Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 08, 2008
Study examines golf-related eye injuries in children
Pediatric golf injuries are rare but can be devastating to the eye and vision system, according to a report in the September issue of Archives of Ophthalmology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Physical activity associated with reduced risk for obesity in genetically predisposed
Individuals who have a genetic mutation associated with high body mass index may be able to offset their increased risk for obesity through physical activity, according to a report in the Sept.

Walk this way? Masculine motion seems to come at you, while females walk away
You can tell a lot about people from the way they move alone: their gender, age and even their mood, earlier studies have shown.

NJIT professor authors technology text about innovative management
NJIT Associate Professor Robert S. Friedman is first author of a reference guide to the theory and research supporting the field of technology and innovation management.

Mind the gap
Astronomers have been able to study planet-forming discs around young Sun-like stars in unsurpassed detail, clearly revealing the motion and distribution of the gas in the inner parts of the disc.

Hotline to the cowshed
A wireless measuring system, consisting of sensors and transmission units, helps to keep livestock healthier with a minimum use of resources.

Vitamin B12 may protect the brain in old age
Vitamin B12, a nutrient found in meat, fish and milk, may protect against brain volume loss in older people, according to a study published in the Sept.

New consensus on work-related asthma
In a new consensus statement, the American College of Chest Physicians offers guidance on the diagnosis and treatment of work-related asthma, a chronic respiratory condition that includes occupational asthma and work-exacerbated asthma and affects as many as 25 percent of adults with asthma.

As Andean glacier retreats, tiny life forms swiftly move in, CU-Boulder study shows
A University of Colorado at Boulder team working at 16,400 feet in the Peruvian Andes has discovered how barren soils uncovered by retreating glacier ice can swiftly establish a thriving community of microbes, setting the table for lichens, mosses and alpine plants.

Memory enhanced by sports-cheat drug
A drug used to increase blood production in both medical treatments and athletic doping scandals seems also to improve memory in those using it.

Mental health news briefs from the Journal of Health and Social Behavior
The September issue of the Journal of Health and Social Behavior includes sociological research related to mental health and household crowding, barriers to health care, workplace dynamics and caregiving.

Will the 'bare below the elbows' rule for doctors cut infection rates or just patient confidence?
Are bare arms a sensible infection control procedure for hospital doctors or will casual dress just reduce patient confidence?

US Air Force technology helps scientists understand plant root function
Scientists at the University of California in Davis present results from a newly developed non-invasive technique that uses thermal neutron attenuation to measure spatial and temporal distribution of water in soils.

Rail, road or waterway?
Is road transport the best way to send oranges from Spain to northern Germany?

Dartmouth researchers advance cellulosic ethanol production
A team of researchers have made a discovery that is important for producing large quantities of cellulosic ethanol, a leading candidate for a sustainable and secure alternative to petroleum-derived transportation fuel.

Switchable bio-adhesion
Researchers have developed a new type of property-changing polymer: it is water-repellent at 37 C, which makes it an ideal culture substrate for biological cells.

Alexander G. Litvak winner of prestigious prize in electromagnetic science
Springer editorial board member Alexander G. Litvak will receive the 2008 Kenneth J.

Study: Fake news shows less important in learning about politics
A new study suggests that entertainment news shows such as the Daily Show or the Colbert Report may not be as influential in teaching voters about political issues and candidates as was previously thought.

Common painkillers lower levels of prostate cancer biomarker
Common painkillers like aspirin and ibuprofen appear to lower a man's PSA level, the blood biomarker widely used by physicians to help gauge whether a man is at risk of prostate cancer.

Out of Africa: UH trains first class of 'homegrown' oil geophysicists
Africa desperately needs educated petroleum workers, and more than a dozen new homegrown petroleum geophysicists are ready to enter the oil industry there thanks to a University of Houston program at the University of Cape Town.

Pain appears common among patients with Parkinson's disease
Pain appears to be more common in individuals with Parkinson's disease than in those without, suggesting that pain is associated with the condition, according to a report in the September issue of Archives of Neurology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

The Clorox Company's new indoor allergen product reduces common indoor allergens up to 90 percent
For allergy sufferers, the choice all too frequently has come down to living without pets or curtains or anything that could trigger indoor allergens.

Genetic variants associated with vitamin B12
Researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health and their collaborators at Tufts University and the National Cancer Institute have identified a common genetic influence on B12 vitamin levels in the blood, suggesting a new way to approach the biological connections between an important biochemical variable and deficiency-related diseases.

New survey reveals communication gap between health care professionals and pain patients
A nationwide survey found a sizable gap exists between patients and health care professionals when it comes to understanding and discussing pain.

Bilingual children more likely to stutter
Children who are bilingual before the age of 5 are significantly more likely to stutter and to find it harder to lose their impediment, than children who speak only one language before this age, suggests research published ahead of print in Archives of Disease in Childhood.

JDRF-funded clinical trial demonstrates continuous glucose monitoring improves blood sugar control
Patients with type 1 diabetes who used a CGM devices to help manage their disease experienced significant improvements in blood sugar control, according to initial results of a major multicenter clinical trial funded by JDRF.

Space: The not-so-final frontier
Of all environments, space must be the most hostile: It is freezing cold, close to absolute zero, there is a vacuum, so no oxygen, and the amount of lethal radiation from stars is very high.

Leader of Human Genome Project honored with the Inamori Ethics Prize
Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D., a physician-geneticist and leader of the Human Genome Project, has been awarded with the new Inamori Ethics Prize from the Inamori International Center for Ethics and Excellence at Case Western Reserve University.

Premature children 4 times more likely to have behavioral disorders
Children born prematurely are four times more likely to have emotional problems or behavioral disorders, according to research led by the University of Warwick.

Iowa State scientists, students contribute to world's biggest science experiment
Iowa State University physicists will be part of the international research team looking on as the first beam of protons races inside the Large Hadron Collider on Wednesday, Sept.

Study examines lung cancer among lifelong nonsmokers
A new American Cancer Society study finds that lung cancer death rates among never-smokers are highest among men, African-Americans and Asians residing in Asia.

How are herbicides discovered?
As a lesson to teach upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students how herbicides are developed, a new interactive website has been developed by William E.

Climate: New spin on ocean's role
New studies of the Southern Ocean are revealing previously unknown features of giant spinning eddies that are profoundly influencing marine life and the world's climate.

University of Chicago scientists await start-up of Large Hadron Collider
The moment that James Pilcher has been waiting for since 1994 will arrive at 1:30 a.m.

CONRAD receives $100 million from USAID for microbicide development
The CONRAD Program of the Eastern Virginia Medical School today announced that it has received a $100 million award from the US Agency for International Development to continue its development work on microbicides.

Top science award goes to climate researcher Wallace Broecker
Wallace S. Broecker, a geochemist whose seminal studies made him one of the earliest voices to warn of global climate change, has been awarded the prestigious Balzan Prize, it was announced today in Milan.

Fathers need their children
Single fathers should never be prevented from seeing their children.

Fluctuations in serotonin transport may explain winter blues
In the first study of its kind in the living human brain, Dr.

Diet may eliminate spasms for infants with epilepsy
Infantile spasms are a severe and potentially devastating epilepsy condition affecting children aged typically 4-8 months.

Scavenger birds chew the fat
Humans aren't the only ones who like fatty foods -- bearded vultures do, too.

Balzan Foundation announced 2008 prize winners
The names of the 2008 Balzan Prize winners were announced today in a public event.

Study finds previously deported immigrants more likely to be rearrested after leaving jail
Deportable immigrants who previously have been expelled from the United States are more likely to be rearrested on suspicion of committing a crime after they are released from jail than other deportable immigrants without the prior history of expulsion, according to a new RAND Corp. study.

Children's National researcher receives ACCP Distinguished Investigator Award
The American College of Clinical Pharmacology has awarded John van den Anker, M.D., Ph.D., director of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology at Children's National Medical Center, its annual Distinguished Investigator Award.

Many colorectal cancer survivors do not receive recommended follow-up care
A new analysis reveals that fewer than half of older patients successfully treated for colorectal cancer receive the recommended screening schedule to detect any recurrence of cancer.

Valley networks on Mars formed during long period of episodic flooding
A new study suggests that ancient features on the surface of Mars called valley networks were carved by recurrent floods during a long period when the martian climate may have been much like that of some arid or semiarid regions on Earth.

Safety of anti-malarial drugs in pregnancy must be monitored
There is an urgent need to develop systems to assess the safety of anti-malarials in early pregnancy, says a new essay in this week's PLoS Medicine.

Anti-inflammatory drugs may mask prostate cancer marker
Regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, may reduce serum levels of the prostate biomarker, PSA, and hence may alter the detection of prostate cancer in individuals who take these medications.

Anti-angiogenic drugs impede chemotherapy-stimulated tumor recovery
Scientists have gained new insight into a mechanism whereby chemotherapy may actually assist the rapid regrowth of tumors after treatment.

High levels of physical activity can blunt effect of obesity-related gene, study suggests
High levels of physical activity can help to counteract a gene that normally causes people to gain weight, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

Extend Medicare to cut waiting lists, up competition
Extending Medicare to include private hospitals could lower Australians' reliance on private health insurance and reduce waiting lists, a health economics expert says.

Protein 'switch' suppresses skin cancer development
The protein IKKalpha (IKKα) regulates the cell cycle of keratinocytes and plays a key role in keeping these specialized skin cells from becoming malignant, researchers at the University of Texas M.

High blood pressure after stroke should not necessarily rule out use of clot-busting treatment
Patients who require therapy to lower their blood pressure following a stroke do not appear to be at a higher risk for bleeding or other adverse outcomes after receiving anti-clotting therapy, according to a report in the September issue of Archives of Neurology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Infidelity dissected: New research on why people cheat
The probability of someone cheating during the course of a relationship varies between 40 and 76 percent.

Scientists develop model to map continental margins
Scientists at the University of Liverpool have developed a new exploration method to assist the oil and gas industry in identifying more precisely where the oceans and continents meet.

New paper sheds light on bacterial cell wall recycling
A new paper by University of Notre Dame researchers provides important new insights into the process by which bacteria recycle their cell wall.

DOE JGI extends the capabilities of the Integrated Microbial Genome System
The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute has extended the capabilities of the Integrated Microbial Genomes data management system, updated the content of the IMG/M metagenome data management and analysis system, and has launched its educational companion site, IMG/EDU.

'Healthy' individuals may be at risk for heart disease
In the face of a growing obesity epidemic in the United States, researchers at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center have new study results that indicate that how much fat a person has is not as important as where that fat is located when assessing risk for cardiovascular events and metabolic disease.

Better care of sickest patients can actually save hospitals money, says largest study of its kind
A new study finds that hospitals can save more than $300 a day taking care of seriously ill patients while giving them even better care.

Enzyme detectives uncover new reactions, products
Scientists at the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have discovered a fundamental shift in an enzyme's function that could help expand the toolbox for engineering biofuels and other plant-based oil products.

Compost heap bacteria could provide 10 percent of UK transport fuel needs
Bacteria found in compost heaps able to convert waste plant fiber into ethanol could eventually provide up 10 percent of the UK's transport fuel needs, scientists heard today at the Society for General Microbiology's autumn meeting being held this week at Trinity College, Dublin.

Apples and oranges: Tumor blood vessel cells are remarkably atypical
Contrary to a long-standing assumption that blood vessel cells in healthy tissues and those associated with tumors are similar, a new study unequivocally demonstrates that tumor blood vessel cells are far from normal.

Montrealers 3 minutes away from a video lottery terminal
In Montreal, Quebec, a video lottery terminal is often less than three minutes away by foot from a compulsive gambler, who is usually a male between 18 and 44 with little education and low revenues, according to researchers Patrick Herjean and Éric Robitaille of the Université de Montréal Léa-Roback Center.

Researchers receive grant to study ways of preventing heart disease
The Lipid Sciences Research Program at Wake Forest University School of Medicine has been awarded a grant renewal of more than $9 million to define aspects of blood lipoproteins, such as cholesterol, that may be critical in prevention of coronary heart disease -- the leading cause of death across the civilized world.

Brush your teeth to reduce the risk of heart disease
Heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. However, many people with cardiovascular disease have none of the common risk factors such as smoking, obesity and high cholesterol.

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- Sept. 3, 2008
The American Chemical Society News Service Weekly Press Package contains reports from 36 major peer-reviewed journals on chemistry, health, medicine, energy, environment, food, nanotechnology and other hot topics.

Steins: A diamond in the sky
The first images from Rosetta's OSIRIS imaging system and VIRTIS infrared spectrometer were derived from raw data this morning and have delivered spectacular results.

Lung cancer death rates among never smokers higher in men than women
Death rates from lung cancer are higher among men who have never smoked than women who have never smoked, says new research published in this week's PLoS Medicine.

Arbor Vita and WRAIR sign CRADA for traumatic brain injury collaboration
The US Department of Applied Neurobiology at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Arbor Vita Corporation have signed a CRADA for R&D of treatments for traumatic brain injury.

Scientists point to forests for carbon storage solutions
Scientists who have determined how much carbon is stored annually in upper Midwest forests hope their findings will be used to accelerate global discussion about the strategy of managing forests to offset greenhouse gas emissions.

Launch of GOCE delayed
The preparatory activities for the launch of ESA's GOCE satellite from the Plesetsk cosmodrome in northern Russia had to be stopped yesterday afternoon by Eurockot due to an anomaly identified in one of the units of the guidance and navigation subsystem of the launcher's upper stage.

UK children's physical activity levels hugely overestimated
UK children's physical activity levels have been greatly overestimated, with true levels likely to be around six times lower than national data suggest, finds research published ahead of print in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

September/October 2008 Annals of Family Medicine tip sheet
This tip sheet chronicles highlights from the September/October 2008 Annals of Family Medicine research journal.

The truth about cats and dogs
Tel Aviv University has a

Researchers seeking to identify Alzheimer's risk focus on specific blood biomarker
A simple blood test to detect whether a person might develop Alzheimer's disease is within sight and could eventually help scientists in their quest toward reversing the disease's onset in those likely to develop the debilitating neurological condition, Columbia University Medical Center researchers announced today.

Survey finds spirituality is important to eye patients
Patients visiting an ophthalmologist report that prayer is important to their well-being and that God plays a positive role in illness, according to a report in the September issue of Archives of Ophthalmology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Carbon molecule with a charge could be tomorrow's semiconductor
As part of the research to place gadolinium atoms inside the carbon cage of a fullerene molecule for MRI applications, Virginia Tech researchers created an 80-atom carbon molecule with two yttrium ions inside.

Athletes' 'sweat and tears' linked to asthma
A new study from the September issue of the journal Chest shows that an athlete's ability to sweat may do more than keep the body cool.

HPV tests with P16INK4A expression increase sensitivity for detecting precancerous cervical lesions
Human papillomavirus testing with P16INK4A expression increases the sensitivity for detection of high-grade, precancerous cervical lesions compared with conventional cytology, without increasing referral to colposcopy, according to findings from a substudy of the New Technologies for Cervical Cancer Screening study, published early online and in the October edition of the Lancet Oncology.

ST Kinetics and NTU set up Southeast Asia's first cold spray research center
Singapore Technologies Kinetics Ltd.'s joint venture company, Advanced Technology Research Center, and Nanyang Technological University today officially opened Southeast Asia's first research and development center in cold spray technology.

Golden rods
A German-American research team has now developed a new method for the production of nanoscopic gold rods.

Patients who recover well from head injury never feel quite the same
Brain imaging experts with Baycrest's Rotman Research Institute in Toronto have found a distinct

The Cancer Genome Atlas reports first results, Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center collaborates
The Cancer Genome Atlas has reported results from its first comprehensive study which focused on the deadly brain cancer glioblastoma.

Catching the blood cell bus gives fatal yeast infection a clean getaway
Yeast fungus cells that kill thousands of AIDS patients every year escape detection by our bodies' defenses by hiding inside our own defense cells, and hitch a ride through our systems before attacking and spreading, scientists heard today at the Society for General Microbiology's autumn meeting being held this week at Trinity College, Dublin.

A new addiction: Internet junkies
While compulsive gambling is only beginning to be addressed by mental health professionals, they must now face a new affliction, Internet addiction, according to Université de Montréal psychology professor Louise Nadeau.

UNC receives record $181 million grant to evaluate health, poverty and gender programs worldwide
The United States Agency for International Development has awarded the Carolina Population Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill up to $181 million to continue its MEASURE Evaluation project.

Bonded aircraft
An aircraft is held together by hundreds of thousands of rivets.

Over 1 in 4 South African men report using physical violence against their female partners
A first-ever, national study conducted in South Africa found that 27.5 percent of men who have ever been married or lived with a partner report perpetrating physical violence against their current or most recent female partner.

Older women who get little sleep may have a higher risk of falling
Women age 70 and older who sleep five hours or less per night may be more likely to experience falls than those who sleep more than seven to eight hours per night, according to a report in the Sept.

Psychiatry research: When the mirror becomes an enemy
A nose that's too big, hair that's too curly or a beauty mark in the wrong place -- who hasn't focused on a small detail of their appearance while staring at a mirror?

Safety study indicates gene therapy for blindness improves vision
No significant adverse effects were reported during a safety trial testing gene therapy on three patients with a type of hereditary blindness called Leber congenital amaurosis type 2.

Air pollution can hinder heart's electrical functioning
Tiny particles of air pollution and black carbon, a marker for traffic exhaust fumes, may adversely affect heart function among heart attack survivors.
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