Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

January 19, 2009
Major agricultural initiative to benefit millions of South Asian farmers
An initiative announced today aims to help 6 million South Asian farmers substantially boost crop yields and their income within 10 years.

Study examines racial disparities in survival among patients diagnosed with lung cancer
Disparities in survival among black patients diagnosed with early stage lung cancer are not seen when patients are recommended appropriate treatment, according to a report in the January issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Kidney transplant survival can be long-term for people with HIV
A Johns Hopkins study finds that HIV-positive kidney transplant recipients could have the same one-year survival rates for themselves and their donor organs as those without HIV, provided certain risk factors for transplant failure are recognized and tightly managed.

Predicting politics: Professors model prediction markets
Political prediction markets accurately predicted Barack Obama's 2008 victory. Now Northwestern University researchers have determined that these markets behave similar to financial markets, except when traders' partisan feelings get in the way (as they did in the 2000 presidential election).

Obama and the opportunity to eliminate nuclear weapons
The abolition of nuclear devices is the ultimate medical issue and US President-elect Barack Obama needs the help of physicians around the world to do this, writes renowned author Dr.

Flat fixtures for EUV exposure
Exposing silicon wafers to light during chip manufacture requires special fixtures called chucks.

'Warrior gene' predicts aggressive behavior after provocation
People with the so-called

Collaborative learning across multiple institutions
A new article in the 2009 issue of the Journal of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Education describes an innovative research course, titled

How Toxoplasma gondii gets noticed
Researchers provide insight into how Toxoplasma gondii, a common parasite of people and other animals, triggers an immune response in its host.

Universal infant hepatitis B immunization recommended
All countries should offer universal infant immunization for hepatitis B, write Dr.

New sperm shaker to improve IVF success
Scientists have developed a ground-breaking method for testing the quality of a sperm before it is used in IVF and increase the chances of conception.

Our microbes, ourselves
A new study suggests that the composition of microbes within the gut may hold a key to one cause of obesity and the prospect of future treatment.

Food advertisements in your magazine: How healthy are they?
At a time when many of us are thinking about how to get rid of a few extra pounds, research at Newcastle University has shown that even the magazine you read may affect how healthy your diet is.

JCI online early table of contents: Jan. 19, 2009
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, Jan.

MRSA's 'weak point' visualized by scientists
An enzyme that lives in MRSA and helps the dangerous bacterium to grow and spread infection through the human body has been visualised for the first time, according to a study out today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

American Chemical Society's weekly PressPac -- Jan. 14, 2009
The American Chemical Society Office of Public Affairs Weekly Press Package with reports from 34 major peer-reviewed journals on chemistry, health, medicine, energy, environment, food, nanotechnology and other hot topics.

Study shows rise in antibiotic resistant pediatric head and neck infections
A report by researchers in the Jan. 19, 2009, Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head and Neck Surgery shows that there was nationwide increase in the prevalence of pediatric methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus head and neck infections from January 2001 to December 2006.

Hospital at-home programs provide similar patient outcomes
For select patients, hospital at home treatment produces similar outcomes to inpatient care at similar or lower costs, found a study by researchers from the United Kingdom and Italy to be published in CMAJ.

Penn study: Breast cancer survivors call for more 'survivorship care' from primary care physicians
Many breast cancer patients give low marks to the post-cancer care they receive from their primary care physicians, who generally serve as a patient's main health care provider after they're released from active treatment with their oncologists, according to a new study from the University of Pennsylvania's Abramson Cancer Center published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Infra red spotlights crystal growth
The creation of a reproducible crystallization process is a fundamental challenge to drug manufacturers, but a technique which provides real time detailed analyses of chemical processes could provide an answer.

Gene technology to fight lethal hospital-acquired infection
Scientists at the University of Nottingham are leading a major European study to unravel the genetic code of one of the most lethal strains of hospital acquired infections.

Scientists: Earthquakes, El Ninos fatal to earliest civilization in Americas
First came the earthquakes, then the torrential rains. But the relentless march of sand across once fertile fields and bays, a process set in motion by the quakes and flooding, is probably what did in America's earliest civilization.

Socially active and not easily stressed? You may not develop dementia
A new study shows that people who are socially active and not easily stressed may be less likely to develop dementia.

Baffling the body into accepting transplants
An unexpected discovery made by a Sydney scientist has potential to alter the body's response to anything it perceives as not 'self,' such as a tissue or organ transplant.

Nile Delta fishery grows dramatically thanks to run-off of sewage, fertilizers
While many of the world's fisheries are in serious decline, the coastal Mediterranean fishery off the Nile Delta has expanded dramatically since the 1980s.

Motor skill learning may be enhanced by mild brain stimulation
People who received a mild electrical current to a motor control area of the brain were significantly better able to learn and perform a complex motor task than those in control groups.

Victims of intimate partner violence display distinct patterns of facial injury
Women who are victims of intimate partner violence tend to have different patterns of facial injury than women who experience facial trauma from other causes, according to a report in the January/February issue of Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Study compares 2 nonsurgical treatments for reflux disease
Two nonsurgical, nonpharmacological treatments for gastroesophageal reflux disease both appear effective in reducing medication use and improving voice and swallowing symptoms, according to a report in the January issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Less severe first heart attacks linked to heart disease death reductions
The severity of first heart attacks dropped significantly over 15 years among 10,285 hospitalized Americans which may help to explain the decline in death from coronary heart disease.

Genetic testing not cost-effective in guiding initial dosing of common blood thinner
New analyses led by the University of Cincinnati show that genetic testing used to guide initial dosing of the blood-thinner warfarin may not be cost-effective for typical patients with atrial fibrillation but may be for patients at higher risk for major bleeding.

New, higher-yielding rice plant could ease threat of hunger for poor
An ambitious project to re-engineer photosynthesis in rice, led by the International Rice Research Institute through a global consortium of scientists, has received a grant of $11 million over three years from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Frantic activity revealed in dusty stellar factories
Thanks to the Very Large Telescope's acute and powerful near-infrared eye, astronomers have uncovered a host of new young, massive and dusty stellar nurseries in nearby galaxy NGC 253.

Sensor in artery measures blood pressure
High blood pressure can be a trial of patience for doctors and for sufferers, whose blood pressure often has to be monitored over a long time until it can be regulated.

Language driven by culture, not biology
Language in humans has evolved culturally rather than genetically, according to a study by UCL (University College London) and US researchers.

Survey: Scientists agree human-induced global warming is real
A broad poll of experts taken by UIC earth scientist Peter Doran finds that the vast majority of climatologists and other earth scientists believe in global warming and think human activity is a factor for the temperature rise.

'Smart' fridges stay cool by talking to each other
Smart' fridges that run on renewable electricity and are capable of negotiating the most energy efficient way to keep food cold have been developed by researchers from CSIRO's Energy Transformed Flagship.

Bleeding hearts revealed with new scan
Images that for the first time show bleeding inside the heart after people have suffered a heart attack have been captured by scientists, in a new study published today in the journal Radiology.

Virtual communities may provide valuable support for psoriasis patients
Online support communities appear to offer both a valuable educational resource and a source of psychological and social support for individuals with psoriasis, according to a report in the January issue of Archives of Dermatology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Embargoed news from Annals of Internal Medicine
Included in this release is information about four studies being published in the Jan.

The more promiscuous the female, the speedier the sperm
Female promiscuity appears to have triggered changes in the type of sperm a male produces, according to new research on fish from central Africa.

A robot inspects wind energy converters
The material of wind energy converters must withstand intense forces.

New imaging method lets scientists 'see' cell molecules more clearly
Niels de Jonge, Ph.D., and colleagues at Vanderbilt University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have developed a unique new imaging tool.

£9 ($12.4) million to help research digital revolution
UK and Indian governments, scientists and industrial engineers are embarking on a £9 million ($12.4 million) 'Next Generation Networks' IT project.

European evolutionary biologists rally behind Richard Dawkins' Extended Phenotype
Richard Dawkins' Extended Phenotype concept is as relevant now as when it was first proposed 26 years ago and is not at odds with other evolutionary explanations.

Research breakthrough targets genetic diseases
A cure for debilitating genetic diseases such as Huntington's disease, Friedreich's ataxia and fragile X syndrome is a step closer to reality, thanks to a recent scientific breakthrough.

Space mission for worms
Worms from the University of Nottingham should be checking in for a flight onboard the Space Shuttle later this year -- to help researchers investigate the effect of zero gravity on the body's muscle development and physiology.

Satellites help locate water in Niger
Like most sub-Saharan African countries, Niger faces problems meeting its water needs.

Retinoid cream associated with death in clinical trial, but relationship does not appear causal
Patients using a cream containing tretinoin, a retinoid commonly used to treat acne and other conditions, appeared more likely to die than those using a placebo in a clinical trial that was halted early as a result, according to a report in the January issue of Archives of Dermatology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Scientific sub makes deep-sea discoveries
A four-week expedition to explore the deep ocean south-west of Tasmania has revealed new species of animals and more evidence of impacts of increasing carbon dioxide on deep-sea corals.

Fetal health affected by mother's diet
In the United States, there has been a recent dramatic rise in the number of children classified as obese and diagnosed with obesity-related diseases.

Infidelity produces faster sperm
Until now, it has been difficult to prove that fast-swimming sperms have an advantage when it comes to fertilizing an egg.

Researchers discover 3 genes that increase risk of severe obesity in kids and adults
European and Canadian researchers have, for the first time, drawn a map of genetic risk factors that can lead to two forms of severe obesity: early-onset obesity in children, and morbid obesity in adults.

New criteria for measuring tumor size and progression will help ease workloads in clinical trials
The first, formal revision of specific guidelines, known as RECIST, used by clinicians to measure tumor size and response to treatment, has been published on Tuesday, Jan.

Food choices and location influence California sea otter exposure to disease
Sea otters living along the central California coast risk higher exposure to disease-causing parasites as a consequence of the food they eat and where they feed.

MRSA head and neck infections increase among children
Rates of antibiotic-resistant head and neck infections increased in pediatric patients nationwide between 2001 and 2006, according to a report in the January issue of Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Electronics from the printer
Electronic systems designed to perform simple functions, such as monitor the temperature on a yogurt pot, must not cost much; this is where printed electronics are at an advantage.
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