Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 17, 2007
LIALDA (TM) demonstrates prolonged release of mesalamine
According to a study using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal tract system, Shire plc's ulcerative colitis drug LIALDA (mesalamine) demonstrated a delivery system where the majority of the drug's active ingredient, 5-aminosalicyclic acid, is released over a prolonged period in the simulated colon.

Marketing study: companies benefit most from examining where customer loyalty lies
Customers determine the success of any business; whether a sense of loyalty develops often depends on one particular dynamic: a customer's relationship with the salesperson.

In vitro models will minimize animal use in arthritis studies
It's hard to think of scientists in laboratories working toward solutions for medical problems without mice or other laboratory animals, but animals' roles in at least one major research laboratory may soon be minimal.

Intra-arterial combination chemotherapy induces long-term survival for hepatocellular carcinoma
The prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma accompanied by portal vein tumor thrombus is generally poor.

Aspirin -- just for men?
First it was an apple, now it is an aspirin a day that may keep the doctor away.

Penn State's Institute for Non-Lethal Defense Technologies awarded $3.2 million grant
Penn State's Institute of Non-Lethal Defense Technologies administered by the Applied Research Laboratory has been awarded a one-year cooperative agreement funded at $3.2 million by the US Department of Justice through its National Institute of Justice to create a national Weapons and Protective Systems Technologies Center of Excellence.

Dartmouth researchers confirm the power of altruism in Wikipedia
Dartmouth researchers looked at the online encyclopedia Wikipedia to determine if the anonymous, infrequent contributors, the Good Samaritans, are as reliable as the people who update constantly and have a reputation to maintain.

Malaria vaccine is safe, immunogenic and efficacious in young infants
Initial findings from studies to test a malaria vaccine in African infants are promising, conclude authors of an article published early online and in an upcoming edition of the Lancet.

Gerontological Society of America awards new Hartford Doctoral Fellowships
Seven outstanding doctoral students have been chosen as the newest recipients of the prestigious Hartford Doctoral Fellowship in geriatric social work.

Preventing tuberculosis reactivation
The researchers' results suggest that anti-TNF therapy is highly likely to lead to many incidents of TB if used in areas where exposure to the TB pathogen is probable.

Septic survival
While survival rates for sepsis have increased over the past two decades, children under four and those in adolescence remain highly susceptible to the condition.

Deadlines for 2007 National Soybean Rust Symposium fast approaching
Deadlines for early registration, poster abstract submission, and hotel reservations are quickly approaching for the 2007 National Soybean Rust Symposium.

Neilson member of Nobel Prize-winning panel of scientists
Why do things grow where they grow? This question led Ron Neilson to develop the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System model.

Second phase of HapMap project is completed
Investigators from six countries have completed the second phase of the International HapMap Project, an effort to identify and catalog genetic similarities and differences among populations around the world.

Toward world's smallest radio: nano-sized detector turns radio waves into music
Researchers in California report development of the world's first working radio system that receives radio waves wirelessly and converts them to sound signals through a nano-sized detector made of carbon nanotubes.

HIV linked to increased risk of ESRD in African-Americans
For African Americans infected with HIV, the risk of end-stage renal disease is six times higher than for whites with HIV -- and similar to the ESRD risk associated with diabetes, reports a study in the November Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

Feeling sleepy is all in your genes
Genes responsible for our 24-hour body clock influence not only the timing of sleep, but also appear to be central to the actual restorative process of sleep, according to research published in the online open access journal BMC Neuroscience.

Sea cucumbers fast track organ regrowth by healing their wounds
Sea cucumbers are the champions of organ regrowth because they direct their wound healing abilities towards restoring their organs, according to research published in the online open access journal, BMC Developmental Biology.

Young toddlers think in terms of the whole object, not just parts
Seeing through a child's eyes can help parents better introduce new words to young toddlers, according to research from Purdue University.

Study: HPV test beats Pap in detecting cervical cancer
A new study led by McGill University researchers shows that the human papillomavirus screening test is far more accurate than the traditional Pap test in detecting cervical cancer.

USC study examines effects of caregiving
Two new USC studies overturn myths about caregiving. The first shows caregiving is not necessarily harmful to one's mental and physical health.

Scientists spy enzyme that makes us unique
Have you ever wondered why you inherited your mother's smile but not your father's height?

UC San Diego researchers give computers 'common sense'
Using a little-known Google Labs widget, computer scientists from UC San Diego and UCLA have brought common sense to an automated image labeling system.

New model predicts more virulent microbes
Many of the most successful microbes are those that inhabit but do not kill their host.

New study: pine bark extract boosts nitric oxide production
A study to be published in the October edition of Hypertension Research reveals Pycnogenol, an antioxidant plant extract from the bark of the French maritime pine tree, helps individuals by enhancing healthy nitric oxide production which leads to an increase in blood flow and oxygen supply to muscles.

New 150 million-year-old crab species discovered
Researchers from Kent State University and the University of Bucharest, Romania, have discovered a new primitive crab species Cycloprosopon dobrogea in eastern Romania.

NTU and Insightra Medical Inc. release their first joint venture medical device
Nanyang Technological University and Insightra Medical of Irvine, Calif., first joint venture medical device, Ree-Trakt, is released for sale in the US.

Researchers examine world's potential to produce biodiesel
What do the countries of Thailand, Uruguay and Ghana have in common?

Benefit of exenatide has not yet been proven
Since May 2007, a new drug has been available for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in Germany: exenatide (trade name: Byetta), which is marketed by the manufacturer Eli Lilly.

New approach builds better proteins inside a computer
With the aid of more than 70,000 home computer users throughout the world, Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers have, for the first time, accurately predicted the 3-D structure of a small, naturally occurring globular protein using only its amino acid sequence.

Costa Rica, US announce historic debt-for-nature swap
The Nature Conservancy and Conservation International have joined the governments of the US and Costa Rica in one of the largest debt-for-nature swaps in history.

Universal measuring and monitoring system improves product quality
The EUREKA E! 3455 Factory Monitoring System project has developed an innovative and easy-to-use multi-channel measuring and monitoring system for industrial quality control.

New Lancet study: Malaria vaccine candidate has promising safety, tolerability profile in infants
The first study to test GlaxoSmithKline's investigational RTS,S/AS02 malaria vaccine in African infants serves as the first proof of concept in this population that the vaccine has a promising safety and tolerability profile and reduces malaria parasite infection and clinical illness due to malaria, according to a paper published today online in the Lancet.

Fossilized cashew nuts reveal Europe was important route between Africa and South America
Cashew nut fossils have been identified in 47-million year old lake sediment in Germany, revealing that the cashew genus Anacardium was once distributed in Europe, remote from its modern

Virginia G. Piper Charitable Trust and Flinn Foundation launch molecular diagnostics initiative
Two Arizona-based philanthropic organizations have committed $45 million to fund an innovative initiative to develop personalized molecular diagnostics.

Policymakers urged to address concerns about US science and technology workforce
Amidst growing uneasiness around the United States' ability to compete with India, China and other nations, the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology has issued a report on the state of the nation's STEM workforce and the policy implications surrounding it.

Height affects how people perceive their quality of life
Your height in adult life significantly affects your quality of life, with short people reporting worse physical and mental health than people of normal height.

Lennart Nilsson Award 2007
Felice Frankel, a scientific imagist and researcher at Harvard University's Initiative in Innovative Computing, has been named the recipient of the 2007 Lennart Nilsson Award.

The fastest continent
India's lithosphere is only half as thick as others which is the reason for its high speed collision with Eurasia.

Patients should ask surgeons about using honey to heal wounds
Honey is enjoying a resurgence as a wound-healing solution amid rising concerns about antibiotic resistance and a renewed interest in natural healing.

Researchers find earliest evidence for modern human behavior in South Africa
Evidence of early humans living on the coast in South Africa, harvesting food from the sea, employing complex bladelet tools and using red pigments in symbolic behavior 164,000 years ago, far earlier than previously documented, is being reported in the Oct.

Gene defects could be new cause of male infertility
Scientists at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have identified a gene crucial to the final step of the formation of a functional sperm cell.

Newly qualified doctors feel well prepared by medical school
Compared to 2000, significantly more newly qualified doctors believe that their medical school training prepares them well for their first clinical posts, according to research published in the online open access journal, BMC Medical Education.

X-effect: female chromosome confirmed a prime driver of speciation
Researchers at the University of Rochester believe they have just confirmed a controversial theory of evolution.

African cassava breeders network moves to derail epidemic of devastating crop virus
A meeting of Africa's leading cassava breeders zeroed in on actions needed to stop the rapid spread of cassava brown streak disease.

Massive microRNA scan uncovers leads to treating muscle degeneration
An increasing number of genes have been linked to muscular dystrophy and related disorders that cause muscle weakness and wasting, but it's still largely unknown how these genes cause disease, and, more importantly, how to translate the discoveries into treatments.

Heaviest stellar black hole discovered in nearby galaxy
Astronomers have located an exceptionally massive black hole in orbit around a huge companion star.

New peritoneal dialysis diagnostic discovered
Thanks to a discovery by scientists at Robarts Research Institute and The University of Western Ontario, patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis may soon be able to worry less about the risks of infection and lessen their hospital stays.

Changing the global dietary environment
Leading international experts from health, agriculture, food, education, finance, management, environmental protection, politics and economics will meet at the McGill University Health Challenge Think Tank Nov.

Consortium publishes Phase II map of human genetic variation
International HapMap Consortium publishes analyses of Phase II map of human genetic variation in the journal Nature.

Baicalin might be a promising therapeutic tool for severe acute pancreatitis
Severe acute pancreatitis is a fatal systemic disease featuring acute onset, serious conditions, high incidence of complications and 20 percent-30 percent of mortality mainly due to multiple organ failure at its early stage.

Sex hormone signature indicates gender rather than just chromosomes
Help with assigning gender could one day be at hand for intersex individuals whose genital phenotypes and sex chromosomes don't match, thanks to the discovery of a stable sex hormone signature in our cells.

Tolerance to inhalants may be caused by changes in gene expression
Changes in the expression of genes may be the reason why people who abuse inhalants, such as spray paint or glue, quickly develop a tolerance, biologists at The University of Texas at Austin have discovered.

Science with Integral -- 5 years on
With eyes that peer into the most energetic phenomena in the universe, ESA's Integral has been setting records, discovering the unexpected and helping understanding the unknown over its first five years.

Obese children show early signs of heart disease
Children who are obese or who are at risk for obesity show early signs of heart disease similar to obese adults with heart disease, a study by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.

Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies and Consumers Union collaborate on 'ConsumersTalkNano'
The Wilson Center's Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, in collaboration with Consumers Union -- publishers of Consumer Reports magazine and Consumer Reports Online -- announces a major effort to reach out to the American public and engage them in an important online conversation about the possible risks and benefits of nanotechnology and consumer products.

NMR researchers unlock hydrogen's secrets to spot polymorphism in pharmaceuticals
Researchers at the University of Warwick and Astra Zeneca have found a new way to use solid-state NMR equipment to crack the secrets of hydrogen atoms and thus spot unwanted polymorphs in pharmaceuticals.

Accessory protein determines whether pheromones are detected
Pheromones are big, fatty molecules that living organisms emit in order to send messages to individuals of the same species.

Half-million-dollar DNA sequencer to boost genetic science research at UH
A genetic sequencer the size of a washing machine now can do the work in a couple of days that used to take scientists several years and enough chemistry and computer hardware to fill the entire floor of a building.

Colony collapse disorder symposium added to ESA Annual Meeting
A late-breaking symposium,

Rice-producing nations call for increased focus on production
The world's major rice-producing nations -- including China and India -- are calling for closer collaboration in efforts to feed Asia's billions of rice consumers in the face of unprecedented new challenges.

Study questions assumptions about human sensitivity to biological motion
Dr. Eric Hiris of St. Mary's College of Maryland, contends that although many papers on the subject begin by stating that humans are particularly sensitive in detecting point-light biological motion, little research has been performed that supports this; nor do his own results.

Scientists estimate state-by-state mercury emissions from US fires
Fires in the US release about 30 percent as much mercury as the nation's industrial sources, according to initial estimates by NCAR scientists.

The latest about male infertility and testosterone from NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell
Two reports shed new light on male infertility. A common cause of male infertility, varicoceles, or varicose veins in the scrotum, also results in a depletion of testosterone.

9 Wiley authors win Nobel Prizes
John Wiley & Sons Inc announced today that Nobel laureates in Chemistry, Physics, Economics and Medicine are Wiley authors.
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