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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | June 05, 2008


Researchers observe spontaneous 'ratcheting' of single ribosome molecules
Researchers report this week that they are the first to observe the dynamic, ratchet-like movements of single ribosomal molecules in the act of building proteins from genetic blueprints.
New MRI to debut in African nation of Malawi; will save lives, advance malaria research
Michigan State University physician Terrie Taylor studies cerebral malaria in Malawi where the vast majority of malaria patients are children.
Home care package reduces neonatal mortality in Bangladeshi communities with weak health system
A homecare birth strategy is better than either a community strategy or the status quo at reducing neonatal mortality in communities with weak health systems.
Thrombus aspiration after heart attack results in better 1-year outcome than conventional treatment
Treating acute heart attack with thrombus aspiration results in improved 1-year clinical outcomes compared with the conventional treatment of percutaneous coronary intervention alone.
Brucella abortus S19 genome sequenced; points toward virulence genes
Researchers at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech and the National Animal Disease Center in Ames, Iowa, and collaborators at 454 Life Sciences of Branford, Conn., have sequenced the genome of Brucella abortus strain S19, which is used as a vaccine that protects cattle against brucellosis -- an important development because it may hold the secret as to why other Brucella strains cause disease and trigger the abortion of developing embryos in livestock.
Moores UCSD Cancer Center study links vitamin D, type 1 diabetes
Sun exposure and vitamin D levels may play a strong role in risk of type 1 diabetes in children, according to new findings by researchers at the Moores Cancer Center at University of California, San Diego, and the department of family and preventive medicine.
Tufts researcher leads revision of osteoporosis guidelines
Tufts University researcher Bess Dawson-Hughes, M.D., chaired the committee that recently updated the National Osteoporosis Foundation Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis.
ORNL, General Electric collaborate on super efficient electric water heater
The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and General Electric have collaborated to finalize, test and market the first product from a major brand to meet DOE's new Energy Star criteria for electric heat pump water heaters.
Duke chemist has new way to tell right from left
A Duke University chemist has apparently solved a long-standing frustration in creating certain synthetic molecules that make up drugs, which could lead to better drugs with fewer side effects.
New research explores role of serotonin
New research by scientists at the University of Cambridge suggests that the neurotransmitter serotonin, which acts as a chemical messenger between nerve cells, plays a critical role in regulating emotions such as aggression during social decision-making.
Argonne research unveiling the secrets of nanoparticle haloing
A glass of milk, a gallon of paint and a bottle of salad dressing all look to the naked eye like liquids.
Ecological Society of America announces its 93rd Annual Meeting
The Ecological Society of America will hold its 93rd Annual Meeting Aug.
Pass the popcorn: Blockbuster sequels -- financial boom or bust?
Although movie sequels don't always do as well at the box office as the original, they tend to do much better than nonsequels, according to a new study in the July Journal of Business Research.
UNC to study link between sustainable farming and health
Would people and their communities be healthier if they still got food from local farms?
How best to treat chronic pain? The jury is still out
A review of recent studies on pain medicine appearing in the June 2008 issue of the Journal of General Internal Medicine reports that while various approaches and combinations of therapies to treat pain have advantages and disadvantages, researchers don't yet know how to determine which is best for individual patients.
Diversified Clinical Services' CMO recognized for outstanding wound care treatment
Recognized as an originator of the specialized practice of wound care, Robert Warriner, III, M.D., chief medical officer of Diversified Clinical Services, Inc., today received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the World Union of Wound Healing Societies.
Volcano taming
Could macro-scale chemical engineering be used to stop a volcanic lava flow in its tracks and save potentially thousands of lives and homes when the next eruption occurs?
2008 Gruber Genetics Prize awarded to Allan Spradling of Carnegie Institution
Allan C. Spradling, director of the Carnegie Institution's Department of Embryology, has been awarded the 2008 Genetics Prize by the Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation in recognition of his contributions to fruit fly genomics and for
Ocean life under threat from climate change
The international science community must devote more resources to research into the effects climate change is having on ocean environments.
Blindness caused by trachoma should be eliminated by 2020
Blinding trachoma -- a type of conjunctivitis caused by infection of the eye with Chlamydia trachomatis -- should be eliminated by 2020 thanks to the WHO SAFE initiative launched in 1998.
New Cadet helping to bridge the gap between Queensland and Japan
Working with Trade Queensland, Queensland Clinical Trials Network Inc. recently appointed Katie Neeson as a 'Japanese Cadet/Project Support Officer', to work from the Trade Queensland Office in Tokyo.
How cell's master transcribing machine achieves near perfection
One of the most critical processes in biology is the transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA), which provides the blueprint for the proteins that form the machinery of life.
Primary care visits reduce hospital utilization among Medicare beneficiaries at the end of life
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine have found that primary care visits reduce hospital utilization among Medicare beneficiaries at the end of life.
Talking to cells
Cameron Alexander and George Pasparakis at the University of Nottingham have been able to facilitate a conversation between bacterial cells and artificial polymer vesicles by way of sugar groups on the vesicle surface.
Plastic brain outsmarts experts
Can human beings rev up their intelligence quotients, or are they stuck with IQs set by their genes at birth?
Researchers determine risk factors for infection after liver transplantation
Nearly 9 percent of patients who recently underwent liver transplantation suffered a subsequent surgical site infection.
1 in 5 adolescents are not sufficiently protected against meningitis C
One in five adolescents aged 11 years or older appear to have inadequate protection against meningitis C and a booster dose of vaccine may therefore be needed to sustain protection amongst teenagers, according to a study published online today.
U of I study shows how to lose weight without losing bone
A higher-protein diet that emphasizes lean meats and low-fat dairy foods as sources of protein and calcium can mean weight loss without bone loss -- and the evidence is in bone scans taken throughout a new University of Illinois study.
Cassini sees collisions of moonlets on Saturn's ring
A team of scientists led from the UK has discovered that the rapid changes in Saturn's F ring can be attributed to small moonlets causing perturbations.
Next 10 years crucial to ensure provision of clean water for future generations
The world needs to develop a means of securing the supply of clean fresh water within the next 10 years if we are to tackle looming water shortages, leading expert warns.
Simplistic NHS reforms are inadvertently damaging patient care
Simplistic and unpiloted NHS reforms are inadvertently damaging patient care in general practice, according to a group of academics writing in this week's BMJ.
Terrorism risk determines homeland security spending
A new study reveals that measures of terrorism risk, not political influence or party affiliation, affect funding.
NOAA study shows eastern tropical pacific ocean dolphin populations improving
The numbers of Northeastern offshore spotted and eastern spinner dolphins in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean are increasing after being severely depleted because of accidental death in the tuna purse-seine fishery between 1960 and 1990, according to biologists from NOAA's Fisheries Service.
Scientists from Granada develop a new methodology for landfill management
The researchers have tested the new EVIAVE method in landfills from Chile, Colombia, Spain and Venezuela.
Teenagers attending college less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior
Aolescents attending college six months after they completed high school are significantly less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than those who do not go to college, according to the first study to directly compare the two groups.
Leading scientist named new chair of Cell Biology at Yale
Yale University announced today the appointment of James E. Rothman, one of the world's leading cell biologists, as chair of Yale School of Medicine's Department of Cell Biology.
A new way to think about Earth's first cells
A team of researchers at Harvard University have modeled in the laboratory a primitive cell, or protocell, that is capable of building, copying and containing DNA.
Niacin's role in maintaining good cholesterol
A research team has uncovered the likely target of niacin in the liver, which should provide a clearer picture of how this vitamin helps maintain adequate HDL-cholesterol levels in the blood and thus lower the risk of heart disease.
A glass apart
British scientists are developing a new type of glass that can dissolve and release calcium into the body.
New partnership with Petroleum Exploration and Development announced
Elsevier announced today a new partnership with the journal Petroleum Exploration and Development.
USGS science picks -- leads, feeds and story seeds
In this edition of Science Picks, discover details about the recent major earthquake in China, including expectations for aftershocks, and find out about a hypothetical earthquake scenario unveiled for Southern California and new publications on how to trek along the Hayward fault line.
A supra new kind of froth
Who would think that the froth on a morning cup of cappuccino has a lot in common with superconductors?
AGI reports on female participation in the academic geoscience community
The American Geological Institute Workforce Program has released the current data on the percentage of female graduates and faculty members in the geosciences in the latest issue of Geoscience Currents.
School of Robofish provides basis for underwater robot teams
Most ocean robots have to talk to scientists or satellites to share information.
Finding the source: Cells that initiate a common infant tumor identified
Infantile hemangiomas, exemplified by the strawberry-like patches that appear on the skin of infants soon after birth, are benign tumors that develop in 5 percent of Caucasian infants, and usually disappear by the age of 9 without treatment.
Motivation of small business managers affects firm growth
A new study reveals that the motivation of small business managers has a long-term effect on actual future growth.
Europe gets together to harness quantum physics
The long cherished goal of applying the strange properties of quantum mechanics to the macroscopic world we inhabit has been brought closer by a series of recent developments.
Building on pyramids of trash
A Dutch engineer has devised a simple solution to the growing amounts of waste society generates.
RAND study finds increase in piracy and terrorism at sea
Acts of piracy and terrorism at sea are on the rise, but there is little evidence to support concerns from some governments and international organizations that pirates and terrorists are beginning to collude with one another, according to a RAND Corporation study issued today.
Another new wrinkle in treating skin aging
Topical applications of a naturally occurring fat molecule have the potential to slow down skin aging, whether through natural causes or damage.
Hyperaldosteronism -- which can lead to high blood pressure -- not that common
Primary hyperaldosteronism -- a condition in which too much of the hormone aldosterone1 is produced by the adrenal glands and can lead to high blood pressure (hypertension) and lower levels of potassium in the blood -- is not as common as was thought.
Protein found to promote antibiotic resistance in a common food-borne pathogen
Researchers from Iowa State University have identified a novel factor that promotes the development of antibiotic resistance in a bacterial pathogen.
Study of glacial earthquakes shakes up idea of how ice streams move
New research that integrates seismic recordings with Global Positioning System measurements indicates that a 7,000-square-mile region of the Whillians Ice Stream in West Antarctica moves more than two feet twice every day in an earthquake-like pattern equivalent to a Magnitude 7 temblor.
South African scientists access European research via EMBC agreement
South African scientists will gain access to the latest thinking in molecular biology research through an agreement announced today by the European Molecular Biology Organization.
UTSA Institute for Cyber Security awarded $1 million from US Department of Defense
UTSA Institute for Cyber Security will collaborate on a $7.5 million dollar grant to help develop and test security models to safeguard the transfer of data among government agencies.
Spradling receives Gruber Foundation Genetics Prize for new genetic techniques
Allan C. Spradling, Ph.D., of the Carnegie Institution for Science and Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Baltimore, is the recipient of the 2008 Genetics Prize of the Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation for his work on fruit fly genomics and for
JCI online early table of contents: June 5, 2008
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, June 5, 2008, in the JCI, including: Finding the source: cells that initiate a common infant tumor identified; The protein IRF4 takes control of inflammation in the gut; Improving brain function in rats following a stroke; New molecular link between diabetes and kidney failure; Why alcohol is bad for your pancreas; and others.
New NHS guidelines on recreational drugs in nightclubs are all the rave
New guidelines have been written which will assist nightclub staff in deciding whether to call ambulances for unwell clubbers.
New guidance on patient consent lacks substance, says expert
Proposals to overhaul the approach to obtaining patient consent lack detail, contain advice that is non-specific, and might prevent doctors from making major changes to their practice warns an editorial in this week's BMJ.
Otters reveal their identity
Researchers have developed two new methods, in order to be able to better estimate the numbers of European otters (Lutra lutra) and their effects on the fish farming industry.
Induced hypothermia to prevent brain and other injuries underused in UK and US
Induced hypothermia -- that is, deliberate cooling of the body -- can prevent or mitigate permanent injuries if implemented in the first few hours after a clinical event takes place.

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