Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 17, 2008
Nottingham scientists to develop blood test for Alzheimer's
Researchers from the city's two universities are joining forces to develop a simple blood test to diagnose Alzheimer's disease.

Duke to lead new NSF, EPA center to study the environmental implications of nanotechnology
The National Science Foundationand the Environmental Protection Agency have awarded $14.4 million to create the Center for Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology to explore the potential ecological hazards of nanoparticles.

Brown-assisted trial finds new colorectal screening procedure is accurate and less invasive
A major clinical trial for colorectal screening finds that more patients stand to benefit from a comprehensive, less invasive method to accurately detect colorectal cancer and precancerous polyps.

SAGE-Hindawi launch new open-access journal in dental biomechanics
SAGE-Hindawi today announced the launch of the Journal of Dental Biomechanics, the second open access title to be launched in the joint collaboration between SAGE and the Hindawi Publishing Corporation.

Older people who diet without exercising lose valuable muscle mass
A group of sedentary and overweight older people placed on a four-month exercise program became more fit and burned off more fat, compared to older sedentary people who dieted but did not exercise.

Study finds ATV guidelines inadequate
National size guidelines for all-terrain vehicles (ATV) are inadequate to ensure the safety of young riders, according to preliminary results from a study by researchers at the University of Kentucky.

UCLA, partners establish new center on environmental effects of nanotechnology
UCLA and 12 collaborating institutions have been awarded $24 million by the NSF and EPA to establish the UC Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, which will explore the impact of nanomaterials on environmental life forms and their interactions with different biological systems and ecosystems and help researchers to design safer and more environmentally benign nanomaterials.

ENT doctors showcase new research in Chicago, Sept. 21-24
The 2008 Annual Meeting & OTO EXPO of the American Academy of Otolaryngology -- Head and Neck Surgery Foundation will convene Sept.

University and Tesco launch dairy center
The University of Liverpool and the retailer, Tesco, will launch a new dairy center that aims to offer expertise in cattle health and welfare.

Research shows physical therapy treatment resolves symptoms of urinary incontinence in women
In response to a new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association showing that pelvic floor disorders, such as urinary incontinence, affect up to one-quarter of American women, the American Physical Therapy Association is urging women who suffer from this widespread disorder to consider treatment from a physical therapist.

Behavioral intervention works to reduce risky behavior
In an effort to curb the rising rates of HIV and sexually transmitted infections along the Mexico-US border, a binational team of researchers led by the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine have shown that brief but personalized behavioral counseling significantly reduced rates and improved condom use among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

Audio relaxation program may help lower blood pressure in elderly
Study highlights an audio-guided relaxation CD with background sounds of ocean waves and a calming voice may lower blood pressure in elderly people.

Kids with obese friends and family more likely to misperceive weight
Kids and teens surrounded by overweight peers or parents are more likely to be oblivious to their own extra pounds than kids from thin entourages, according to a new Canadian study.

Penn researchers use honeybee venom toxin to develop a new tool for studying hypertension
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have modified a honeybee venom toxin so that it can be used as a tool to study the inner workings of ion channels that control heart rate and the recycling of salt in kidneys.

ASGE encourages patients to speak to their doctor about colorectal cancer screening options
Results of the National CT Colonography Trial, published in the Sept.

Neighbors from hell: Infanticide rife in guillemot colony
One of Britain's best-known species of seabird is increasingly attacking and killing unattended chicks from neighboring nests due to food shortages.

RNA interference plays bigger role than previously thought
In a paper published today online in the journal Nature, IBM and the Genome Institute of Singapore reported findings from a joint research study that provides new information on how stem cell differentiation is controlled by microRNAs.

Global warming's ecosystem double whammy
Plants and soils act like sponges for atmospheric carbon dioxide, but new research on the cover of this week's Nature finds that one abnormally warm year can suppress the amount of carbon dioxide taken up by some grassland ecosystems for up to two years.

HP Labs award will lay groundwork for next generation computers
Georgia Tech professor Karsten Schwan recently received a 2008 HP Labs Innovation Research Award to help solve some of the key problems in developing exascale machines that will process more than a million trillion calculations per second.

Australian frog species chooses not to put eggs in 1 basket
A groundbreaking new study into the mating and nesting practices of a common Australian frog has found they partner up to eight males sequentially -- the highest recorded of any vertebrate.

New data to inform clinical practice around preterm labor
Long-term follow-up data on a trial to assess the effects of antibiotics given to pregnant women experiencing premature labor, with intact membranes and no obvious infection, has revealed an unexpected increased risk of functional impairment and/or cerebral palsy in some children.

Bovine Mastitis -- could a vaccine be on the way?
The University of Nottingham, with funding worth £2.2M, is to carry out a study of the most common cause of Bovine Mastitis in the UK -- Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis).

Bisexual community reports need for improvements in mental health services
New research from CAMH and the Sherbourne Health Center sheds light on the mental health of bisexual people in Ontario by looking at the context of mental health issues in this group.

Iowa State engineer works to clean and improve engine performance
Iowa State University's Song-Charng Kong and his students are working to reduce emissions in diesel engines, develop a computer model of a gasoline engine and optimize new engine technologies.

Myanmar after Cyclone Nargis
Improved agricultural productivity can help developing countries reduce their reliance on international emergency food relief following natural disasters.

Minimally invasive surgery cures pain caused by hip impingement
The pain due to injury caused by an impingement within the hip joint can be alleviated by means of two surgical techniques in a minimally invasive manner.

Significant increase in alien plants in Europe
The number of alien plant species has more than tripled over the last 25 years.

Top-selling prescription drug mismarketed to women
Study provides evidence that statins in lipitor show significant benefits for men only.

Muscle stem cell identity confirmed by Stanford researchers
A single cell can repopulate damaged skeletal muscle in mice, say Stanford scientists, who devised a way to track the cell's fate in living animals.

BMC/Drexel report finds food prices in Boston and Philadelphia 50 percent higher
Researchers from the Children's Sentinel Nutrition Assessment Program at Boston Medical Center and Drexel University School of Public Health, have reported that low-income families in Boston and Philadelphia using food stamp benefits do not have the financial resources to buy the Thrifty Food Plan, the standardized food plan used as the basis for calculating food stamp benefits by the US Department of Agriculture.

NSF funds multi-university center to study environmental implications of nanotechnology
Nanomaterials are attractive for use in everything from computer hard-drives to sunscreens, cosmetics and medical technologies.

Scientists find black hole 'missing link'
Scientists at Durham University have found the

Case Western Reserve University collaboration helps police address job stress
The city of Cleveland's Division of Police has partnered with Case Western Reserve University, the Partnership for a Safer Cleveland and the US Department of Defense to reduce on-the-job stress among police officers, who find themselves in the middle of traumatic events.

Coating copies microscopic biological surfaces
Someday, your car might have the metallic finish of some insects or the deep black of a butterfly's wing, and the reflectors might be patterned on the nanostructure of a fly's eyes, according to Penn State researchers who have developed a method to rapidly and inexpensively copy biological surface structures.

New technique sees into tissue at greater depth, resolution
By coupling a kicked-up version of microscopy with miniscule particles of gold, Duke University scientists are now able to peer so deep into living tissue that they can see molecules interacting.

Pregnant women with bulimia have more anxiety and depression
Women who have bulimia in pregnancy have more symptoms of anxiety and depression compared to pregnant women without eating disorders.

The language of luxury
Virtually every population in the world has at least one thing in common: multinational companies are vying for their attention.

Scientists behind 'doomsday seed vault' ready the world's crops for climate change
As climate change is credited as one of the main drivers behind soaring food prices, the Global Crop Diversity Trust is undertaking a major effort to search crop collections -- from Azerbaijan to Nigeria -- for the traits that could arm agriculture against the impact of future changes.

Sophisticated monitoring array to address mystery of uranium plume
Scientists have puzzled for years about why uranium contamination in groundwater continues to exceed drinking water standards in an area located at the south end of the Hanford Site near Richland, Wash.

NSF and EPA establish 2 centers for environmental implications of nanotechnology
The National Science Foundation and the US Environmental Protection Agency have made awards to establish two Centers for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology.

'High stakes': How gaming money has reinforced American Indian culture
In the first book to be written on the gaming-era Seminoles, UCLA anthropologist Jessica R.

Monitoring outcomes of suicide attempts in pregnancy can better assess drug dangers
Monitoring the health of children born to women who attempted suicide while pregnant can shed light on which medicines and what doses are particularly dangerous to developing fetuses, according to researchers from Hungary who publish their findings in a series of reports in a special issue of Toxicology and Industrial Health, published this week by SAGE.

James Webb Telescope components pass tests
Development models for components of the Mid-Infrared Instrument on NASA's James Webb Space Telescope have now passed a series of temperature and vibration tests.

New leukemia signal could point way to better treatment, Stanford researchers find
Cancer researchers at Stanford have discovered a promising new chemotherapy target for a deadly form of leukemia.

Almost 7 million pregnant in sub-Saharan Africa infected with hookworms; at risk of anaemia
A study published today in the open-access journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases reveals that between a quarter and a third of pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa, or almost 7 million, are infected with hookworms and at increased risk of developing anaemia.

Collaboration helps police address job stress
Mangled bodies, gunfire, high-speed chases and injured children are just a few events witnessed by police officers and soldiers serving in dangerous hot spots around the world.

How often to screen for colon cancer? NEJM study finds 5-year risk extremely low
In a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers led by Thomas F.

Mother's flu shot protects newborns
Newborns can be protected from seasonal flu when their mothers are vaccinated during pregnancy.

Researchers evaluate cost-effectiveness of genetic screening to guide initial HIV treatment
A major study from a team of researchers from Weill Cornell Medical College and Massachusetts General Hospital has found that a recent change to HIV-treatment guidelines recommending genetic screening is cost-effective under certain conditions.

UC Davis researchers find decrease in hysterectomy complications
UC Davis researchers who studied hospital discharge records for nearly 650,000 California women over a 13-year period have found that complications from hysterectomies have significantly declined.

UNC study: No need to repeat colonoscopy until 5 years after first screening
Among people who have had an initial colonoscopy that found no polyps, a possible sign of cancer, the risk of developing colorectal cancer within five years is extremely low, a new study has found.

UNC scientists turn human skin cells into insulin-producing cells
Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine have transformed cells from human skin into cells that produce insulin, the hormone used to treat diabetes.

$70 million CU-Boulder instrument set for insertion on Hubble Space Telescope
Astronomers will use a $70 million instrument designed by the University of Colorado at Boulder now set for installation on the Hubble Space Telescope in mid-October to probe the

Homosexuals' negative feelings about sexuality predict poor mental and sexual health
Researchers at the University of Minnesota have published a study showing that the degree of internalized homonegativity (negative attitude towards homosexuality) among homosexual men is what predicts poor mental and sexual health -- not the act of being homosexual.

Flatworm helps researchers study stem cells and cancer
Researchers at the University of Utah and the Forsyth Institute at Harvard report that planaria contain a gene highly similar to the human gene PTEN, one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer.

Warming world in range of dangerous consequences
Even if greenhouse gas emissions are fixed at 2005 levels, new analysis shows that irreversible warming will lead to biodiversity loss and substantial glacial melt.

Colorful spy tactics track live cells supporting cancerous tumors
A new advance in cellular imaging is allowing scientists to better understand the movement of cells in the area around tumors, also known as the tumor microenvironment.

University of Miami expands accelerated nursing program
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation has awarded the UM School of Nursing and Health Studies a $300,000 grant to increase student scholarship support.

Fly studies reveal immune cell responses to tumor and tissue damage
A new report reveals the similarities between the immune response to cancer and and the immune response to tissue damage.

Latest Electoral College forecast shows McCain ahead by as many as 27 votes
A new approach to determining who will win the most electoral votes in the US Presidential race factors in lessons learned from the 2004 election and uses sophisticated math modeling.

Replacing the coach doesn't solve problems
Bringing in a new coach rarely solves problems, regardless of when it is done.

New tool for early diagnosis of breast cancer
Scientists from Finland, Germany and the ESRF have developed a new X-ray technique for the early detection of breast cancer.

Healthy people with elevated levels of uric acid are at risk of developing kidney disease
Elevated uric acid levels in the blood indicate an increased risk of new-onset kidney disease, according to a study appearing in the December 2008 issue of the Journal of the American Society Nephrology.

FAS honors Mark D. Levine with 2008 Public Service Award
The Federation of American Scientists has chosen Mark D. Levine, director of the China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, as the recipient of the 2008 FAS Public Service Award for

Pelvic disorders affect large number of women, UT Southwestern researchers find
Nearly one-quarter of all women suffer from pelvic-floor disorders, such as incontinence, at some point in their lives, a national study, including researchers from UT Southwestern Medical Center, has found.

Report offers advice to McCain, Obama on science and technology appointments
The importance of research in solving many of our national challenges, including economic ones, was emphasized today in a new report titled

Scientists identify genes capable of regulating stem cell function
Scientists from the Forsyth Institute, Boston, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the University of Utah School of Medicine have developed a new system in which to study known mammalian adult stem cell disorders.

Political views affect firms' corporate social responsibility
Firms in Democratic states tend to have a higher corporate social responsibility rating than those in Republican ones.

Error message! How mobile phones distort measurements
Unfortunately complex measuring systems are susceptible to electromagnetic radiation such as that transmitted by mobile phones and radio transceivers -- and this is despite the fact that the individual components of the system have passed the standardized test for exactly these types of radiation.

AGA Institute statement: Data support CT colonography as viable colorectal cancer screening option
Death from colorectal cancer is highly preventable with effective screening and early detection.

Triple cocktail to tackle stroke risk
Scientists at the University of Nottingham are to investigate whether giving recovering stroke patients a triple cocktail of medicines could reduce their chances of a further attack.

Fixed costs determine structure of the supermarket industry
In many retail industries, the most successful firms are the ones that offer the widest selection.

Nitrate concentrations of ground water increasing in many areas of the United States
A nationwide study of nitrate trends in the ground water of the United States was recently completed by scientists at the US Geological Survey.
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