study of energy crops finds miscanthus more productive than switchgrass
At the annual meeting of the American Society of Plant Biologists in Chicago (July 7-11, 2007), scientists will present findings on how to economically and efficiently produce plant crops suitable for sustainable bioenergy.

Other highlights from the July 10 JNCI
Also in the July 10 JNCI are studies on a

'Stealth advertising' sliding under radar into TV newscasts
Advertisers' messages are infiltrating small-market television newscasts at about the same percentage that owners of digital video recorders are skipping the commercials, say researchers at the University of Oregon.

A first-principles model of early evolution
In a study publishing in PLoS Computational Biology, Shakhnovich et al present a new model of early biological evolution -- the first that directly relates the fitness of a population of evolving model organisms to the properties of their proteins.

Scientists find brown fat master switch
Researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have identified a long-sought

Antibiotic treatment for children with UTI not associated with reduced risk of recurrence
The use of prophylactic antibiotics, which involves daily administration of antibiotics to children after an initial urinary tract infection, is not associated with reduced risk of recurrent urinary tract infections, but is associated with an increased risk of resistant infections, according to a study in the July 11 issue of JAMA.

Mobile math lab for cell phones
University of Haifa researchers have developed an educational, mobile math lab application for cell phones, providing students with experiential, interactive ways to learn math.

'America's Best Hospitals' not always the best for heart attack patients
Heart attack patients admitted to hospitals ranked to be among

Study provides new data about the laws governing embryo development in organisms
Research aimed at understanding the mechanisms underlying embryo development has taken a step forward thanks to collaborative work between biologists specialized in the study of the fruit fly and scientists specialized in the design of mathematical models that simulate the functioning of biological systems.

Anti-malarial drug may reduce risk of diabetes for patients with rheumatoid arthritis
Preliminary research suggests that use of the anti-malarial drug hydroxychloroquine may help reduce the risk of the development of diabetes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, according to a study in the July 11 issue of JAMA.

New research shows vaginal bacteria vary among healthy women, need customized treatment
University of Idaho study shows normal vaginal biology and conditions that make women prone to diseases.

Physician and congressional leaders convene on Capitol Hill
Today, the president of the American Academy of Family Physicians, along with the Chief Executive Officers of the American College of Physicians and the American Osteopathic Association, met with House and Senate Democratic and Republican Leadership.
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