Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 21, 2007
T. rex quicker than Becks, say scientists
T. rex may have struggled to chase down speeding vehicles as the movie Jurassic Park would have us believe but the world's most fearsome carnivore was certainly no slouch, research out today suggests.

GI concept tested in children
A new study provides encouraging evidence that a low-GI start to the day may be a good option to keep obesity at bay in the young.

New catalysts may create more, cheaper hydrogen
A new class of catalysts created at the US Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory may help scientists and engineers overcome some of the hurdles that have inhibited the production of hydrogen for use in fuel cells.

Eureka prize recognizes pioneering research replacing use of animals
Scientists who developed a breakthrough research method which reduces the use of animals in the laboratory have been awarded this year's esteemed Voiceless Eureka Prize.

Eureka prize for Terry
Professor Terry Hughes, director of the ARC Centre of Excellence Coral Reef Studies based at James Cook University, last night won one of the prestigious Australian Museum Eureka prizes: the Sherman Eureka Prize for Environmental Research.

New report on smoking shows who's quitting, who's not
Two-thirds of the New York City's smokers -- almost 800,000 adults -- tried to quit in the past year, but only 17 percent of those succeeded.

Battling bitter coffee -- chemists vs. main source of coffee bitterness
Bitter taste can ruin a cup of coffee. Now, chemists in Germany and the United States say they have identified the chemicals that appear to be largely responsible for java's bitterness, a finding that could one day lead to a better tasting brew.

Miller to receive ARVO's Proctor Medal
ARVO announced today that Professor Robert F. Miller has been selected to receive the 2008 Proctor Medal, ARVO's highest honor.

Feeling hot, hot, hot: New study suggests ways to control fever-induced seizures
Scientists at the University of Toronto Mississauga and Queen's University show that genetic variation in the foraging gene results in different tolerance for heat stress and demonstrate how the use of specific drugs can replicate this effect in fruit flies and locusts.

University Hospitals Department of Orthopaedics to perform live reverse shoulder replacement
Dr. Reuben Gobezie, orthopaedic surgeon at University Hospitals Case Medical Center, has been at the forefront of surgical advancements with the reverse shoulder replacement since joining the orthopaedic team at UHCMC from Massachusetts General.

Safer and greener plastics
With prices rising and environmental issues taking centre stage, EUREKA project E!

Geologist plans volcano safety for Ecuador
A geologist at Washington University in St. Louis is doing his part to make sure that the small Latin American country of Ecuador follows the Boy Scout motto: Be prepared.

Team tracks antibiotic resistance from swine farms to groundwater
The routine use of antibiotics in swine production can have unintended consequences, with antibiotic resistance genes sometimes leaking from waste lagoons into groundwater.

All eukaryotic kinases share 1 common set of substrates
A team of researchers led by Maikel Peppelenbosch, PhD, a professor of Cell Biology at the University Medical Center in Groningen, Netherlands, has established that all eukaryotic kinases share a common set of substrates, nine amino acid segments shared by all proteins that are known to be phosphorylated.

Sewage tells tales about community-wide drug abuse
Public health officials may soon be able to flush out more accurate estimates on illegal drug use in communities across the country thanks to a new screening test.

Study: cow-powered fuel cells grow smaller, mightier
Cows could one day help to meet the rise in demand for alternative energy sources, say Ohio State University researchers that used microbe-rich fluid from a cow to generate electricity in a small fuel cell.

Hall medal for UQ expert in patterns and combinations
Dr. Darryn Bryant, QEII Research Fellow in Combinatorial Mathematics from the School of Physical Sciences was recently awarded the Hall Medal from the Institute of Combinatorics and its Applications.

Scientists detect presence of marburg virus in African fruit bats
A team of scientists reported findings today demonstrating the presence of Marburg virus RNA genome and antibodies in a common species of African fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus).

Claims of sex-related differences in genetic association studies often not properly validated
A review of previous research suggests that prominent claims of sex differences of gene-disease associations are often insufficiently documented and validated, according to an article in the Aug.

Study shines more light on benefit of vitamin D in fighting cancer
A new study looking at the relationship between vitamin D serum levels and the risk of colon and breast cancer across the globe has estimated the number of cases of cancer that could be prevented each year if vitamin D3 levels met the target proposed by researchers.

Detergents, eye rinses and other products with an on/off switch
Researchers at an American Chemical Society meeting will report the development of an unusual biological detergent, called a Pepfactant, a surfactant made from peptides, protein subunits.

Is 4 agents decoction efficacious in treating primary dysmenorrhea?
New research by scientists in Taiwan has shown that an 800-year-old formula, Four Agents Decoction (Si Wu Tang), does not significantly reduce menstrual pain after three cycles of treatment; however, a beneficial effect may be present after a longer treatment.

e-Science points to pollution solutions
Results from a UK e-Science project are helping to solve two pressing environmental problems.

Study compares surgical options for severe intra-abdominal inflammation
Performing a repeat surgery for patients with peritonitis (severe intra-abdominal inflammation or infection) only when clinical improvement is lacking may have some advantages compared with having the repeat procedure routinely scheduled after the operation, according to a study in the Aug.

Scientists tackle mystery mountain illness
Research into a life-threatening condition that occurs at high altitude is to benefit from an international database launched today at the University of Edinburgh.

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience
The following articles are featured in the Journal of Neuroscience:

Acrylamide not linked to breast cancer in US women, study finds
Foods that contain acrylamide are unlikely to cause breast cancer in women, according to preliminary results of a new study involving 100,000 US women.

Genetics determine optimal drug dose of common anticoagulant
Genetic testing can be used to help personalize the therapeutic dosage of warfarin, a commonly-used anticoagulant, according to research published in the Sept.

Symposium explores health effects of acrylamide, ways to reduce it in food
Acrylamide, a widely-used synthetic chemical that some studies have linked to cancer and neurological damage, has recently been shown to occur naturally in an increasing number of foods ranging from French fries to coffee.

Researchers at UC-Santa Barbara have built the world's first mode-locked silicon evanescent laser
Researchers at UC-Santa Barbara have announced they have built the world's first mode-locked silicon evanescent laser, a significant step toward combining lasers and other key optical components with the existing electronic capabilities in silicon.

Vaccine thwarts the tangles of Alzheimer's
A new study by NYU Medical Center researchers shows for the first time that the immune system can combat the pathological form of tau protein, a key protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease.

Where do most Canadians with alcohol and drug problems live? Not where you think
With a Canada-wide prevalence of substance use problems estimated at 11 percent, a new CAMH study found that Ontario and Quebec had markedly lower concentrations of people with alcohol and drug problems.

Pellets of power designed to deliver hydrogen for tomorrow's vehicles
Hydrogen may prove to be the fuel of the future in powering the efficient, eco-friendly fuel cell vehicles of tomorrow.

IAVI, CDC and USMHRP release new data redefining laboratory reference ranges in Africa
Leading researchers from IAVI, CDC and the USMHRP presented final results today from a collection of independent studies re-examining the medical criteria for including African volunteers in AIDS vaccine trials.

Cranberries may improve chemotherapy for ovarian cancer
Compounds in cranberries may help improve the effectiveness of platinum drugs that are used in chemotherapy to fight ovarian cancer, researchers have found in a controlled laboratory study.

Hurricane Dean tracked from space
ESA satellites are tracking the path of Hurricane Dean as it rips across the Caribbean Sea carrying winds as high as 260 km per hour.

Broad-based group of physicians calls for improvement in stroke treatment
A coalition of physicians representing a wide range of medical specialties has issued a call to action to improve the treatment of stroke.

Computational actinide chemistry: Are we there yet?
Ever since the Manhattan project in World War II, actinide chemistry has been essential for nuclear science and technology.

First finding of a metabolite in 1 sex only
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have discovered a chemical compound in male blue crabs that is not present in females -- the first time in any species that an entire enzyme system has been found to be activated in only one sex.

Nonmedicinal treatment touted for preschoolers with ADHD
Researchers from Lehigh University and Lehigh Valley Hospital report their findings in the current issue of School Psychology Review, which is devoted to ADHD.

Researchers generate high-speed pulses of laser light on silicon, speeding data transmission
In the Sept. 3 issue of Optical Society of America's Optics Express, published online today, researchers announce that they have built the world's first

Discovery of 'sugar sensor' in intestine could benefit diabetes
Diabetes patients could benefit from new research at the University of Liverpool that has identified a molecule in the intestine that can

Catching some rays
An international team of researchers has detected low-energy solar neutrinos -- subatomic particles produced in the core of the sun -- and measured in real-time the rate the particles hit our planet.

Do higher corn prices mean less adherence to ecological principles?
Expectations of higher corn prices are leading some farmers to neglect or ignore integrated pest management strategies, and their behavior could undermine the very technologies that sustain them.

New research explores newborn in-hospital weight loss
Healthy, full-term newborn babies tend to lose weight during the first few days after their birth.

Users mistakenly trust higher positioned results in Google searches
An eye tracking experiment published in the Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication revealed that college student internet users have an inherent trust in Google's ability to rank results by their true relevance to the query.

Baby talk is universal
Regardless of the language we speak, most adults raise their voices to elicit an infant's attention and talk at a much slower rate to communicate effectively.

Hypertension appears to be frequently undiagnosed in children and adolescents
In a study of children and adolescents with hypertension, only about one in four had been previously diagnosed with the condition, according to a study in the Aug.

Elephantnose fish 'see' with their chin
Originating in Central Africa, Peters' elephantnose fish finds its bearings by means of weak electrical fields.

NASA highlights James Webb Space Telescope at the SPIE meeting
NASA researchers will present findings on a variety of photo-optical and engineering topics, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, at the Optics and Photonics meeting of the Society for Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.The meeting runs Sunday through Thursday, Aug.

Clemson scientists shed light on molecules in living cells
Clemson University chemists have developed a method to dramatically improve the longevity of fluorescent nanoparticles that may someday help researchers track the motion of a single molecule as it travels through a living cell.

Area responsible for 'self-control' found in the human brain
The area of the brain responsible for self-control -- where the decision not to do something occurs after thinking about doing it -- is separate from the area associated with taking action, scientists say in the Aug.
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