Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

February 28, 2008
ADVANCE diabetes trial results confirm no evidence of safety risk
Data from the ADVANCE Study, involving 11,140 high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes, provides no evidence of an increased risk of death among those patients receiving aggressive treatment to lower blood glucose.

Down with the dams: Unchaining US rivers
Dam removal is gaining popularity across the country and the March issue of Geotimes explores this new trend, and what happens when the dams come down.

Maternal love: How a mother's brain responds to her infant
The distinctive ability of mothers to identify the cries of their offspring is widely evident in nature, where it is critical to the survival of these offspring.

Jules Verne ATV atop launcher
Jules Verne, the first Automated Transfer Vehicle, has been encapsulated in its huge fairing on top of the Ariane 5 launcher.

Bright lights: Mystery of glowing antibody solved by Scripps research scientists
A chance discovery of a uniquely luminescent monoclonal antibody nearly ten years ago has proven to be far more interesting -- and far more tenacious -- than anyone might have suspected.

LSU scientist finds evidence of 'rain-making' bacteria
Brent Christner, LSU professor of biological sciences, in partnership with colleagues in Montana and France, recently found evidence that rain-making bacteria are widely distributed in the atmosphere.

Cancer-related protein may play key role in Alzheimer's disease
Researchers describe a new function for the cancer-related protein Akt -- one that may help promote the development of Alzheimer's disease.

Transplanting both lungs gives longer survival than just 1 lung in younger COPD patients
Transplanting both lungs in younger patients in the end stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease gives longer survival than transplanting only one lung.

Intensive insulin therapy may be harmful to the critically ill
Doubt has been cast over the current practice of administering intensive insulin therapy to all critically ill patients, according to a study published this week in the open access journal Critical Care.

$50 million gift to NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center
NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center announced today that Ronald O.

Blocking protein kills prostate cancer cells, inhibits tumor growth, Jefferson scientists find
Researchers at Jefferson's Kimmel Cancer Center in Philadelphia have shown that they can effectively kill prostate cancer cells in both the laboratory and in experimental animal models by blocking a signaling protein that is key to the cancer's growth.

Is your drinking water safe?
Lake Bloomington in central Illinois is a major source of drinking water.

Extract of broccoli sprouts may protect against bladder cancer
A concentrated extract of freeze dried broccoli sprouts cut development of bladder tumors in an animal model by more than half, according to a report in the March 1 issue of Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

Diabetes diagnosis guidelines could need reassessment after retinopathy study
A study into how diabetes mellitus is connected to the common diabetic complication retinopathy suggests that the guidelines for diagnosing diabetes could need reassessment.

What caused westward expansion in the United States?
Western Expansion during the nineteenth century helped determine geographic distribution and economic activity in the United States today.

New study examines the price of democracy when foreign investors 'vote' with their dollars
A new study by University of Minnesota Carlson School of Management professor Paul Vaaler indicates that when emerging-market countries hold elections they may be determining more than their new government.

Suicide rates among young Scottish men fall by over 40 percent
In the 1980s and 90s, Scotland was known for its alarmingly high suicide rate.

Class size alone not enough to close academic achievement gap
A Northwestern University study investigating the effects of class size on the achievement gap between high and low academic achievers suggests that high achievers benefit more from small classes than low achievers, especially at the kindergarten and first grade levels.

Capturing sunlight
In collaboration with Satoshi Uchida at the University of Tokyo, Michael Grätzel and his research group at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne have developed new sensitizers that should help an inexpensive type of solar cell to be more efficient.

The top 5 ways medical physics has changed health care
Many of the greatest inventions in modern medicine were developed by physicists who imported technologies such as X rays, nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasound, particle accelerators and radioisotope tagging and detection techniques into the medical domain.

Engineering the world's fastest swimsuit
A highly specialized computer modelling technique developed at the University of Nottingham has been instrumental in the design of a revolutionary new swimsuit which is now being hailed as the fastest in the world.

Researchers find possible target to treat deadly bloodstream infections
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have discovered a possible target to treat bloodstream bacterial infections.

Home-based antiretroviral program could substantially reduce HIV mortality in poor countries
Use of a home-based antiretroviral treatment program could substantially reduce mortality and associated ophanhood in adults with HIV and their families in resource-poor countries.

ASU researcher may have discovered key to life before its origin on Earth
An important discovery has been made with respect to the mystery of

Tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure during pregnancy, may threaten health of women and children
Findings from a National Institutes of Health study indicate that rates of tobacco use during pregnancy, as well as exposure of pregnant women and their young children to secondhand smoke, are significant threats to health in several low and middle-income countries.

Dirty space and supernovae
Interstellar space may be strewn with tiny whiskers of carbon, dimming the light of far-away objects.

SMErobot: A new generation of robots for small and medium-sized enterprises at Automatica 2008
Since its launch in 2005, SMErobot has brought together a number of leading European robot manufacturers, system integrators, research institutes and partners from the field of Industrial IT in the search for future automation solutions aimed at small and medium-sized manufacturing businesses.

Comparison of antipsychotic treatments in adolescents with schizophrenia
There is a wealth of scientific literature available on the treatment of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Rutgers researchers unlock mysteries of vitamin A metabolism during embryonic development
Researchers at Rutgers have unlocked some of the mysteries of how the developing embryo reacts to fluctuations in the amount of vitamin A present in the maternal blood stream.

Nature's helpers: Using microorganisms to remove TCE from water
Bruce Rittmann and his Biodesign Institute research team, which includes Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown and Jinwook Chung, recently published a paper in the journal Environmental Science & Technology for a new application that removes a problematic contaminant that has made local headlines.

Treatment for disease that affects estimated 1 in 2000 children gets them to eat again
Pediatric researchers from Indiana University School of Medicine and Riley Hospital report that treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis, an inflammatory condition known as EE that often mimics reflux and can cause refusal to eat, with oral or swallowed/sprayed steroids results in significant patient improvement, but that if discontinued relapse is common.

New child health data show state-to-state differences in quality of care
A new government survey reveals children with special health care needs, such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and asthma, don't consistently get the care that is federally recommended and that there are vast state-to-state differences.

Weill Cornell team identifies potential new drug targets against hormone-dependent breast cancer
The identification of two cellular receptors that likely contribute to the genesis of hormone-dependent breast cancer points the way to new, highly targeted therapies against the disease, says a team led by scientists at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City.

Effect of tumor necrosis factor a inhibitors on heart failure risk in RA Patients
A new study indicates that anti-TNF therapy does a patient's heart more good than harm, when it successfully reduces the inflammatory toll of RA.

Tendon complications, though rare, linked to statins
A new study found that, although rare, tendon complications are linked to the use of statins.

Breakthroughs in nanotechnology on edge of 'knowledge frontier'
University of Missouri scientist Kattesh Katti recently discovered how to make gold nanoparticles using gold salts, soybeans and water.

Does class size matter?
In his provocative article for the March 2008 issue of Elementary School Journal,

First look: Princeton researchers peek into deepest recesses of human brain
A team of scientists from Princeton University has devised a new experimental technique that produces some of the best functional images ever taken of the human brainstem, the most primitive area of the brain.

Scientists discover how cigarette smoke causes cancer: Study points to new treatments, safer tobacco
Everyone has known for decades that that smoking can kill, but until now no one really understood how cigarette smoke causes healthy lung cells to become cancerous.

Heightened weighing discomfort among women may increase their health risks, Penn study indicates
A new study from the University of Pennsylvania points to increased health risks for women owing to their higher level of discomfort about being weighed in public.

UB's bioblower closer to protecting soldiers from biological attack
A powerful air sterilization technology developed at the University at Buffalo has killed every biological agent with which it has been challenged, including airborne spores, viruses and bacteria in independent tests conducted for the US.

Has the mystery of the Antarctic ice sheet been solved?
New evidence has been published today which could solve the puzzle of why Antarctica went into the deep freeze 34 million years ago -- and it comes from a surprising place.

Researchers measure field strength and density of ICF implosions
Scientists have identified for the first time two distinctly different types of electromagnetic configurations in inertial confinement fusion implosions that have substantial effects on implosion dynamics and diagnosis.

Antioxidant benefits of POM Wonderful 100% pomegranate juice top red wine, grape and acai juices
A recent study published in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry found that POM Wonderful 100% pomegranate juice is the leader in the healthy beverage category by demonstrating the most complete free radical scavenging activity, greater protection of LDL-cholesterol from oxidation, and the highest polyphenol content compared to red wine and several juices.

With just 3 affected individuals, researchers find gene behind rare form of epilepsy
Researchers have found a gene responsible for a particularly debilitating form of epilepsy that also leads to kidney failure.

Brown mathematicians prove new way to build a better estimate
Brown University applied mathematicians have found a new way to sift through mountains of data and draw reliable inferences from it -- a Holy Grail in science and technology.

U of Minn researchers discover genetic cancer link between humans and dogs
Cancer researchers at the University of Minnesota and North Carolina State University have found that humans and dogs share more than friendship and companionship -- they also share the same genetic basis for certain types of cancer.

New genetic association with schizophrenia found by researchers
Schizophrenia emerges from an altered pattern of brain development, and researchers continue to search for the genes that cause the brain to develop along a path that ultimately leads to schizophrenia.

Space sentinels: New 'tools' in space to improve European environment and security policies
ESA Director General Jean-Jacques Dordain and European Commission Director General for Enterprise and Industry Heinz Zourek today signed in Brussels an agreement which establishes the allocation of an EC budget of €624 million to ESA as a contribution to the implementation of the GMES Space Component.

Protein protects lung cancer cells from efforts to fix or kill them
University of Florida findings explain how the protein enables cancer cells to circumvent the body's own efforts to change them back into healthy cells -- or evade treatments designed to kill them.

Atypical protein kinase C stabilizes SRC-3 levels in breast cancer cells
A new study provides valuable insight into a previously undescribed mechanism that regulates a prominent cancer-associated protein...

Hormone replacement therapy appears to have no effect on risk and severity of rheumatoid arthritis
A new study using data from the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials on hormone replacement therapy found that there were no significant differences in the risk of developing RA or the severity of RA between postmenopausal women who were on hormone replacement therapy and those who took placebos.

Student develops new LED, wins $30,000 Lemelson-Rensselaer Prize
A Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute student has developed a new type of LED that could allow for their widespread use as light sources for liquid crystal displays.

UT Southwestern surgeons complete North Texas' first single-incision gallbladder removal
UT Southwestern Medical Center surgeons have removed a gallbladder through a unique operation requiring only a single incision in the bellybutton rather than the traditional four incisions in the abdomen.

Electronic structure of DNA revealed for 1st time by Hebrew University and collaborating researchers
Utilizing a technique that combines low temperature measurements and theoretical calculations, Hebrew University of Jerusalem scientists and others have revealed for the first time the electronic structure of single DNA molecules

Researchers have discovered a gene that can block the spread of HIV
Researchers at the University of Alberta have discovered a gene that is able to block HIV, and thought to in turn prevent the onset of AIDS.

Gene expression differences between Europeans and Africans affect response to drugs, infections
Differences in gene expression levels between people of European versus African ancestry can affect how each group responds to certain drugs or fights off specific infections.

Seafloor cores show tight bond between dust and past climates
Each year, winds drop up to 900 million tons of dust from deserts and other parts of land into oceans.

Low-intensity exercise reduces fatigue symptoms by 65 percent, study finds
Sedentary people who regularly complain of fatigue can increase their energy levels by 20 percent and decrease their fatigue by 65 percent by engaging in regular, low intensity exercise, according to a new University of Georgia study.

Magnetic atoms of gold, silver and copper have been obtained
An international team led by physics and chemistry teams from the Faculty of Science and Technology at the University of the Basque Country and directed by Professor Jose Javier Saiz Garitaonandia, has achieved, by means of a controlled chemical process, that atoms of gold, silver and copper -- intrinsically non-magnetic (not attracted to a magnet) -- become magnetic.

Sandia weighs in on new definition for kilogram
The kilogram is losing weight and many international scientists, including some at Sandia National Laboratories, agree that it's time to redefine it.

4th annual Templeton-Cambridge fellowships awarded to 10 noted journalists
Ten prominent journalists from the United States and the United Kingdom have been selected for the fourth annual Templeton-Cambridge Journalism Fellowships in Science & Religion.

Improving the quality of laboratory data with computer modeling
Many areas of research and medicine rely critically upon knowing a person's individual immune system proteins, as they determine an individual's ability to fight disease or mistakenly attack their own tissues.

Complex interventions can help elderly people live safely and independently
Complex interventions, eg, preventive home visits and community-based care after hospital discharge can help improve physical function and maintain independent living in elderly people.

Increased strokes linked with China's economic prosperity
A side effect of economic prosperity may be an increased risk of the most common type of strokes, researchers from China report in Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association.

Autoantibodies and neuropsychiatric events in lupus
With the goal of overcoming these limitations, an international research alliance called the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics examined the association between a panel of autoantibodies and nervous system events at the time of diagnosis of SLE.

Monkey gene that blocks AIDS viruses evolved more than once
Researchers at Harvard Medical School have identified a gene in Asian monkeys that may have evolved as a defense against lentiviruses, the group of viruses that includes HIV.

NJSNA honors Rutgers College of Nursing's Linda Flynn for excellence in research
New Jersey State Nurses Association awarded its 2008 C.A.R.E. Award for Excellence in Research to Rutgers College of Nursing faculty member Linda Flynn.

Chimp and human communication trace to same brain region
An area of the brain involved in the planning and production of spoken and signed language in humans plays a similar role in chimpanzee communication, researchers report online on Feb.

Major mid-century influenza epidemics caused by novel hybrid viruses
Reassortment of the influenza A virus occurs frequently throughout its evolutionary history, according to a new study published Feb.

How roots find a route
Scientists at the John Innes Center in Norwich have discovered how roots find their way past obstacles to grow through soil.

Rock studies help crack questions of glacier thinning in West Antarctica
Boulders the size footballs could help scientists predict the West Antarctic Ice Sheet's contribution to sea-level rise according to new research published this week in the journal Geology.

Study examines how men and women view marital and parental time pressures
In a recently published study funded by a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health, Dr.

Breast cancer death rates among black women not decreasing across all states
A new study from the American Cancer Society finds that while breast cancer death rates are decreasing for white women in every US state, for African American women, death rates are either flat or rising in at least half the states.
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