Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 15, 2008
Scientists take cancer research back to the basic molecular level
Scientists and clinicians from around the world will gather in Philadelphia, Penn., next week at the American Association for Cancer Research's third International Conference on Molecular Diagnostics in Therapeutic Development.

Study reveals how viruses collectively decide the fate of a bacterial cell
A new study suggests that bacteria-infecting viruses -- called phages -- can make collective decisions about whether to kill host cells immediately after infection or enter a latent state to remain within the host cell.

Hopkins Children's study: Parents of dying newborns need clearer explanation of options
Parent-doctor discussions about whether to maintain or withdraw life support from terminally ill or severely premature newborns are so plagued by miscommunication and misunderstanding that they might as well be in different languages, according to a small but potentially instructive new study from Johns Hopkins Children's Center reported in the September issue of Pediatrics.

Photosynthesizing bacteria with a day-night cycle contain rare chromosome
Researchers sequencing the DNA of the blue-green algae Cyanothece 51142 found a linear chromosome harboring genes important for producing biofuels.

Determining the structure of nuclear receptor has implications for a host of diseases
In a study published this week in PLoS Biology, Eric Xu and colleagues have determined the molecular structure of a nuclear receptor, which regulates the expression of specific genes within cells, that may serve as a drug target for diseases related to heart and blood vessel development, human embryonic development and female infertility.

US Food and Drug Administration approves Sancuso
ProStrakan Group plc today announced the US Food and Drug Administration approval of Sancuso, the first and only patch to provide up to five consecutive days of control of nausea and vomiting for patients receiving a moderately and/or highly nausea-inducing chemotherapy regimen.

Economic value of insect pollination worldwide estimated at 153 billion euros
INRA and CNRS French scientists and a UFZ German scientist found that the worldwide economic value of the pollination service provided by insect pollinators, bees mainly, was €153 billion in 2005 for the main crops that feed the world.

Genetic research using human samples requires new types of informed consent
Genetic studies involving the long term storage and study of human samples hold great promise for medical research -- but they also pose new threats to individuals such as uninsurability, unemployability and discrimination, say a team of researchers in this week's PLoS Medicine.

New method identifies meth hot spots
A researcher at Oregon State University has used a new method of combining multiple sources of data to identify counties in Oregon with high numbers of methamphetamine-related problems per capita, giving officials a new tool in fighting the illegal drug.

International TGen-led team finds link between brain protein and Alzheimer's disease
Investigators at the Translational Genomics Research Institute today announced a link between the brain protein KIBRA and Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could lead to promising new treatments for this memory-robbing disorder.

Comprehensive lifestyle changes improve levels of enzyme telomerase involved in cell aging
A pilot study has revealed for the first time that comprehensive lifestyle changes increase the levels of the enzyme telomerase, vital for maintenance of the telomeres in cells that control cell aging.

Help for shopaholics: New test determines who's at risk for compulsive buying
Compulsive shopping can lead to financial problems, family conflicts, stress, depression, and loss of self-esteem.

Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin beneficial in metastatic breast cancer
For women with metastatic breast cancer, treatment with an encapsulated form of the drug doxorubicin offers a well-tolerated option for maintenance therapy that delays progression and offers benefits in terms of survival, new results show.

Harvard University recipient of Global Health Nutrition grant
The Harvard Initiative for Global Health has been selected to receive a prestigious $400,000 Framework Programs for Global Health grant from the National Institutes of Health's Fogarty International Center.

Majority of osteoporosis patients not receiving calcium and vitamin D with treatment
Pan-European research reveals majority of osteoporosis patients not receiving recommended combination of calcium and vitamin D with treatment.

ASH applauds surgeon general's call to action on deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism
The American Society of Hematology, the world's largest professional society of blood specialists, supports the US Surgeon General's Call to Action on Deep-Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism, which seeks to raise public awareness of this blood condition; increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment of DVT and PE; and share evidence-based practices.

Cyanobacterium sequenced features rare linear chromosome
A team of researchers headed by biologists at Washington University in St.

Nottingham scientists identify childhood brain cancer genes
Scientists at the University of Nottingham have isolated three important genes involved in the development of a type of childhood brain cancer.

Laminin builds the neuromuscular synapse
Like a plug and a socket, a nerve and a muscle fiber mesh at the neuromuscular junction.

Not buying it: Marketing messages may not work in uncommon situations
Marketers like to talk about

UC Davis doctors use multimedia to increase colorectal cancer screening among Hispanics
UC Davis physicians have received a $2.7 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to find out if an interactive multimedia computer program that provides personally tailored education in the user's preferred language increases the number of Hispanic patients who receive colorectal cancer screening.

US must enact measures to support the role of IMGs in US health-care delivery, says ACP
In a new paper, released today, the American College of Physicians says that because of the important place that international medical graduates

Scientists pioneer new treatment for prostate cancer
Scientists at Sunnybrook Research Institute are developing and commercializing a promising novel therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer that may offer patients a faster and more precise treatment than existing clinical alternatives, with fewer side effects.

Investigational drug shows promise in ovarian cancer
An investigational drug that combats ovarian cancer by inhibiting the formation of new blood vessels has shown promise in a phase II trial, according to a presentation at the 33rd Congress of the European Society for Medical Oncology in Stockholm.

Music, CompuMaestro -- like Radiohead, please ...
A software system created by two University of Southern California researchers can not only create an accompaniment to any given melody, but do so in the style of any chosen artist, or even the particular style used in select pieces by the artist.

Gene therapy for chronic pain gets first test in people
University of Michigan scientists have launched a phase 1 clinical trial to test whether a pain-relieving gene can be sent to a key point in the nervous system and block pain sensation.

New study says high grain prices are likely here to stay
An ethanol-fueled spike in grain prices will likely hold, yielding the first sustained increase for corn, wheat and soybean prices in more than three decades, according to new research by two University of Illinois farm economists.

Servants and masters -- the Chatterley trial
It was one of the defining legal battles of the twentieth century.

More findings on gene involved in childhood asthma
Asthma researchers have found that a gene variant known to raise the risk of childhood asthma in European children plays a similar role in white American children, but not in African-American children.

Pictures of hot fudge sundaes arouse: Understanding emotions improves our food choices
Menus and advertising affect our emotions, and if we understand those emotions, we make better food choices, according to a new study.

Children's Hospital researchers identify genetic mutation that may predict organ rejection
Using a novel combination of cutting-edge technologies to scan the human genome, researchers at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC have identified a genetic mutation that identifies transplant recipients who experience rejection.

Blissfully ignorant: Skip those pesky details
Wouldn't you like some more information about that cream puff?

Researchers discover unexpected properties of materials in lowermost mantle
Materials deep inside Earth have unexpected atomic properties that might force earth scientists to revise their models of Earth's internal processes.

Seize the day! New research helps tightwads 'live a little'
Some people have trouble indulging, and they regret it later.

European disparities in access to cancer drugs
New research has highlighted stark disparities in access to the latest cancer drugs across European Union nations, according to data presented at the 33rd Congress of the European Society for Medical Oncology in Stockholm.

'Biological clock' genes control plant growth
More than 125 years ago Charles Darwin first reported that most plants grow in a spurt during the night, not the day -- and this week, scientists are reporting the discovery of the genes that control this phenomenon.

Migraine linked to blood clots in veins
People with migraines may also be more likely to develop blood clots in their veins, according to a study published in the Sept.

Massage therapy may have immediate positive effect on pain and mood for advanced cancer patients
A new study from the National Institutes of Health finds that massage therapy may have immediate benefits on pain and mood among patients with advanced cancer.

Oil palm plantations are no substitute for tropical rainforests, a new study shows
The continued expansion of oil palm plantations will worsen the dual environmental crises of climate change and biodiversity loss, unless rainforests are better protected, warn scientists in the most comprehensive review of the subject to date.

Taking back-to-school to heart
This challenge of the first day of school is even greater for those born with a congenital heart malformation and who underwent open-heart surgery soon after birth.

MRI reveals inner ear anomalies in children with hearing loss
Using magnetic resonance imaging, physicians can identify soft-tissue defects that contribute to hearing loss in children, according to a report in the September issue of Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Biological selenium removal: The solution to pollution?
A new study funded by the European Union has demonstrated that unsafe levels of selenium, sometimes referred to as an

New ant species discovered in the Amazon likely represents oldest living lineage of ants
A new species of blind, subterranean, predatory ant discovered in the Amazon rainforest by University of Texas at Austin evolutionary biologist Christian Rabeling is likely a descendant of the very first ants to evolve.

Study establishes role for gefitinib in Asian nonsmokers with lung cancer
The targeted therapy gefitinib should be considered a first-line therapy for nonsmoking Asian patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung, one of the most common types of lung cancer, suggests a presentation at the 33rd Congress of the European Society for Medical Oncology in Stockholm.

No helicopter moms among Rutgers mutant mice
First, he discovered a gene that controls innate fear in animals.

New study will make criminals sweat
The inventor of forensic fingerprint technique says criminals who eat processed foods have

Promising new treatment option for women with recurrent ovarian cancer
Combining the new drug trabectedin with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin provides clinical benefit to women with relapsed ovarian cancer, according to new results presented at the 33rd Congress of the European Society for Medical Oncology in Stockholm.

Media invitation: 20th EORTC-NCI-ACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics
This is an invitation to the media to register to attend the 20th EORTC-NCI-ACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics in Geneva, Oct.

Unusual case of a woman who suffered stroke during sex
Minutes after having sexual intercourse with her boyfriend, a 35-year-old woman suddenly felt her left arm go weak.

American Chemical Society's Weekly PressPac -- Sept. 10, 2008
The American Chemical Society News Service Weekly Press Package contains reports from 36 major peer-reviewed journals on chemistry, health, medicine, energy, environment, food, nanotechnology and other hot topics.

New research center at Brandeis to combine materials science and biology
Brandeis University has won a highly competitive $7.8 million grant from the National Science Foundation to establish a Materials Research Science and Engineering Center.

Study opens way for later treatment of acute stroke
The time span in which treatment should be given for acute ischaemic stroke -- i.e., stroke caused by a clot or other obstruction to the blood supply -- can be lengthened.

Protective pathway in stressed cells not so helpful when it comes to prions
Scientists at the National Institutes of Health have discovered that an important cellular quality control mechanism may actually be toxic to some brain cells during prion infection.

FEMA awards grant to study New Madrid seismic zone
Faculty members at the Virginia Tech Center for Technology, Security, and Policy, have been awarded a grant to research emergency management issues associated with the New Madrid seismic zone in the central United States.

Biologists identify genes controlling rhythmic plant growth
A team of biologists from UC San Diego, the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and Oregon State University has identified the genes that enable plants to undergo bursts of rhythmic growth at night and allow them to compete when their leaves are shaded by other plants.

Wistar researchers invigorate 'exhausted' immune cells
In battles against chronic infections, the body's key immune cells often become exhausted and ineffective.

Embryonic stem cells might help reduce transplantation rejection
Researchers have shown that immune-defense cells influenced by embryonic stem cell-derived cells can help prevent the rejection of hearts transplanted into mice, all without the use of immunosuppressive drugs.

2 beta blockers found to also protect heart tissue
A newly discovered chemical pathway that helps protect heart tissue can be stimulated by two of 20 common beta-blockers, drugs that are prescribed to millions of patients who have experienced heart failure.

New data on melanoma treatment
People who carry a particular genetic variant are at significantly increased risk of developing malignant melanoma, new research shows.

McGill conference on Global Food Crisis draws impressive list of international participants
McGill University's upcoming Conference on Global Food Security (Sept. 24-26) has attracted a long list of important players in key organizations around the world to discuss solutions to a problem that might have fallen off media radar screens, but which has not gone away.

Annals of Internal Medicine tip sheet for Sept. 16, 2008, issue
Below is information about four separate studies being published in the Sept.

Ovarian cancer drug trial reveals promising new treatment
Women with recurrent ovarian cancer can be helped by an experimental therapy using a drug already touted for its ability to fight other cancers, a finding that provides hope for improved treatment of this deadly disease.

Limiting resident surgeon's work hours associated with fewer complications after gallbladder surgery
Fewer patients undergoing gallbladder surgery at one major public teaching hospital sustained injuries to their bile ducts or other complications after resident physicians' work hours were limited to 80 per week, according to a report in the September issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Study identifies factors associated with poor weight loss after gastric bypass surgery
Individuals with diabetes and those whose stomach pouches are larger appear less likely to successfully lose weight after gastric bypass surgery, according to a report in the September issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Context is everything: An Armani ad on 1 page changes perception of Honda ad on next page
A person flipping through a magazine or watching TV sees a number of advertisements.

Water purification down the nanotubes
Nanotechnology could be the answer to ensuring a safe supply of drinking water for regions of the world stricken by periodic drought or where water contamination is rife.

Small glaciers -- not large -- account for most of Greenland's recent loss of ice, study shows
The recent dramatic melting and breakup of a few huge Greenland glaciers have fueled public concerns over the impact of global climate change, but that isn't the island's biggest problem.

Avoid coupon redeemers: Their stigma is contagious (unless they're attractive)
Less than 2 percent of Americans use coupons, likely because of fear of being viewed as cheap or poor.

Herpes drug inhibits HIV in patients infected with both viruses
Researchers at the US National Institutes of Health, McGill University and other institutions have discovered how a simple antiviral drug developed decades ago suppresses HIV in patients who are also infected with herpes.

Nanomedical approach targets multiple cancer genes, shrinks tumors more effectively
Nanoparticles filled with a drug that targets two genes that trigger melanoma could offer a potential cure for this deadly disease, according to cancer researchers.

NASA selects CU-Boulder to lead $485M Mars mission
In the largest research contract ever awarded to the University of Colorado at Boulder, the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics has been selected by NASA to lead a $485 million orbiting space mission slated to launch in 2013 to probe the past climate of Mars, including its potential for harboring life over the ages.

New book explores cities of the future
Cities in Africa and Asia are creating a new template for urban development, says Binghamton University sociologist Martin J.

Sun-damaged skin does not improve with estrogen treatments
Treating the skin with estrogen can stimulate collagen production -- which improves the appearance of the skin -- in areas not typically exposed to the sun, according to new research from the University of Michigan Health System.

Retrospective study analyzes expenses of osteoporosis-related fracture over 3 years
In a retrospective analysis of more than 30,000 female Medicare patients 65 years and older, osteoporosis fractures resulted in fracture-related medical expenses of $15,522 per person over three years.

New tool to speed cancer therapy approval available
Although cancer remains a leading cause of death in America, it can take up to 12 years to bring a new anti-cancer agent before the FDA and the success rate for approval is only five to 10 percent.

Newer antipsychotics no better than older drug in treating child and adolescent schizophrenia
Two newer atypical antipsychotic medications were no more effective than an older conventional antipsychotic in treating child and adolescent schizophrenia and may lead to more metabolic side effects, according to a new study funded by the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Mental Health.

Cold and lonely: Does social exclusion literally feel cold?
There are numerous examples in our daily language of metaphors which make a connection between cold temperatures and emotions such as loneliness, despair and sadness.

Intravenous iron improves treatment response in cancer-related anemia
For patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia, adding intravenous iron to treatment with the drug darbepoetin alfa results in a faster and more potent improvement in response with lower doses of the drug, according to data presented at the 33rd Congress of the European Society for Medical Oncology in Stockholm.

New research could help cars kick the fossil fuel habit
Researchers at the University of Bath are helping to develop new rechargeable batteries that could improve hybrid electric cars in the future.

ACP issues guideline for drug treatment of men and women with osteoporosis or low bone density
The American College of Physicians today released a new clinical practice guideline on drug treatment of osteoporosis or low bone density to prevent fracture in men and women.

Topical use of estradiol may stimulate collagen production in aging skin
Applying the hormone estradiol to skin protected from the sun appears to stimulate production of the protein collagen in older men and women, according to a report in the September issue of Archives of Dermatology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

First 3-D processor runs at 1.4 Ghz on new architecture
The next major advance in computer processors will likely be the move from today's two-dimensional chips to three-dimensional circuits, and the first three-dimensional synchronization circuitry is now running at 1.4 gigahertz at the University of Rochester.

Is re-emerging superbug the next MRSA?
Loyola physicians issue warning that Clostridium difficile, a virulent strain of an intestinal bacteria, is currently plaguing hospitals and now rivals the superbug Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus as a top disease threat to humans.

Study examines function of prosthetic ears in improving hearing, speech recognition
Prosthetic ears appear to improve hearing and speech recognition in noisy environments, according to a report in the September/October issue of Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

What was I doing? Interruptions can change purchase decisions
You're on your computer, about to buy a vacation package when the phone rings.

Small numbers of patients with drug-resistant TB may account for high proportion of new infections
Inadequate treatment of antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis can leave patients highly infectious, and small numbers of such patients may drive transmission of the disease in the very health care facilities intended to treat it, according to research published in PLoS Medicine.

LSUHSC awarded grant to address nursing shortage
LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans School of Nursing has been awarded a $100,000 grant by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to provide scholarships to individuals under-represented in nursing or from disadvantaged backgrounds in an accelerated nursing degree program.

Don't throw the candy out: Temptation leads to moderation
Banishing tempting goodies may not be the best way to keep from eating them.

$10M clinical trial tests new treatment for blood clots in the leg
A $10 million, government-funded, multicenter clinical trial of an aggressive treatment for blood clots in the leg known as deep vein thrombosis will be led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St.

DOE's Jefferson Lab receives approval to start construction of $310M upgrade
The US Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility today received approval from DOE to begin construction on a $310 million project that will provide physicists worldwide with an unprecedented ability to study the basic building blocks of the visible universe.

Immigrant Sun: Our star could be far from where it started in Milky Way
New simulations challenge a long-held belief, indicating that in galaxies similar to the Milky Way stars such as our Sun can migrate great distances.

IOF World Congress on Osteoporosis in Bangkok to address Asian issues
The IOF World Congress on Osteoporosis, to be held for the first time in Asia, will feature several sessions focused on Asian issues.

Steady work and mental health -- is there a connection?
Research from the Center for Addiction and Mental Health, in a new report from the World Health Organization on the social determinants of health, highlights the profound impact of employment conditions on health.

Responsive local governments most attractive to young adults
Young adults staying in or coming to Pennsylvania are attracted to regions that have more units of government and they are not deterred by the large number of local governments in the state, according to a new study.

Giant grass offers clues to growing corn in cooler climes, researchers report
A giant perennial grass used as a biofuels source has a much longer growing season than corn, and researchers think they've found the secret of its success.

An 'HIV-test' equivalent for the early detection of lung cancer
A team of researchers led by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center reports online today in the Journal of Clinical Oncology the validation of a potential

Key protein molecule linked to diverse human chronic inflammatory diseases
Liwu Li, associate professor of biological sciences at Virginia Tech, has revealed a common connection between the cellular innate immunity network and human chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Acting Surgeon General issues 'call to action to prevent DVT and pulmonary embolism'
Acting Surgeon General Steven K. Galson, M.D., M.P.H., today issued a Call to Action to reduce the number of cases of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in the United States.

Vaccine against HER2-positive breast cancer offers complete protection in lab
Researchers at Wayne State University have tested a breast cancer vaccine they say completely eliminated HER2-positive tumors in mice -- even cancers resistant to current anti-HER2 therapy --- without any toxicity.

Presidential science and technology appointments
A new report from the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine, offers advice to presidential candidates John McCain and Barack Obama on filling high-level federal science and technology positions after the election.

University to showcase cutting edge environmental research
The global problem of climate change will hit the spotlight today as researchers meet for a showcase at the University of Bath on environmental sustainability.

Study offers new insights into teenagers and anxiety disorders
Can scientists predict who will develop anxiety disorders years in advance?

Pivotal national trial uses newest interventional radiology treatment to bust blood clots in legs
ATTRACT -- the first major national trial of a catheter-based treatment for deep vein thrombosis -- will evaluate the use of clot-dissolving drugs in combination with clot removal devices to prevent post-thrombotic syndrome in patients with DVT (the formation of a blood clot in a leg vein).

Fantastic photographs of fluorescent fish
Scientists have discovered that certain fish are capable of glowing red.

Prosthetic vein valve designed to direct blood flow shows promising pre-clinical results
Engineers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have developed a prosthetic vein valve to help improve the lives of those suffering from a condition known as chronic venous insufficiency.

NJIT physics professor directs effort to install 1.2 meter telescope in NJ
NJIT physics professor Andrew Gerrard hopes by the end of October to be able to peer through what will be the second largest optical telescope east of Texas.

Genetic profile reveals susceptibility to cleft palate
For the first time, researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine have identified a series of genetic mutations that appear to be linked to significant risk for cleft palate and other dental abnormalities.

UNC, WPIC to conduct Internet-based study of cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimia
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is leading a novel clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of online cognitive behavioral therapy, delivered through a Web site and augmented with therapist-moderated, weekly online chat sessions, to face-to-face group therapy for the treatment of bulimia nervosa.

Blanket ban on bushmeat could be disastrous for forest dwellers in Central Africa, says new report
A new report from the Center for International Forestry Research, the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and partners warns that an upsurge in hunting bushmeat -- including mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians -- in tropical forests is unsustainable, and that it poses serious threats to food security for poor inhabitants of forests in Africa, who rely largely on bushmeat for protein.

The language of luxury: Advertisers' language choices evoke different reactions
Multinational companies advertising luxury goods abroad should consider advertising those goods in English, whereas ads for necessities might be more effective in local languages, according to a new study.

Impulsive eater? Remembering failures may help curb eating
When it comes to tempting or fattening foods, some people are a lot more impulsive than others.

The groan says it all -- dominant male deer have the deepest calls
The low timber and enticing vibrations of a deep voice have long been considered a key element of male attractiveness.

New synthetic form of protein holds promise to stop cancer spread
Researchers at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee have a pending patent on a new synthetic form of a protein involved in certain types of cancers and immune system diseases.

Health scores after 1 year may predict survival in head and neck cancer patients
Changes in patients' physical health status during the year after being diagnosed with head and neck cancer appear to predict survival at five years, according to a report in the September issue of Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Capturing replication strategies used by SARS viruses in their bid to spread
In a study published this week in PLoS Biology, biologist Eric Snijder and colleagues report how they have used virus-infected cell cultures and developed a sophisticated method to preserve and visualize the fragile replication structures of SARS-coronavirus, both in whole cells and in sections of cells.

'1-hit' event provides new opportunity for colon cancer prevention, say Fox Chase researchers
Over 30 years ago, Fox Chase Cancer Center's Alfred Knudson Jr., revolutionized cancer genetics with the Two-Hit Hypothesis, which guided scientists around the globe in their quest for tumor suppressor genes.

First generation antipsychotic drugs as effective as newer ones in some children
Nearly every child who receives an antipsychotic medicine is first prescribed a second-generation, or

Common bronchodilator linked to increased deaths
A common bronchodilator drug which has been used for more than a decade by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been linked to a one-third higher risk of cardiovascular-related deaths.

Old and new therapies combine to tackle atherosclerosis
Futuristic nanotechnology has been teamed with a decades-old drug to beat atherosclerotic plaques in research conducted at Washington University School of Medicine in St.

Consumers think differently about close and distant purchases
If you are deciding on a major vacation for next year, you'll use different criteria than if you are planning a trip this weekend, according to a new study. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to