Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 04, 2008
Rock art marks transformations in traditional Peruvian societies
Peru is one of the Latin American countries, like Argentina and Brazil, where rock art is thought to have developed throughout a period stretching from 10,000 BC to 1500 AD.

A first in integrated nanowire sensor circuitry
Scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California at Berkeley have created the world's first all-integrated sensor circuit based on nanowire arrays, combining light sensors and electronics made of different crystalline materials.

Researchers find differences in swallowing mechanism of Rett syndrome patients
Researchers at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center have found that the reflux and swallowing problems that are common symptoms in patients with Rett syndrome and other neurological impairments, may be caused by a different mechanism than they are in healthy individuals.

Building bridges between the clinic and the laboratory
Disease Models & Mechanisms is the first journal to focus on translational research and the use of model organisms to advance human health.

Study highlights risky behavior, lack of care among HIV-infected crack users
A study of HIV-infected crack cocaine users reveals that these patients frequently lack outpatient health care, do not receive life-saving antiretroviral therapy and continue to engage in risky sexual behavior that likely contributes to HIV transmission.

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- July 30, 2008
The American Chemical Society News Service Weekly Press Package contains reports from 36 major peer-reviewed journals on chemistry, health, medicine, energy, environment, food, nanotechnology and other hot topics.

US Preventive Services Task Force updates prostate cancer screening recommendations
The US Preventive Services Task Force, updating its 2002 report, now recommends against routine prostate cancer screening for men over the age of 75.

US immigrant children may be less physically active than US-born children
Immigrant children in the United States appear to be less physically active and less likely to participate in sports than US-born children, according to a report in the August issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Voluntary exercise does not appear to alleviate anxiety and depression
Voluntary physical activity does not appear to cause a reduction in anxiety and depression, but exercise and mood may be associated through a common genetic factor, according to a report in the August issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Lowering cholesterol early in life could save lives
With heart disease maintaining top billing as the leading cause of death in the United States, a team of University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine physician-researchers is proposing that aggressive intervention to lower cholesterol levels as early as childhood is the best approach available today to reducing the incidence of coronary heart disease.

1st World Congress On Interventional Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes
The 1st World Congress on Interventional Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes will bring together leading experts in diabetes, endocrinology, surgery and public health to discuss the role of surgery and novel interventional therapies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Electronic tongue tastes wine variety, vintage
You don't need a wine expert to identify a '74 Pinot Noir from Burgundy -- a handheld

Chemical Society Presidential Symposia in Philadelphia focus on energy crisis, health, education
An in-depth look at the deepening worldwide energy crisis, chemistry's role in better health and the need for stronger science education are all issues highlighted in special Presidential Symposia scheduled for the American Chemical Society's 236th National Meeting in Philadelphia, Aug.

Researchers explain odd oxygen bonding under pressure
Oxygen, the third most abundant element in the cosmos and essential to life on Earth, changes its forms dramatically under pressure transforming to a solid with spectacular colors.

Saving our bees
The undisputed queen of animal pollinators is the bee, whose daily flights aid in the reproduction of more than half of the world's flowering plants.

Teacher-student relationships key to learning health and sex education
When it comes to learning life-changing behaviors in high school health classes, the identity of the person teaching may be even more important than the curriculum, a new study suggests.

Estrogen relieves psychotic symptoms in women with schizophrenia
When combined with antipsychotic medications, the estrogen estradiol appears to be a useful treatment in women with schizophrenia, according to a report in the August issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Study: verbal aggression may affect children's behavior
The methods mothers use to control their children during playtime and other daily activities could have a negative impact on their child's self-esteem and behavior, according to a new Purdue University study.

Evaluating children in preschools and early childhood programs
Growing interest in publicly funded programs for young children has drawn attention to whether and how Head Start and other early childhood programs should be asked to prove their worth.

Less REM sleep associated with being overweight among children and teens
Children and teens who get less sleep, especially those who spend less time in rapid eye movement sleep, may be more likely to be overweight, according to a report in the August issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Beefing up the Sunday roast
The Sunday roast on our dinner tables has the potential to be packed with bags more natural flavor, say scientists at the University of Nottingham.

Treatment with anti-anemia drugs may not be safe for multiple myeloma patients
A recent study published in American Journal of Hematology demonstrated that Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, a widely used drug to treat anemia, may have a negative impact on the survival of myeloma patients.

New prognostic model for traumatic brain injury
In a research article published in this week's PLoS Medicine Ewout Steyerberg and colleagues describe the development and validation of new prognostic models for traumatic brain injury.

Military use of robots increases
Robots in the military are no longer the stuff of science fiction.

Job growth not the only factor in reducing poverty in large metro areas
A new study suggests that it may be easier for people living in small metropolitan areas to get out of poverty than it is for those living in large metro areas.

Embargoed news from Annals of Internal Medicine
Information about four studies being published in the Aug. 5, 2008, issue of Annals of Internal Medicine.

Maternal deaths following cesarean delivery can be reduced
In a study published in the July 2008 issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, researchers examined all maternal deaths in nearly 1.5 million birth records from the last six years to look for possible keys to saving more mothers.

Why the slow paced world could make it difficult to catch a ball ...
Researchers have uncovered new information about how we perceive fast moving, incoming objects -- such as tennis or cricket balls.

Stanford study uses genetic evidence to trace ancient African migration
Stanford University researchers peering at history's footprints on human DNA have found new evidence for how prehistoric people shared knowledge that advanced civilization.

Canadian study of colds and kids: Positive safety results for ginseng extract
Positive findings of a safety study involving children and a highly touted botanical extract (COLD-fX) show promise for its future development for kids as a Canadian cold and flu remedy.

Key to virulence protein entry into host cells discovered
Researchers from the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech have identified the region of a large family of virulence proteins in oomycete plant pathogens that enables the proteins to enter the cells of their hosts.

Landmark studies assess risk of exposure to elevated levels of EMS confirm clear toxicity threshold
New data from studies presented at the XVII International AIDS Conference in Mexico City have provided unprecedented insight into the toxicity of an impurity called ethyl methanesulfonate.

Dartmouth researchers say too many children see extreme violence in movies
In a paper published in the August issue of the journal Pediatrics, Dartmouth researchers document the alarming numbers of young adolescents age 10-14 who are exposed to graphic violence in movies rated R for violence.

American Cancer Society study finds high use of complementary methods among cancer survivors
A new study finds many cancer patients use complementary and alternative methods, most often prayer, relaxation, supplements, meditation, and massage.

Recreation and park agencies play a key role in promoting healthy lifestyles
When community leaders brainstorm ways to improve the health and well-being of youth and families, a team usually brings together doctors and health care professionals, hospitals, public health organizations and schools.

Climate change and species distributions
Scientists have long pointed to physical changes in the Earth and its atmosphere as indicators of global climate change.

HIV infectivity rate commonly used does not take account of multiple risk factors
The heterosexual infectivity of HIV is often cited as a fixed value of one transmission per 1000 sexual contacts, but most studies estimating this value were conducted among stable couples with a low prevalence of risk factors.

Epilepsy drug may help alcoholics recover from dependence, small study suggests
A new study hints that people who have both alcohol problems and sleep problems -- which often occur together -- might be helped by an epilepsy drug.

Little teeth suggest big jump in primate timeline
Tiny fossilized teeth excavated from an Indian open-pit coal mine could be the oldest Asian remains ever found of anthropoids, the primate lineage of today's monkeys, apes and humans, say researchers from Duke University and the Indian Institute of Technology.

Case Western Reserve University study looks at keeping migrant workers' children healthy
As Ohio and Michigan fruit and vegetable farms yield this year's harvest, they also will provide data about the eating choices of Latino migrant children for a Case Western Reserve University researcher.

Risk of unintentional injury death is high for young children living with unrelated adults
In a new study, a University of Missouri professor found that children living in households with unrelated adults are six times more likely to die of maltreatment-related unintentional injuries, compared to children living with two biological parents.

Addressing 'Global Challenges' at ACS National Meeting in Philadelphia
The American Chemical Society has launched a major series of podcasts, Global Challenges/Chemistry Solutions, www.acs.org/globalchallenges focusing on some of the 21st Century most serious world-wide problems and how new discoveries from the labs of chemists and other scientists offer solutions.

Broad Institute researchers introduce next generation tool for visualizing genomic data
Researchers are collecting vast amounts of genomic data, but ways to visualize these data in an integrated manner have lagged behind the ability to generate them.

UNC School of Social Work helps China tackle growing pains
As China gears up for the Beijing Olympics, a burgeoning relationship between US and Chinese social workers is helping ensure that the world's most populous nation can deal with its growing pains at the same time that it's coming of age.

Traditional forms of agriculture: Unexpected degree of diversity, time-honored principles
Two IRD researchers, working jointly with scientists from both national and international organizations, made highly detailed surveys of these agricultural methods, some dating back several millennia.

Research exposes new target for malaria drugs
The malaria parasite has waged a successful guerrilla war against the human immune system for eons, but a study in this week's Journal of Biological Chemistry has exposed one of the tricks malaria uses to hide from the immune proteins, which may aid in future drug development.

A new look at how memory and spatial cognition are related
In a study that sheds new light on how memory and spatial cognition are related to each other in the brain, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Veteran Affairs San Diego Healthcare System studied memory-impaired patients as they navigated their environment.

Breast cancer confessions: The emotional work of disclosing a diagnosis
Women diagnosed with breast cancer shoulder the emotional burden of disclosing their diagnosis to loved ones, managing the feelings of others at precisely the time when they need support themselves, according to research to be presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association.

Psychiatrists shift away from providing psychotherapy
A declining number of office-based psychiatrists appear to be providing psychotherapy to their patients, according to a report in the August issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Rectal gel prevents transmission of AIDS-like virus in macaques
The HIV drug tenofovir may prevent AIDS transmission when applied rectally as a gel, according to results from a macaque study published in PLoS Medicine.

How has Médecins Sans Frontières contributed to the study of malaria medicines?
An analysis by the humanitarian medical aid organization, Médecins Sans Frontières, has found that between 1996 and 2004 MSF was responsible for about a quarter of all clinical studies of malaria medicine efficacy in 18 countries of Africa and Asia.

Positive parenting associated with less aggression in early-maturing teen girls
Adolescent girls who go through puberty early and have parents who do not nurture them, communicate with them or have knowledge of their activities appear more likely to display aggressive behavior, according to a report in the August issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Argonne scientists discover networks of metal nanoparticles are culprits in alloy corrosion
Oxide scales are supposed to protect alloys from extensive corrosion, but scientists at US Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory have discovered metal nanoparticle chinks in this armor.

MDCT just as accurate as MRI in assessing myocardial infarction in emergency setting
Multidetector CT is just as accurate as MRI in assessing myocardial infarct size -- an important predictor of clinical outcome -- in an emergency setting according to a recent study conducted by researchers in collaboration between the VA Medical Center in San Francisco, Calif., and the University Claude Bernard in Lyon, France.

UNC study: shape, not just size, impacts effectiveness of emerging nanomedicine therapies
In the budding field of nanotechnology, scientists already know that size does matter.

Preventing friendly fire: A role for the thymic cortex in stopping your body from attacking itself
A new paper published in this week's PLoS Biology, the online open access journal, investigates the inner mechanics of the thymus, the organ that creates the foot soldiers of the immune system.

Tevatron experiments double-team Higgs boson
The CDF and DZero collaborations at the US Department of Energy's Fermilab are advancing the quest for the long-sought Higgs boson.

Male circumcision efforts lag in Africa despite evidence of dramatic impact in preventing HIV
With millions of lives at stake over the next two decades, researchers and advocates at the AIDS 2008 Conference today called on the global health community to ramp up male circumcision to significantly reduce risk of HIV infection in Africa, and to move quickly to integrate the life-saving procedure into other comprehensive efforts to prevent transmission of the disease in the vulnerable nations of eastern and southern Africa.

Eating fish may prevent memory loss and stroke in old age
Eating tuna and other types of fish may help lower the risk of cognitive decline and stroke in healthy older adults, according to a study published in the Aug.

Memory, depression, insomnia -- and worms?
Researchers have spent decades probing the causes of depression, schizophrenia and insomnia in humans.

UGA researchers win $9.2 million stem cell grant from NIH
A research group led by Stephen Dalton, professor and Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar of Molecular Biology at the University of Georgia, has been awarded $9.2 million as part of a major new research grant by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health.

World's largest meeting of ear, nose and throat doctors to convene Sept. 21-24
The 2008 Annual Meeting & OTO EXPO of the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF) -- the largest meeting of ear, nose, and throat doctors in the world -- will convene Sept.

1 in 10 children using cough, cold medications
Researchers from Boston University's Slone Epidemiology Center have found that approximately one in ten US children uses one or more cough and cold medications during a given week.

Caltech scientists awarded $20 million to 'Power the Planet'
In the dreams of Harry Gray, Beckman Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology, the future energy needs of the world are met with solar-fuel power plants.

Cold Spring Harbor Protocols highlights gene silencing, cancer cell biology methods
Highlights from this month's issue of Cold Spring Harbor Protocols.

Extinction threat growing for mankind's closest relatives
Mankind's closest relatives -- the world's monkeys, apes and other primates -- are disappearing from the face of the Earth, with some literally being eaten into extinction.

Human brains pay a price for being big
Metabolic changes responsible for the evolution of our unique cognitive abilities indicate that the brain may have been pushed to the limit of its capabilities.

Sundial enthusiasts help celebrate 100th birthday of Washington University sundial
Forty-five enthusiasts nationwide are meeting in St. Louis, August 7-10, to celebrate the beauty of the Earth moving around the sun for the 2008 Annual Conference of the North American Sundial Society.

Great white's mighty bite revealed
The bite force of a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) is the highest known for any living species, according to new research to be published in the Journal of Zoology.

Long-term HIV treatment may reduce risk for atherosclerosis
Antiretroviral drugs for HIV do not increase risk of coronary atherosclerosis says a University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health study.The results, based on nearly 950 HIV-positive and HIV-negative men, suggest that antiretroviral therapy may, in fact, offer men with HIV some protection against atherosclerosis.

Patagonian glacier yields clues for improved understanding of global climate change
An expedition in 2005 by an IRD team and its partners on the San Valentin glacier in the Chilean part of Patagonia demonstrated the potential of that site for exploring climatic variations of the past.

First national study of diving-related injuries
Diving into cool, refreshing water is a favorite summer pastime for millions, and a fan favorite sport at the Olympics.

Memory, depression, insomnia -- and worms?
Researchers have spent decades probing the causes of depression, schizophrenia and insomnia in humans.

A world-leading UK science project switches on first neutrons
The UK's ISIS Second Target Station Project moved a major step closer to completion today when the first neutrons were created in the ISIS Second Target Station.

Vitamin C injections slow tumor growth in mice
High-dose injections of vitamin C, also known as ascorbate or ascorbic acid, reduced tumor weight and growth rate by about 50 percent in mouse models of brain, ovarian and pancreatic cancers, researchers from the National Institutes of Health report in the August 5, 2008, issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The school bully -- does it run in the family?
University of Cincinnati research linking family relationships to childhood bullying is presented at the 103rd annual meeting of the American Sociological Association in Boston.
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