Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 06, 2008
Corticosteroids not linked with reduced risk of death for children with bacterial meningitis
Use of corticosteroids in addition to other treatment for children with bacterial meningitis is not associated with a decreased risk of death or shorter hospital stay, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA.

Teens think they have asthma under control, but benefit from new approach to treatment
Two studies that offer new insights to help adolescents and younger children improve their asthma control were conducted by researchers from Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.

Geisinger hosting national conference to help rural veterans cope with combat stress
With rural soldiers carrying a huge burden in today's war on terror, Geisinger is gathering a group of leading experts on combat stress.

Steroids provide no survival benefit for children with bacterial meningitis
Corticosteroids given to children who are hospitalized for bacterial meningitis do not provide a benefit in survival or in reduced hospital stays, according to a large multicenter study by pediatric researchers.

It started with a squeak: Moonlight serenade helps lemurs pick mates of the right species
Some Malagasy mouse lemurs are so similar that picking a mate of the right species, especially at night time in a tropical forest, might seem like a matter of pot luck.

Chile's Chaiten volcano one of scores of active volcanoes in region, says CU-Boulder professor
The Chaiten volcano now erupting in southern Chile is one of 200 to 300 volcanoes in the

Estimated 750,000 problem gamblers among America's youth
Gambling activity is widespread among US adolescents and young adults ages 14 through 21, according to a study conducted by researchers at the University at Buffalo's Research Institute on Addictions.

Seed dispersal in mauritius -- dead as a dodo?
Reporting in this week's PLoS ONE, Dennis Hansen, Christopher Kaiser and Christine Müller from the University of Zurich investigate how the loss of seed dispersal interactions in Mauritius may affect the regeneration of endemic plants.

Space is 'current frontier' for engineer working on next-gen wireless technologies
For his leadership in cutting edge areas of digital signal processing, UC San Diego electrical engineering professor Bhaskar Rao has been named the inaugural holder of the Ericsson Endowed Chair in Wireless Access Networks in the Jacobs School.

Shedding light on the struggles children face
Children continue to be burdened by the emotional and physical scars of violent homes and communities.

Hunger hormone: Makes food more attractive
A new brain-imaging study by researchers at the Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University reveals that ghrelin -- a stomach hormone, acts on specific regions of the brain to enhance our response to food related cues and eating for pleasure.

Revolutionary transport research -- from road accidents to rocket fuel
The first ever showcase of world-leading transport research at the University of Nottingham takes place on campus on May 8, 2008.

OHSU psychiatrist to highlight warning signs for school shootings
An OHSU psychiatrist will present new research on the psychiatric factors that can lead to school shootings.

Arable land can have a negative impact on air quality
Fallow agricultural land and steppe-formation processes are evidently capable of having a much greater effect on global air quality than was previously assumed.

The cooperative view: New evidence suggests a symbiogenetic origin for the centrosome
Two scientists who relocated to the MBL in Woods Hole after their New Orleans laboratory was disrupted by Hurricane Katrina publish their study of centrosomal RNAs in this week's PNAS Online Early Edition.

University of Oklahoma professor publishes 2 books
May Yuan, associate dean for the College of Atmospheric and Geographic Sciences at the University of Oklahoma, has published two books, titled

Antidepressants do work in depression while evidence for CBT is poorer say experts
A new revision of clinical guidelines to help doctors manage patients with depression has challenged the rationale behind the UK government's policy of rolling out of cognitive behavioral therapy for milder depression.

Is bipolar disorder overdiagnosed?
A new study by Rhode Island Hospital and Brown University researchers reports that fewer than half the patients previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder based on a comprehensive, psychiatric diagnostic interview -- the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV.

Media registration now open for TCT2008
Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics is the annual Scientific Symposium of the Cardiovascular Research Foundation.

Waterpipe smoking on college campuses may contribute to growing public health problem
More and more U.S. college students are smoking tobacco using waterpipes -- or hookahs -- and it's becoming a growing public health issue, according to a new study led by a Virginia Commonwealth University researcher.

New discovery on role of vital protein that fights meningitis
University of Leicester research assigns hitherto unappreciated importance to protein of the body's immune defense system.

Weill Cornell receives funding to study creation of new elder abuse center
Weill Cornell Medical College has been awarded $80,000 to study the creation of a Manhattan Elder Abuse Case Coordination and Review Center, in collaboration with the Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Center for Elder Abuse Prevention at the Hebrew Home at Riverdale and the New York City Elder Abuse Network.

Lab in a drop
Jürgen Pipper and his team at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology in Singapore have developed a rapid test for genetic diagnosis that combines the preparation of biological samples with a polymerase chain reaction on one chip.

Incidence of group B strep has decreased among newborns, but has increased among adults
Group B streptococcus, a major cause of serious infections, declined about 25 percent among infants younger than 7 days from 1999 to 2005, but increased nearly 50 percent among persons 15 to 64 years old, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA.

Blocked brain enzyme decreases appetite and promotes weight loss
One blocked brain enzyme helps mice to decrease appetite, lose weight, and better manage their blood sugar levels.

Killer competition: Neurons duke it out for survival
The developing nervous system makes far more nerve cells than are needed to ensure target organs and tissues are properly connected to the nervous system.

Study in mice suggests molecules in plants have beneficial effect on Alzheimer's disease
A new study in mice suggests molecules in plants may have beneficial effects on Alzheimer's disease.

Telemedicine could eradicate many expensive ED visits
A community-wide study in upstate New York found that nearly 28 percent of all visits to the pediatric emergency department could have been replaced with a more cost-effective Internet doctor's

Pregnant women face hostile behavior when applying for jobs, new study shows
Pregnant women may still face judgment and obstacles to getting jobs, shows two recent studies by George Mason University and Rice University professors.

The most primitive confuciusornithid bird from China and its implications for early avian flight
The most primitive confuciusornithid, Eoconfuciusornis zhengi, gen. et sp. nov.

Folic acid, B vitamins not linked to reduced risk of cardiovascular events in high-risk women
Women at high-risk of cardiovascular disease who took a daily supplement of folic acid and vitamin B6 and B12 for seven years did not have an overall reduced rate of cardiovascular events, despite a significant lowering of homocysteine levels, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA.

Fat transplantation can have metabolic benefits
When transplanted deep into the abdomen, fat taken from just under the skin comes with metabolic benefits, or at least it does in mice, reveals a new study in the May issue of Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication.

Smoke-free laws have no impact on employee turnover
Supporting the argument that smoke-free laws do not damage the hospitality industry, restaurants that ban cigarette smoking haven't suffered from increased employee turnover, according to a new report published in the current online issue of Contemporary Economic Policy.

Finding the real potential of no-till farming for sequestering carbon
Researchers investigated the potential of no-tillage agricultural soils for increasing the soil organic carbon pool.

Cell's 'power plant' genes raise vision disorder risk
Genetic variation in the DNA of mitochondria -- the

Smart miniature pump
An innovative micro-pump makes it possible for tiny quantities of liquid -- such as medicines -- to be dosed accurately and flexibly.

Women and heart attack: Study finds failure to recognize symptoms, failure to treat appropriately
The gender gap is alive and well in heart disease, a new international study finds, with women differing from men on everything from symptoms to treatment in both heart attack and severe chest pain.

Data presented at the APA Annual Meeting
Data presented today on Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc.'s investigational drug candidate, iloperidone, included its 4-week, short-term Phase III trial, as well as a pooled analysis of three long-term, 52-week trials, studying the efficacy and safety of iloperidone.

Why face symmetry is sexy across cultures and species
In a study published in the May 7 issue of the journal PLoS ONE, Anthony Little of the University of Stirling and colleagues show that measurements of symmetry and sexual dimorphism from faces are related in humans, both in Europeans and African hunter-gatherers, and in a non-human primate.

Location! Location! Location technologies are improving NHS care
Location technologies are improving NHS care, but compatibility problems could limit their impact.

Much of the increased risk of death from smoking reduced within several years after quitting
Women who quit smoking significantly reduce their risk of death from coronary heart disease within 5 years and have about a 20 percent lower risk of death from smoking-related cancers within that time period, according to a study in the May 7 issue of JAMA.

Study shows mercury levels from products decreasing, though still at dangerous levels
A recent study shows that mercury releases from products in the US declined dramatically between 1990 and 2005, but that they continue to be a significant source of environmental contamination.

Naturally-occuring protein may be effective in limiting heart attack injury and restoring function
Medical College of Wisconsin researchers in Milwaukee have shown for the first time that thrombopoietin, a naturally occurring protein being developed as a pharmaceutical to increase platelet count in cancer patients during chemotherapy, can also protect the heart against injury during a heart attack.

Scientists identify interacting proteins key to melanoma development, treatment
Researchers have discovered how a mole develops into melanoma by showing the interaction of two key proteins involved in 60-70 percent of tumors.

Test of maturity for stem cells
Stem cells can differentiate into 220 different types of body cell.

Elucidating iron transport mechanisms in tuberculosis bug identifies new TB drug targets
Researchers from India led by professor Seyed E. Hasnain of the Institute of Life Sciences, at the University of Hyderabad, India have worked out the mechanism of iron uptake system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is considered to be one of the important drug targets.

Life without TORC is 1 big struggle
Humans and fruitflies -- those pesky little buggers that are irresistibly attracted to overripe fruit -- share more than a sweet tooth.

Shpyrko receives APS organization's Young Investigator Award
The Advanced Photon Source Users Organization has named Oleg G.

Common herbicide disrupts human hormone activity in cell studies
A common weedkiller in the US, already suspected of causing sexual abnormalities in frogs and fish, has now been found to alter hormonal signaling in human cells, scientists from the University of California-San Francisco report.

Prions show their good side
Prions, the infamous agents behind mad cow disease and its human variation, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, also have a helpful side.

Hebrew University scientists named fellows of American Academy
Two Hebrew University of Jerusalem professors have been elected as new members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

New cell-based sensors sniff out danger like bloodhounds
University of Maryland engineers are collaborating across engineering disciplines to develop advanced

Child abuse may 'mark' genes in the brains of suicide victims
A team of McGill University scientists has discovered important differences between the brains of suicide victims and so-called normal brains.

Media reminded to register for Phoenix Mars Mission credentials
With fewer than three weeks to go until the Phoenix Mars Mission makes its touch-down on Mars, the University of Arizona is proud to welcome journalists worldwide to Tucson to cover the historic science event this summer.

Not all fat created equal
Researchers at the Joslin Diabetes Center have found that subcutaneous can reduce insulin resistance and improve insulin sensitivity.

Nanotube production leaps from sooty mess in test tube to ready formed chemical microsensors
Carbon nanotubes' potential as a super material is blighted by the fact that when first made they often take the form of an unprepossessing pile of sooty black mess in the bottom of a test tube.

First steps toward autonomous robot surgeries
The day may be getting a little closer when robots will perform surgery on patients in dangerous situations or in remote locations, such as on the battlefield or in space, with minimal human guidance.

Gut hormone makes food look even yummier
A gut hormone that causes people to eat more does so by making food appear more desirable, suggests a new report in the May issue of Cell Metabolism, a publication of Cell Press.

Fat: It's not what you think!
Experienced technical writer Connie Leas exposes the rampant misinformation linking natural fat consumption to obesity, heart disease, and shortened life expectancy.

NJIT applauds students for studies on brain injury, glaucoma and more
A better understanding of brain injury, a way to rejuvenate dead nerve endings and a device allowing patients to monitor their glaucoma at home, number among this year's nine winners at NJIT's annual provost's student research day.

National scientific meeting on child mental health at Kentucky
As the nation observes National Children's Mental Health Awareness Day on Thursday, the University of Kentucky Center for the Study of Violence Against Children will host national experts at the scientific meeting

May 14 AAAS Lecture and videoteleconference on artworks by Siberian schoolchildren
Schoolchildren from a Siberian village will discuss their artworks via a videoteleconference beginning at 6 p.m.

UC Davis stem researchers demonstrate safety of gene therapy using adult stem cells
A new study by UC Davis researchers provides evidence that methods using human bone marrow-derived stem cells to deliver gene therapy to cure diseases of the blood, bone marrow and certain types of cancer do not cause the development of tumors or leukemia.

Don't ask, don't tell: Financial disclosure lacking in literature on stents
Most published research about coronary stents does not reveal information about authors' financial relationships that might bias their interpretation of scientific data, according to researchers at Duke University Medical Center.

Sounding out Congo Red
Brightly colored dyes such as the shimmering Congo Red commonly used in silk clothing manufacture are notoriously difficult to dispose of in an environmentally benign way.

Screw worm outbreak in Yemen
An outbreak of the insidious

Researchers find way to make tumor cells easier to destroy
Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis radiation oncology researchers found that tumors have a built-in mechanism that protects them from heat damage and most likely decreases the benefit of hyperthermia and radiation as a combined therapy.

Stressed seaweed contributes to cloudy coastal skies, study suggests
Scientists at the University of Manchester have helped to identify that the presence of large amounts of seaweed in coastal areas can influence the climate.

Expert predicts 'Monsoon Britain'
Prepare for more floods -- in ways we are not used to -- that's the message from experts at Durham University who have studied rainfall and river flow patterns over 250 years.

Pilot study reinforces use of portable anteroom HEPA filtration
Amidst an increase in new tuberculosis cases, researchers have begun investigating the effectiveness of new operating room filtration systems designed to protect staff and patients.

Berkeley Lab researchers propose a new breed of supercomputers
Three researchers from the US Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have proposed an innovative way to improve global climate change redictions by using a supercomputer with low-power embedded microprocessors, an approach that would overcome limitations posed by today's conventional supercomputers.

Contact through silver particles in ink
Conductor paths in sensor systems have to be correctly

Creativity essential for climate targets -- existing -- housing
It is a great shame that the most creative professional group in the building trade, the architects, rarely apply themselves to existing housing.

MGH researchers report successful new laser treatment for vocal-cord cancer
An innovative laser treatment for early vocal-cord cancer, developed at Massachusetts General Hospital, successfully restores patients' voices without radiotherapy or traditional surgery, which can permanently damage vocal quality.

News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience
The following articles are featured in the May 7 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience:

UC San Diego researchers target tumors with tiny 'nanoworms'
Scientists at USD, UCSB and MIT have developed nanometer-sized

Priority regions for threatened frog and toad conservation in Latin America
Rafael D. Loyola and his colleagues propose now a priority set of areas for the conservation of frogs and toads in Latin America.
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