Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 27, 2008
Health risk behaviors associated with lower prostate specific antigen awareness
According to a study conducted at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, health risk behaviors such as smoking and obesity are associated with lower awareness of the prostate specific antigen, which could lead to a lower likelihood of undergoing actual prostate cancer screening.

New white paper examines economic payoff of proposed streetcars in Cincinnati
Cities across the US and even other countries turn to University of Cincinnati economics researcher George Vredeveld to help sort out pressing economic issues.

Campus diversity important predictor of interracial friendships
Campus racial diversity predicts diversity in future friendships, and it's generally higher for minorities than whites.

Army personnel show increased risk for migraine
Two new studies show that migraine headaches are very common among US military personnel, yet the condition is frequently underdiagnosed.

Pre-school age exercises can prevent dyslexia
A typical characteristics of children's linguistic development are early signs of the risk of developing reading and writing disabilities, or dyslexia.

Economic and social disadvantage can affect young citizens' voter turnout
A study recently published in the Journal of Social Issues illustrates how certain disadvantages experienced in adolescence, such as early pregnancy, dropping out of high school, being arrested, or going to an underprivileged school, contribute to lower voter turnout in young adulthood.

Chronic stress alters our genetic immune response
In the Aug. 15 issue of Biological Psychiatry, researchers shed new light on one link between stress and illness by describing a mechanism through which stress alters immune function.

Using the power of the sun to reach the stars
Solar sail technology is close to becoming an engineering reality.

Endoscopic ultrasound highly accurate in evaluating ambiguous radiographic findings of the pancreas
Researchers from St. Louis University School of Medicine in Missouri report that EUS and EUS-FNA is 99.1 percent accurate in diagnosing pancreatic neoplasms (abnormal growths or tumors) in patients who were referred for endoscopic ultrasound because of CT and/or MRI reports of two common, though somewhat ambiguous findings -- enlargement of head of pancreas or dilation of the pancreatic duct.

Potential new targets for antidepressant medications
The news about antidepressant medications over the past several years has been mixed.

New role for natural killers!
Scientists at the University of York have discovered a new role for a population of white blood cells, which may lead to improved treatments for chronic infections and cancer.

Indiana U researchers launch social networking and research management tool for scientists
Indiana University School of Medicine researchers have developed Laboratree, a web-based solution to the complex problems of scientific collaboration.

Parents can play an active role in the identity formation of their adolescent children
A new article reveals that parents play concerned, involved, and reflective roles in their children's identity formation.

Southern Sierra Science Symposium planned for Visalia
Four land management agencies are proud to announce the First Southern Sierra Science Symposium, Sept.

Andrew Viterbi receives National Medal of Science
President George W. Bush has announced that USC trustee and namesake of the USC Viterbi School of Engineering Andrew J.

Genetic link to dry macular degeneration found
A University of Kentucky ophthalmologist, along with a team of scientists, has discovered a genetic mutation that offers protection against a type of age-related macular degeneration, a disease of the eye that is the leading cause of blindness in adults over age 50.

Sticks and stones: A new study on social and physical pain
According to a new study, words may pack a harder punch that we realize.

Springer to publish International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Starting in 2009, Springer will publish the International Journal of Behavioral Medicine.

Study examines use of opioids
Researchers from Boston University's Slone Epidemiology Center have found that in a given week, over 10 million Americans are taking opioids, and more than 4 million are taking them regularly (at least five days per week, for at least four weeks).

Black raspberries slow cancer by altering hundreds of genes
New research strongly suggests that a mix of preventative agents, such as those found in concentrated black raspberries, may more effectively inhibit cancer development than single agents aimed at shutting down a particular gene.

Not all fat is created equal
A Temple University study finds that fat in obese patients is

Hubble and Chandra composite of the galaxy cluster MACS J0025.4-1222
A powerful collision between galaxy clusters has been captured by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory.

Whether brown or red, algae can produce plenty of green fuel
Rose Ann Cattolico is convinced algae can be a major source of environmentally friendly fuels for everything from lawn mowers to jet airplanes.

Experimental therapy may lead to macular degeneration, an international team of researchers caution
Having discovered a genetic trigger for age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of vision loss in people over 50, researchers report that an experimental state-of-the-art therapy for treating eye disease could adversely affect the vision of some patients with the

Collision of galaxy clusters captured by astronomers
Two UC Santa Barbara astronomers, Marusa Bradac and Tommaso Treu, are part of a team that has made a stunning discovery using the Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory.

Young type-2 diabetic men suffer low testosterone levels, study shows
Young men with type 2 diabetes have significantly low levels of testosterone, endocrinologists at the University at Buffalo have found -- a condition that could have a critical effect on their quality of life and on their ability to father children.

ETH Zurich-administered fund ends scientific anonymity
Reporting in Nature Genetics, and working in conjunction with Society in Science, the ETH Zurich-administered fund that is dedicated to exploring new avenues in the relationship between science and society, scientist Robert Hoffmann, has developed the first wiki where authorship really matters.

Pregnancy situations have impact on brain development in pre-term infants
Brain development in infants who are born very prematurely is still incomplete.

Iowa State University researcher shows proteins have controlled motions
Iowa State University researcher Robert Jernigan believes that his research shows proteins have controlled motions.

NSF approves $1.3M for OSU and OU microbes hunt
The National Science Foundation has approved a $1.3 million grant for researchers at Oklahoma State University and the University of Oklahoma to discover new kinds of microorganisms in natural habitats.

NPL to create 'encyclopedia for space nanomaterials'
National Physical Laboratory wins European Space Agency contract for European nanomaterials survey.

Common treatment to delay labor decreases pre-term infants' risk for cerebral palsy
Pre-term infants born to mothers receiving intravenous magnesium sulfate -- a common treatment to delay labor -- are less likely to develop cerebral palsy than are pre-term infants whose mothers do not receive it, report researchers in a large National Institutes of Health research network.

No-take zones offer no boost for bleached reefs
Newcastle University marine scientist Nicholas Graham heads up an international team calling for urgent action to save world's coral reefs.

NIAID describes challenges, prospects for an HIV vaccine
Events of the past year in HIV vaccine research have led some to question whether an effective HIV vaccine will ever be developed.

Trying to satisfy too many agendas slows school reform
Despite investments, community goodwill and some good ideas, efforts at school reform often fail because of a lack of trust among teachers, principals and parents.

Ancient mother spawns new insight on reptile reproduction
A 75-million-year-old fossil of a pregnant turtle and a nest of fossilized eggs that were discovered in the badlands of southeastern Alberta by scientists and staff from the University of Calgary and the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology are yielding new ideas on the evolution of egg-laying and reproduction in turtles and tortoises.

'Industrial relations' employee satisfaction dependent on more than relative pay
A new study in the journal Industrial Relations reveals that employee well-being is dependent upon the rank of an individual's wage within a comparison group, as opposed to the individual's absolute pay.

Cocaine-induced brain plasticity may protect the addicted brain
A new study has unraveled some of the mysteries of the cocaine-addicted brain and may pave the way for the design of more effective treatments for drug addiction.

Yellowstone's ancient supervolcano: Only lukewarm?
The geysers of Yellowstone National Park owe their eistence to the

EMBO recognizes German zoologist for public communication
Juergen Tautz from the University of Wuerzburg will receive a special discretionary prize, as part of the 2008 EMBO Award for Communication in the Life Sciences.

Low levels of brain chemical may lead to obesity, NIH study of rare disorder shows
A brain chemical that plays a role in long term memory also appears to be involved in regulating how much people eat and their likelihood of becoming obese, according to a National Institutes of Health study of a rare genetic condition.

Variation of normal protein could be key to resistance to common cancer drug
Researchers at the Moores Cancer Center at the University of California, San Diego, in La Jolla have found evidence explaining why a common chemotherapy drug, cisplatin, may not always work for every cancer patient.

Why is Greenland covered in ice?
A fall in levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), close to that of pre-industrial times, explains the transition from a mostly ice-free Greenland of three million years ago to the ice-covered region we see today.

Cocaine 'flush' could be first anti-overdose drug
By modifying a naturally occurring enzyme, chemists have created a molecule that could flush a cocaine overdose out of the body before it causes irreparable damage.

Fingerprint breakthrough hope in US double murder probe
Technique developed by University of Leicester and Northamptonshire police.

UT Southwestern scientists' findings may lead to new drug-abuse treatments
Increased connections among brain cells caused by excessive drug use may represent the body's defense mechanism to combat addiction and related behaviors, scientists at UT Southwestern Medical Center have found.

Scientists reveal effects of quantum 'traffic jam' in high-temperature superconductors
Scientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory and collaborators have uncovered the first experimental evidence for why the transition temperature of high-temperature superconductors cannot simply be elevated by increasing the electrons' binding energy.

SNM expresses serious concerns as isotope shortage looms
A shutdown announced yesterday at a nuclear reactor facility at Petten in the Netherlands threatens the ability of countries across the globe to access and obtain radioactive isotopes, which are critical for performing many common nuclear medicine procedures in the United States and worldwide.

Teens making poor choices when it comes to riding in vehicles
Car crashes are the No. 1 killer of US teens.

New evidence on addiction to medicines Diazepam has effect on nerve cells in the brain reward system
Addictions to medicines and drugs are thought to develop over a relatively long period of time.

Subliminal learning demonstrated in the human brain
Although the idea that instrumental learning can occur subconsciously has been around for nearly a century, it had not been unequivocally demonstrated.

Even without dementia, mental skills decline years before death
A new study shows that older people's mental skills start declining years before death, even if they don't have dementia.

Heart attack patients who stop statin risk death, say McGill researchers
Patients discontinuing statin medication following an acute myocardial infarction increase their risk of dying over the next year, say researchers at McGill University and the McGill University Health Center.

First gene associated with dry macular degeneration found
In a study that underscores the important role that individual genetic profiles will play in the development of new therapies for disease, a multi-institutional research team -- led by Kang Zhang, MD, PhD professor of ophthalmology and human genetics at Shiley Eye Center at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine -- has made two important discoveries related to age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in adults over the age of 60.

A clash of clusters provides another clue to dark matter
A powerful collision of galaxy clusters has been captured with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope.

Presidential medal for technological breakthroughs earned by 2 chemical engineering professors
Two chemical engineering professors from the University of Texas at Austin have been recognized by President George W.

Genetic predisposition may play a role in anxiety disorders
Finnish scientists have identified genes that may predispose to anxiety disorders.

ASTRO selects pediatric oncologist as 2008 honorary member
The American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology has selected renowned pediatric oncologist Audrey Evans, M.D., as its 2008 honorary member.

Fishing for profits on world caviar market
As sturgeon populations decline in the Caspian Sea, scientists at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have a found way for Israel to cash in on the world's growing demand for caviar.

Government focuses on supply chains
The Carbon Disclosure Project, a collaboration of some 385 institutional investors including Merrill Lynch, Goldman Sachs, Barclays and HSBC, has extended its traditional work in the private sector to the public sector where it is actively assisting government and local government organizations to assess greenhouse gas emissions through their supply chains.

Newly-defined factors may prevent postpartum smoking relapse
Although many women quit smoking during pregnancy to protect their unborn children from the effects of cigarettes, half resume the habit within a few months of giving birth.

Common treatment to delay labor decreases preterm infants' risk for cerebral palsy
Intravenous magnesium sulfate supplementation before preterm delivery cuts the risk for handicapping cerebral palsy in half, according to research led by University of Alabama at Birmingham obstetrician Dwight Rouse, M.D., and published in the Aug.

Framing technique can be used as a public relations strategy in cases of sexual assault
Article explores framed messages in the Duke University lacrosse case.

Jamaican lizards' shows of strength mark territory at dawn, dusk
What does Jack LaLanne have in common with a Jamaican lizard?

Study reveals gap in HIV testing knowledge among college students
Most college students understand how they can prevent the transmission of HIV but are less knowledgeable about HIV testing, according to a new University of Georgia study.

UCI scientists discover minimum mass for galaxies
By analyzing light from small, faint galaxies that orbit the Milky Way, UC Irvine scientists believe they have discovered the minimum mass for galaxies in the universe -- 10 million times the mass of the sun.
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