Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 11, 2009
Round Goby invade Great Lakes
A team of scientists from the University of Toronto, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and the University of Guelph has identified a drastic invasion of round goby into many Great Lakes tributaries, including several areas of the Thames, Sydenham, Ausable and Grand Rivers.

Formal education lessens the impact of Alzheimer's disease
Researchers at the Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitat Munchen, investigated the effects of formal education on the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.

Mysterious charge transport in self-assembled monolayer transistors unraveled
An international team of researchers from the Netherlands, Russia and Austria discovered that monolayer coverage and channel length set the mobility in self-assembled monolayer field-effect transistors.

Study examines decrease in delivery-related rate of death of infants born at term
During about the last 20 years, the risk of delivery-related death at birth or shortly thereafter for term infants has decreased nearly 40 percent in Scotland, with the largest contributing factor being a decrease in the number of deaths caused by a lack of oxygen for the baby during the childbirth process, according to a study in the Aug.

UK scientists developing intelligent harvesting robot to save farms up to £100,000 a year
Researchers at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington have developed imaging technology to be used in an intelligent harvesting machine that could minimize wastage and solve an impending labor shortage for UK farmers.

Jefferson Headache Center study shows novel, orally inhaled migraine therapy effective
A new study conducted at the Jefferson Headache Center at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia, Penn., shows an investigational, orally inhaled therapy is effective in treating migraines.

The ugly truth about one night stands
Men are far more interested in casual sex than women.

Aspirin use after colorectal cancer diagnosis associated with improved survival
Men and women who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and began regular use of aspirin had a lower risk of overall and colorectal cancer death compared to patients not using aspirin, according to a study in the Aug.

Antibodies to strep throat bacteria linked to obsessive compulsive disorder in mice
A new study by researchers at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health's Center for Infection and Immunity indicates that pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome and/or tic disorder may develop from an inappropriate immune response to the bacteria causing common throat infections.

Denosumab increases bone density, cuts fracture risk in prostate cancer survivors
Twice-yearly treatment with denosumab, a new targeted therapy to stop bone loss, increased bone density and prevented spinal fractures in men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.

Particles as tracers for the most massive explosions in the Milky Way
Astronomers recently observed a mysterious flux of particles in the universe, and the hope was born that this may be the first observation of the remnants of

Caltech scientists help launch the first standard graphical notation for biology
Researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and their colleagues in 30 laboratories worldwide have released a new set of standards for graphically representing biological information -- the biology equivalent of the circuit diagram in electronics.

CEUS: To diagnose postoperative vascular complications after liver transplantation
Conventional ultrasound including 2D and Doppler ultrasound plays an important role in screening for postoperative vascular complications after liver transplantation, but vascular visualization is not always satisfactory.

Experiments at UCSB push quantum mechanics to higher levels
Scientists at UC Santa Barbara have devised a new type of superconducting circuit that behaves quantum mechanically -- but has up to five levels of energy instead of the usual two.

Spot urine test: To monitor dietary sodium compliance in liver disease patients?
Most patients with ascites caused by liver cirrhosis are treated with diuretics in addition to dietary sodium restriction.

Where science feeds action, leopards win
In 2002, leopards in were legally -- but unsustainably -- hunted by trophy hunters, and illegally hunted by farmers because of the threat they pose to livestock.

Perform non-radiation ERCP during pregnancy: Is it safe?
Choledocholithiasis is a serious problem in pregnancy, which can lead to life-threatening complications such as cholangitis and pancreatitis.

What is alternative treatment for irritable bowel syndrome when conventional therapy has failed?
Tricyclic antidepressants have been shown in a few trials to improve abdominal pain in patients with IBS; however there was inadequate evidence to support an effect on improvement of global IBS symptoms.

Zenvia hits endpoints in phase 3 trial for PBA, a neurological condition affecting 2 million in US
Avanir Pharmaceuticals announced top-line results from a phase 3 trial of Zenvia for pseudobulbar affect, a neurologic disorder that occurs secondary to neurologic disease or brain injury causing sudden and unpredictable episodes of crying, laughing, or other emotional displays.

Toronto hosts quantum info and quantum control conference
The University of Toronto will host the world's leading scientists in physics, chemistry, computer science and mathematics to review major advances in quantum information and quantum control during a conference running Aug.

Taking dex can improve high altitude exercise capacity in certain climbers
Taking dexamathasone prophlyactically may improve exercise capacity in some mountaineers, according to Swiss researchers.

Computer system improves pain therapy for cancer patients
Pain therapy for cancer patients -- whether inpatient or outpatient -- is often inadequate.

Potential risk identified in transfusions of platelets before bone marrow transplant
A larger number of platelet transfusions given before a bone marrow transplant to treat bone marrow failure syndromes correlates with a greater risk of transplant rejection.

What are factors associated with use of gastric cancer screening services in Korea?
To identify barriers for gastric cancer screening participation, A Korea study group constructed a cross-sectional study, and analyzed the factors associated with participation in gastric cancer screening programs.

Parasite causes zombie ants to die in an ideal spot
A study in the September issue of the American Naturalist describes new details about a fungal parasite that coerces ants into dying in just the right spot -- one that is ideal for the fungus to grow and reproduce.

Binge drinking affects attention and working memory in young university students
A new study looks at binge drinking's impact on attention and visual working memory processes in young Spanish university students.

What's the semantic organization of human language?
A Chinese semantic network with semantic (argument structure) annotation was built and investigated for finding its global statistical properties.

AIDS research center earns $7.5 million grant renewal
The grant enables investigators to focus, expand their research goals and explore new ideas through collaboration and shared resources available to HIV teams.

UCLA researchers determine toxic levels of Alzheimer's clusters in brain
Scientists know that small, grape-like clusters of a protein called the amyloid β-protein are toxic, causing Alzheimer's (AD).

UCF scientists control living cells with light; advances could enhance stem cells' power
University of Central Florida researchers have shown for the first time that light energy can gently guide and change the orientation of living cells within lab cultures.

Scientific community urges officials and public to use latest evidence as guide in H1N1 prevention and protection procedures
As flu season draws nearer along with the potential for resurgence in H1N1, leading infectious diseases doctors, hospital epidemiologists, and infection preventionists urge officials to base recommendations for the public and healthcare workers on scientific knowledge and frontline experience gained from the outbreak this summer.

Capping a two-faced particle gives duke engineers complete control
Duke University engineers say they can for the first time control all the degrees of a nanoparticle's motion, opening up broad possibilities for nanotechnology and device applications.

Asteroid detection at NASA
In the 2005 NASA Authorization Act, Congress mandated that by 2020 NASA should be capable of detecting at least 90 percent of objects over 140 meters wide.

Discovery of genetic mutation in Leigh syndrome
Researchers at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University, have discovered a genetic mutation underlying late-onset Leigh syndrome, a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by the degeneration of the central nervous system.

Discovery may lead to powerful new therapy for asthma
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston researchers have found that a single enzyme is apparently critical to most allergen-provoked asthma attacks -- and that activity of the enzyme, known as aldose reductase, can be significantly reduced by compounds that have already undergone clinical trials as treatments for complications of diabetes.

Multi-laboratory study sizes up nanoparticle sizing
As a result of a major inter-laboratory study co-managed by NIST and the National Cancer Institute, the standards body ASTM International has been able to update its guidelines for a commonly used technique for measuring the size of nanoparticles in solutions.

Research examines organization of militaries and its effects on society
The study sheds new light on the limited research examining the influence of militarization on the social and economic development of countries.

Postdiagnosis aspirin use reduces risk of dying from colorectal cancer
Regular use of aspirin after colorectal cancer diagnosis may reduce the risk of cancer death, particularly for tumors expressing the COX-2 enzyme, a characteristic of two-thirds of colorectal cancers.

Cardiac arrest resuscitation: Passive oxygen flow better than assisted ventilation
Arizona researchers compared the survival rates in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients treated with positive-pressure ventilation (bag-valve mask) vs. passive oxygen flow.

Forest Service to host 2nd International Conference on Forests and Water in a Changing Environment
As global climate change impacts forest ecosystems and, consequently, water quality and quantity, the need for science-based guidance for forest managers and policy makers has come to the fore.

Britain's first swine-flu trials under way
Britain's first swine flu vaccine trials, led by the University of Leicester and University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, are taking place at the Leicester Royal Infirmary.

Australian filmmakers are stars of science film awards
Victorian student Kristian Lang has taken out the top student prize at the SCINEMA Festival of Science Film for the second year in a row.

Researchers unravel mystery behind long-lasting memories
A new study by researchers at Wake Forest University School of Medicine may reveal how long-lasting memories form in the brain.

Diet, population size and the spread of modern humans into Europe
Stable isotope data published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Erik Trinkaus, professor of anthropology at Washington University in St.

Oxygen treatment hastens memory loss in Alzheimer's mice
Researchers at the University of South Florida and Vanderbilt University suspect the culprit precipitating Alzheimer's disease in some elderly patients may be high concentrations of oxygen administered during or after major surgery -- a hypothesis borne out in a recent animal model study.

Excessive drinking can damage brain regions used for processing facial emotions
Heavy, constant drinking damages the brain in many different ways, including difficulties in perception of emotional expressions.

New groundbreaking treatment for oxygen-deprived newborns
Until now immediate cooling of the newborn infant was the only treatment that could possibly prevent brain damage following oxygen deprivation during delivery.

Ytterbium gains ground in quest for next-generation atomic clocks
NIST physicists have improved an experimental atomic clock based on ytterbium atoms, which now about four times more accurate than it was several years ago, giving it a precision comparable to that of the NIST-F1 cesium fountain clock.

VA renews funding for limb-loss research in Providence
The US Department of Veterans Affairs has awarded more than $7 million to the Center for Restorative and Regenerative Medicine, renewing funding for another five years.

Reshaping the UK through innovation
High growth and innovation are essential if the UK wants to successfully surface from the recession.

NSF awards UCLA Engineering $10M to create customized computing technology
The UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science has been awarded a $10 million grant by the National Science Foundation's Expeditions in Computing program to develop customizable computing that could revolutionize the role of medical imaging and blood-flow simulation in health care.

Launch of the first standard graphical notation for biology
Researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory's European Bioinformatics Institute and their colleagues in 30 labs worldwide have released a new set of standards for graphically representing biological information -- the biology equivalent of the circuit diagram in electronics.

Finding may explain anti-cancer activity of thiazole antibiotics
University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine researchers have discovered how some recently approved drugs act against cancer cells.

New laser technique may help find supernova
One single atom of a certain isotope of hafnium found on Earth would prove that a supernova once exploded near our solar system.

Anti-psychotic drugs could help fight cancer
A preliminary finding in the current online issue of the International Journal of Cancer reports that the anti-psychotic drug, pimozide, kills lung, breast and brain cancer cells in in-vitro laboratory experiments.

Novel temperature calibration improves NIST microhotplate technology
Researchers at NIST have developed a new calibration technique that will improve the reliability and stability of one of NIST's most versatile technologies, the microhotplate.

Stevens assists in recovery of wreckage after Hudson River mid-air collision
Almost immediately after the terrible mid-air collision that occurred over the Hudson River this past weekend, Stevens Institute of Technology was contacted by local, state and Federal officials to help in the recovery effort.

Aging with GRACE: New health care delivery model improves outcomes, saves money
A team approach to preventive health care delivery for older adults developed by researchers from Indiana University and the Regenstrief Institute improves health and quality of life, decreased emergency department visits and lowered hospital admission rates.

UT Southwestern physicians bust myths about insulin
People diagnosed with type 2 diabetes often resist taking insulin because they fear gaining weight, developing low blood sugar and seeing their quality of life decline.

High school teacher's algebra book aces California test
As California prepares to become the first state in the nation to offer free, open-source digital textbooks for high school students this fall, state officials today gave an A-plus to a North Carolina high school teacher's algebra II textbook, one of the first open-source texts submitted for the program.

Exercise and Mediterranean-type diet combined associated with lower risk for Alzheimer's
Both being more physically active and adhering to a Mediterranean-type diet appears to be associated with reduced Alzheimer's risk, according to a new report in the Aug.

High-fat diet affects physical and memory abilities of rats after 9 days
Rats fed a high-fat diet show a stark reduction in their physical endurance and a decline in their cognitive ability after just nine days, a study by Oxford University researchers has shown.

Older drivers unaware of risks from medications and driving
Most older drivers are unaware of the potential impact on driving performance associated with taking medications, according to new research from the Center for Injury Sciences at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Magnetic microbe genome attracting attention for biotech research
The smallest organisms to use a biological compass are magnetotactic bacteria, however mysteries remain about exactly how these bacteria create their cellular magnets.

The public overestimates benefits of cancer screening, survey finds
A public survey conducted in Europe found that the vast majority of people overestimate the life-saving benefits of breast and prostate cancer screening, according to a new study published online August 12 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Budesonide is not beneficial for the treatment of diarrhea in metastatic melanoma patients
Patients with stage III or IV melanoma taking ipilimumab and the oral steroid budesonide to reduce side effects did not have less diarrhea, a known side effect of ipilimumab, according to results of a phase II trial published in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

New no-needle approach to prevent blood clots
An international team of scientists has found a better way to prevent deadly blood clots after joint replacement surgery -- a major problem that results in thousands of unnecessary deaths each year.

Mediterranean diet, physical activity linked with lower risk of Alzheimer disease
Elderly individuals who had a diet that included higher consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereal and fish, and was low in red meat and poultry and who were physically active had an associated lower risk of Alzheimer disease, according to a study in the August 12 issue of JAMA.

A synthetic derivative of the kudzu vine can reduce drinking and prevent relapse
Kudzu extracts have been used in Chinese folk medicine to treat alcoholism for about 1,000 years.

NIAID scientists study past flu pandemics for clues to future course of 2009 H1N1 virus
A commonly held belief that severe influenza pandemics are preceded by a milder wave of illness arose because some accounts of the flu pandemic of 1918-19 suggested that it may have followed such a pattern.

Discovery to aid study of biological structures, molecules
Researchers in the United States and Spain have discovered that a tool widely used in nanoscale imaging works differently in watery environments, a step toward better using the instrument to study biological molecules and structures.

McGill/JGH researchers successfully reverse multiple sclerosis in animals
A new experimental treatment for multiple sclerosis completely reverses the devastating autoimmune disorder in mice, and might work exactly the same way in humans, say researchers at the Jewish General Hospital Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research and McGill University in Montreal.

SLAC researchers reveal the dance of water
Water is familiar to everyone -- it shapes our bodies and our planet.

Development of alphabetic writing systems undermined indigenous social memory
Stone monuments, oral traditions, pictorial manuscripts and alphabetic texts are intriguing sources that have provided a wealth of material for Dr.

American Chemical Society to honor Ciba for supporting science education
The American Chemical Society will use the occasion of its annual Heroes of Chemistry Dinner to honor the Ciba Foundation for a $2 million gift in support of science education and the development of future scientists.

IU research at the American Sociological Association meeting
Researchers discuss studies that examined the medicalization of mental illness and how it has done little to remove the stigma; and the polarization of American politics and how this works well for Americans, who are becoming more socially isolated.

Researchers find alcoholics display abnormal brain activity when processing facial expressions
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine have found that individuals who have a long history of alcoholism, but who have been abstinent for at least a month up to many years, showed abnormal brain activity when looking at facial expressions of others.

Anthrax bacteria conspire with viruses to stay alive
New research suggests that anthrax-causing bacteria conspire with viruses to extend each other's lifespan.

Sequential TACE and cryosurgery can improve survival times for patients with HCC?
In cases where conventional methods may not be an option, cryosurgery may improve survival times for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

NYC's first elder abuse center created by NYP/Weill Cornell in collaboration with community partners
NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center will create a New York City Elder Abuse Center in order to improve intervention and treatment for elder abuse cases in the New York City area.
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