Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 13, 2008
News tips from the Journal of Neuroscience
The following articles are featured in the May 14 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience:

ASGE issues updated guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis for gastrointestinal endoscopy
The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy has issued updated guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis for gastrointestinal endoscopy based on the American Heart Association's recently revised guidelines for prophylaxis of infective endocarditis.

Fecal microorganisms inhabit sandy beaches of Florida
A study of Florida beaches has shown that wet sand and dry sand above the intertidal zone have significantly more fecal bacteria than near-shore seawater.

National study examines health risks of coarse particle pollution
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have conducted the largest nationwide study on the acute health effects of coarse particle pollution.

Illumination made to measure
Light-emitting diodes save energy. In terms of their light output, however, they have so far been unable to compete with light bulbs.

Expanded food and nutrition program shows $10 benefit for each $1 spent
A program to teach low-income adults about healthy food choices is a good bargain in terms of the health and economic benefits achieved, reports a cost-effectiveness study in the May/June issue of Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.

Soldered lenses
Lenses in optical devices are kept in place by adhesives.

Establishing faster-growing, durable football fields
A recent study offers new information that can help schools and contractors get outdoor athletic fields ready for fall sports more quickly.

Yerkes researchers find link between psychological stress and overeating
Researchers found socially subordinate female rhesus macaques over consume calorie-rich foods, resulting in accelerated weight gain and an increase in fat-derived hormones.

Mayo Clinic study shows acupuncture and myofascial trigger therapy treat same pain areas
Ancient acupuncture and modern myofascial pain therapy each focus on hundreds of similar points on the body to treat pain, although they do it differently, says a physician at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville who analyzed the two techniques.

Hyperactivity is associated with decreased numbers of interneurons
A new study published in Biological Psychiatry on May 15 is

Study says death gap increasing in US
A new study finds a gap in overall death rates between Americans with less than high school education and college graduates increased rapidly from 1993 to 2001.

Small is beautiful: A European view of nanotech cosmetics and safety
How does a company like Paris-based cosmetics leader L'Oreal -- which ranks No.

Closing the productivity gap in Northern Ireland
The nature of Northern Ireland's productivity gap and some potential policymaking solutions are outlined in a new publication,

Recipe for energy saving unravelled in migratory birds
Pointed wings together with carrying less weight per wing area and avoidance of high winds and atmospheric turbulence save a bird lots of energy during migration.

Research shines spotlight on a key player in the dance of chromosomes
Cell division is essential to life, but the mechanism by which emerging daughter cells organize and divvy up their genetic endowments is little understood.

Sugar linkage could lead to better treatment for autoimmune diseases
Researchers at the University of New Hampshire Glycomics Center have helped identify a specific carbohydrate structure that confers anti-inflammatory activity to a glycoprotein antibody that could lead to improved treatment of autoimmune diseases like lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.

Henry Moore sculpture could be re-erected thanks to 21st century science
A dismantled Henry Moore sculpture could be re-erected in Kensington Gardens, London, thanks to the latest rock engineering techniques, says a team of experts today.

NJIT Provost Priscilla P. Nelson honored at National Academy of Engineering
NJIT Provost Priscilla P. Nelson, of West Orange, received the Kenneth R.

Neglected tropical diseases rarely make the headlines
A new study of leading news organizations has found that neglected tropical diseases rarely make headlines, despite the huge amount of illness, suffering, and poverty that they cause.

Expanded histology methods book covers processing of animal, plant and microbial tissues
For more than 25 years, the book

Chemical compound prevents cancer in lab
A chemical compound derived from vitamin A prevents cancer from forming and is being developed by the National Cancer Institute as a daily preventive pill.

CU-Boulder team to build $34 million instrument package for environmental satellite
A $34 million solar instrument package to be built by the University of Colorado at Boulder, considered a crucial tool to help monitor global climate change, has been restored to a US government satellite mission slated for launch in 2013.

Study: Most female child molesters were victims of sexual abuse
A University of Georgia study that is the first to systematically examine a large sample of female child molesters finds that many of them were themselves victims of sexual abuse as children.

NASA's GLAST gets shades, blankets for the beach
NASA's Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, or GLAST, is receiving finishing touches at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, near the beaches of eastern central Florida for its launch.

Study shows that prostate cancer increases the risk of bone fracture
As unlikely as it sounds, scientists at the Garvan Institute for Medical Research have shown that there is a link between prostate cancer and a higher risk of bone fracture.

Argonne scientists use lasers to align molecules
Protein crystallographers have only scratched the surface of the human proteins important for drug interactions because of difficulties crystallizing the molecules for synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

Novel mechanisms controlling insulin release and fat deposition discovered
Scientists at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet have in two recent studies shown that a receptor called ALK7 plays important roles in the regulation of body fat deposition as well as the release of insulin from beta-cells in the pancreas.

First electrophysical recording of sleep in a wild animal
In the first experiment to record the electrophysiology of sleep in a wild animal, three-toed sloths carrying miniature electroencephalogram recorders slept 9.63 hours per day -- 6 hours less than captive sloths did, reports an international team of researchers working on the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute's Barro Colorado Island in Panama.

Geriatrician finds senior's gait a sign of what's to come
Dr. Manuel Montero-Odasso can predict future mobility problems just by measuring how fast an elderly person walks.

Girls, young women can cut risk of early breast cancer through regular exercise
Mothers, here's another reason to encourage your daughters to be physically active: Girls and young women who exercise regularly between the ages of 12 and 35 have a substantially lower risk of breast cancer before menopause compared to those who are less active, new research shows.

Free-flowing traffic with ORINOKO
How can traffic be monitored and controlled more effectively? In the ORINOKO project, scientists have developed methods of determining the traffic situation across a wide area, and have refined processes that enable traffic to be optimally channeled.

Shrimps see beyond the rainbow
Dr. Sonja Kleinlogel and professor Andrew White have shown that mantis shrimp not only have the ability to see colors from the ultraviolet through to the infrared, but have optimal polarization vision -- a first for any animal and a capability that humanity has only achieved in the last decade using fast computer technology.

Researchers discover architecture for fundamental processes of life
A team of Canadian researchers has completed a massive survey of the network of protein complexes that orchestrate the fundamental processes of life.

Surviving breast cancer 'is not enough,' warns Breast Cancer Campaign
Women are living longer after breast cancer but simply surviving is not enough, Pamela Goldberg, chief executive, Breast Cancer Campaign, said today.

Too hot to handle! Scientists identify heat sensing regulator
Neuroscientists at Johns Hopkins are a step closer to understanding pain sensitivity -- specifically why it's variable instead of constant -- having identified a gene that regulates a heat-activated molecular sensor.

Scientists discover small RNAs that regulate gene expression and protect the genome
RNA is best known as a working copy of the DNA sequence of genes.

Chronic disease management: Does it improve health and save money?
A study to determine whether chronic disease management of individuals with diabetes and/or congestive heart failure improves health outcome and lowers healthcare costs trial provides the first scientifically valid look at what one might expect from chronic disease management programs that serve low-income individuals.

Beijing game for clean air challenge
With the Olympic Games in sight, the Chinese Government is committed to improving the air quality in Beijing, and has had measures in place since 1998 which have already made a difference.

Drug therapy for PKU reverses heart damage
A pricy drug used to treat a rare but well-known genetic disorder may hold wider promise as a treatment for millions of Americans with potentially lethal enlarged hearts, due mainly to high blood pressure, a study from Johns Hopkins shows.

ASGE issues updated infection control guidelines for gastrointestinal endoscopy
The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy has updated its infection control guidelines regarding gastrointestinal endoscopy.

Marc Feldmann and Sir Ravinder Maini win Dr. Paul Janssen Award for Biomedical Research
Professor Marc Feldmann and Emeritus Professor Sir Ravinder Maini of the Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Imperial College London have been named the recipients of the 2008 Dr.

Utah physician honored for new techniques that use imaging to treat common heart rhythm disorder
Dr. Nassir Marrouche and his research team from the University of Utah School of Medicine will receive the Eric N.

Other highlights in the May 13 JNCI
Also in the May 13 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute are an analysis of the timing of risk for familial breast cancer, a study on the impact of exercise and premenopausal breast cancer, information on disparities and access to medical oncologists for rectal cancer patients, a proposed set of clinical trial guidelines for liver cancer, and a study looking at the impact of sphicterotomy on cholagniocarcinoma.

Euro Science Open Forum 2008 online media registration deadline ends June 30
Information follows regarding media registration for ESOF 2008 in Barcelona, Spain.

Researchers who helped millions with arthritis receive prestigious Janssen Award
Two British researchers who pioneered treatments which have helped millions of people with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases have been awarded the prestigious 2008 Dr.

Gene therapy slows progression of fatal neurodegenerative disease in children
Gene therapy to replace the faulty CLN2 gene, which causes a neurodegenerative disease that is fatal by age 8-12 years, was able to slow significantly the rate of neurologic decline in treated children, according to a paper published online ahead of print in the May 2008 issue of Human Gene Therapy, a peer-reviewed journal published by Mary Ann Liebert Inc.

Firearms microstamping feasible but variable, study finds
New technology to link cartridge cases to guns by engraving microscopic codes on the firing pin is feasible, but did not work equally well for all guns and ammunition tested in a pilot study by researchers from the forensic science program at UC Davis.

Astronaut health on moon may depend on good dusting
To prepare for a return to the moon, researchers with the National Space Biomedical Research Institute are evaluating how dust deposits in the lungs in reduced gravity in order to assess the health risk of long-term exposure to lunar particles.

American Society for Microbiology supports 'One Health' initiative
The American Society for Microbiology has endorsed the One Health Initiative, which recognizes the inter-relationships among human, animal and environmental health, and seeks to enhance communication, cooperation, and collaboration in integrating these areas for the health and well-being of all species.

AMS May science highlights
Following are story ideas and tips about upcoming AMS meetings, papers in our peer-reviewed journals, and other happenings in the atmospheric and related sciences community.

Blacks not receiving chemotherapy for rectal cancer, despite seeing cancer specialists
Black patients and white patients are seeing rectal cancer specialists at similar rates, but blacks are still less likely to receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy, according to a new study from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Satellite communications by laser
Satellites currently use radio waves to exchange data. Now the data rate has been increased a hundredfold by using lasers instead of radio signals.

£900,000 helps Queen's lead the way in next generation computing
The Belfast e-Science Centre at Queen's has been awarded a grant of over £900,000 to continue its role in developing the successor to the World Wide Web.

New insights into the dynamics of the brain's cortex
Using mathematics and a computer model of brain activity, Roberto Fernández Galán, Ph.D., an assistant professor of neurosciences at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, has shown a direct link between activity in the cortex and the microscopic structure of this neuronal network.

DNA fingerprinting simplified
Agarose gel electrophoresis? Most teenagers wouldn't have a clue what this scientific term means, but middle school student Andrew Trigiano knows the protocol inside and out.

Depression and anger can plague recent university graduates: Study
The post-university years can start out tough. The good news: it gets better.

Reality TV provides an education for self-help citizenship, author says
Many things have been said about reality TV, but

Girls and children exposed to tobacco smoke benefit more from montelukast (Singulair)
Girls and children exposed to tobacco smoke respond particularly well to montelukast (Singulair) according to researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center.

Archaeologist uses satellite imagery to explore ancient Mexico
Satellite imagery obtained from NASA will help RIT archaeologist Bill Middleton peer into the ancient Mexican past.

Rensselaer student invents alternative to silicon chip
Even before Weixiao Huang received his doctorate from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, his new transistor captured the attention of some of the biggest American and Japanese automobile companies.

Mayo Clinic named 1 of best employers for healthy lifestyles
The National Business Group on Health, a nonprofit organization of large employers, today honored Mayo Clinic for its commitment and dedication to promoting a healthy workplace and encouraging a healthy lifestyle for its employees and families.

UT Southwestern researcher: Supplemental breast ultrasound boosts cancer detection
Among women at high-risk of developing breast cancer, breast ultrasound combined with mammography may detect more cancers than mammography alone, according to results of a multicenter trial that included UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers.

Hospitals that mostly treat Medicaid patients have made smaller quality performance gains
Hospitals that predominantly treat poor and underserved patients (often referred to as safety-net hospitals) have made smaller improvements in quality performance measures in recent years compared to hospitals that do not primarily serve this patient population, according to a study in the May 14 issue of JAMA.

Vitamin D protects cells from stress that can lead to cancer
By inducing a specific gene to increase expression of a key enzyme, vitamin D protects healthy prostate cells from the damage and injuries that can lead to cancer, University of Rochester Medical Center researchers report.

OHSU Cancer Institute researchers pinpoint how smoking causes cancer
Oregon Health & Science University Cancer Institute researchers have pinpointed the protein that can lead to genetic changes that cause lung cancer.

Adding ultrasound screening to mammography brings benefits, risks
Results from a major clinical trial show that adding a screening ultrasound examination to routine mammography reveals more breast cancers than mammography alone -- but also increases the rates of false positive findings.

PET imaging may not improve diagnostic accuracy in early head and neck cancer
Positron emission tomography with a radioactive tracer (18F-FDG PET) may not improve the detection of small metastases in patients with head and neck cancer who have no clinical evidence of disease in neighboring lymph nodes, according to a meta-analysis published online May 13 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Exposure to coarse air pollution not associated with hospital admission for respiratory diseases
Exposure to coarse particulate matter air pollution such as from agricultural activities, windblown dust and mechanical grinding is not statistically significantly associated with emergency hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases among Medicare patients, according to a study in the May 14 issue of JAMA.

Treating safety research like other clinical studies slows progress
Progress in patient safety research could slow to a crawl unless regulators work out a host of ethical issues, Johns Hopkins researchers assert in an upcoming opinion piece.

Hospital pay for performance incentives may backfire among safety-net hospitals
The same government-backed incentive programs aimed at improving the care all Americans receive in hospitals may be widening the gap between poor, underserved patients and those who are insured or can afford to pay for their own care, according to a new study led by a University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine physician.

Put the trees in the ground
In an essay in the journal ChemSusChem, Fritz Scholz and Ulrich Hasse from the University of Greifswald introduce a possible approach to CO2 reduction: deliberately planted forests bind the CO2 through photosynthesis and are then removed from the global cycle by burial.

Drug does not increase suitability for dialysis of surgically enlarged blood vessels
The anti-platelet drug clopidogrel reduced the frequency of early blood clot formation in new surgically enlarged blood vessels created for patients requiring dialysis, but did not increase the proportion of these fistulas that subsequently became suitable for use during dialysis, according to a study in the May 14 issue of JAMA.

Study finds possible connection between marijuana abuse and stroke or heart attacks
Marijuana abuse leads to blood flow problems in the brain and increased risks for heart problems.

Sticky gecko feet: The role of temperature and humidity
A team of five University of Akron researchers has published the paper,

NYP/Weill Cornell gene therapy clinical trial yields promising results for Batten disease
Promising results from a team of NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center physician-scientists show that gene therapy is both safe and effective at slowing the progression of Batten disease, or Late Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, a rare, genetic, degenerative neurological disorder that usually becomes fatal in children by the age of 8 to 12.

First use of DNA fingerprinting to identify viable embryos
Fertility researchers have used DNA fingerprinting for the first time to identify which embryos have implanted after in vitro fertilization and developed successfully to result in the births of healthy babies.

Adding ultrasound to mammography may improve breast cancer detection in high-risk women
The addition of an ultrasound examination to mammography for women at high-risk of breast cancer resulted in a higher rate of cancer detection, but also increased the number of false-positive results, according to a study in the May 14 issue of JAMA.

A new analysis method allows to find out the sex of the baby from the second month of pregnancy
This noninvasive prenatal diagnosis method will permit to find out the sex of the fetus between the sixth and the eighth week of pregnancy, from a small blood sample of the mother.

Businesspeople who are too sure of their abilities are less savvy entrepreneurs: New study
Apprentice-style

Nanowires may boost solar cell efficiency, UC San Diego engineers say
University of California-San Diego electrical engineers have created experimental solar cells spiked with nanowires that could lead to highly efficient thin-film solar cells of the future.

Genetic links to impaired social behavior in autism
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders show profound deficits in social interactions and communications.
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