Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 31, 2009
Nadroparin almost halves the risk of developing blood clots in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy
Nadroparin, a blood-thinning drug, halves the risk of developing blood clots in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, and as such could become an important preventive treatment in these patients, according to an article published online first and in the October edition of the Lancet Oncology.

Results from a GRACE registry study
Launched in 1999, the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events is the world's largest international database tracking outcomes of patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes, including myocardial infarction or unstable angina.

Children are not the only ones in the game when it comes to sports
Parents who sign their children up for sports as part of an educational experience and to learn about teamwork may be learning some of the same lessons themselves, according to new research from Purdue University.

Surprising rate of recurring heart attacks, strokes globally
Despite medicines for patients with vascular disease, a large international study shows these patients have a surprisingly high rate of recurring strokes, heart attacks and hospitalizations as well as mortality.

Researchers identify protein-telomere interactions that could be key in treating cancer
A team of researchers from the Wistar Institute have shown that a large noncoding RNA in mammals and yeast plays a central role in helping maintain telomeres, the tips of chromosomes that contain important genetic information and help regulate cell division.

Shift in age distribution of dengue fever in Thailand explained
Decreases in birth and death rates explain the shift in age distribution of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Thailand, according to a new paper in this week's open-access journal PLoS Medicine.

Moths cloaked in color
In a new Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, James Miller revises the taxonomy of the Dioptinae, a subfamily of moths that have conquered the day in the tropical Americas.

Finding the ZIP-code for gene therapy: Scientists imitate viruses to deliver therapeutic genes
A research report featured on the cover of the September 2009 print issue of the FASEB Journal describes how Australian scientists developed a new gene therapy vector that uses the same machinery that viruses use to transport their cargo into our cells.

Gene mutation responsible for premature skin aging disease identified
In Nature Genetics, scientists in Singapore and Germany report that mutations in the PYCR1 gene cause the rare genetic condition that results in premature skin aging and that is known as

Retail medical clinics can provide care at lower cost, similar quality as other settings
Retail medical clinics located in pharmacies and other stores can provide care for routine illnesses at a lower cost and similar quality as offered in physician offices, urgent care centers or emergency departments, according to a new RAND Corporation study.

Astronomers find coldest, driest, calmest place on Earth
The search for the best observatory site in the world has lead to the discovery of what is thought to be the coldest, driest, calmest place on Earth.

PREDICT score allows personalized antiplatelet therapy
Studies from a growing body of convincing data show that responsiveness to antiplatelet therapy is real.

Embargoed news from Annals of Internal Medicine
Below is information about three articles being published in the Sept.

AAN collaborates with US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on H1N1 vaccine safety monitoring
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Neurology are requesting neurologists to report any possible new cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome following 2009 H1N1 flu vaccination using the CDC and US Food and Drug Administration Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System.

Child's play may revolutionize video gaming, police work
What do hide-and-seek, police searches and video games such as Half-Life 2 have in common?

How much omega-3 fatty acid do we need to prevent cardiovascular disease?
Scientists found the dose of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) that is

Results from NORDISTEMI
NORDISTEMI is the first trial to study the effect of early PCI after fibrinolysis in rural areas with very long transfer delays.

Bioavailable contaminants come from the Exxon Valdez oil catastrophe
Contaminants from natural coal deposits in the Gulf of Alaska are not easily bioavailable, unlike the crude oil from the Exxon Valdez tanker catastrophe.

UC San Diego scientist's work will contribute to better understanding of nuclear ignition
As the nation's nuclear weapons are aging (think the beginning of the Cold War), the US government is turning to researchers and scientists at universities such as UC San Diego to figure out safe and reliable ways to estimate their longevity and to understand the physics of thermonuclear reactions in the absence of underground testing currently prohibited under law.

Removing the barriers of autism
Autism can build a wall of poor communication between those struggling with the condition and their families.

New asthma predictors needed to determine future risk in certain patients
Screening tests used to predict asthma activity in patients may have little tracking success when applied to people with persistent disease who are adhering to their health care regimens, UT Southwestern Medical Center physician report.

Excessive radiological imaging explained
The reasons for unnecessary over-use of radiological imaging tests have been investigated.

New European guidelines on pulmonary hypertension provide new 6-group clinical definition
New 2009 Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension are made public today.

Aspirin works for primary prevention in moderate and high risk diabetics
Recent trials contradict the widespread use of aspirin. Uncertainty about the role of aspirin for the prevention of myocardial infarctions and strokes among apparently vascular healthy diabetic patients

Overdiagnosis since introduction of prostate cancer screening
The introduction of prostate-antigen screening, or PSA, has resulted in over one million additional men over the last 23 years being diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer -- most of whom were likely overdiagnosed, researchers reported in a new study published online Aug.

Parents play key role in whether teen tobacco use becomes a daily habit
Researchers have found new evidence showing that parents play a key role in whether or not their adolescent children who experiment with tobacco progress to become daily smokers before they graduate from high school.

Clemson research nets $2 million from NSF to mimic nature's probes
The National Science Foundation has awarded Clemson University researchers $2 million to study ways to mimic the suction mechanism used by butterflies and moths to feed so that the same method can be used in medical diagnostics.

Planned home birth with registered midwife as safe as hospital birth
The risk of infant death following planned home birth attended by a registered midwife does not differ from that of a planned hospital birth, found a study published in CMAJ.

$30 million grant to enhance world's largest open computing network
A $30 million National Science Foundation grant will enable the University of Chicago to expand and extend until 2011 the operation of TeraGrid, a national system of interconnected supercomputers devoted to leading-edge scientific discovery and science and technology education.

Shrinking Bylot Island glaciers tell story of climate change
University of Illinois geologist William Shilts spent nearly two decades studying glaciers on Bylot Island, an uninhabited island about 300 miles southwest of Thule, Greenland.

NSF awards Rutgers $7.6 million for sustainable energy development, graduate education
The National Science Foundation has awarded Rutgers University two grants worth $6.4 million to fund graduate research in clean and sustainable energy resources using biotechnology and nanotechnology.

Can we change society?
Governments should play a central role in creating an environment that empowers and encourages individuals to make positive, life-enhancing behavior changes.

High HIV infection rate among Soweto Township gays
The study's authors were the first to examine HIV and the community of men who have sex with men in the Soweto Township, an area on the periphery of Johannesburg reserved for black South Africans during apartheid.

First European guidelines for reducing the cardiac risks in noncardiac surgery
Cardiac events are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, and new guidelines issued today by the European Society of Cardiology address this common and complicated challenge.

Contribution of clinical breast examination to breast cancer screening
Breast cancer detection rates and sensitivity were higher, but so were false-positive rates, among mammography centers that offered clinical breast examination in addition to mammography, according to new study published online Aug.

Risks involved with transgenic fish
Fast growing transgenic fish can revolutionize commercial fish farming and relieve the pressure on overexploited fish stocks.

Carbon monoxide linked to heart problems in elderly
Exposure to carbon monoxide, even at levels well below national limits, is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for the elderly with heart problems, according to a study published today in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

Is the Milky Way doomed to be destroyed by galactic bombardment? Probably not, study says
As scientists attempt to learn more about how galaxies evolve, an open question has been whether collisions with our dwarf galactic neighbors will one day tear apart the disk of the Milky Way.

Genome Research publishes special issue: Personal Genomes and Variation
The September 2009 issue of Genome Research, entitled

Open source DNA
A new mathematical tool from Dr. Eran Halperin of TAU's Blavatnik School of Computer Science aims to protect genetic privacy while giving genomic data to researchers.

First results from the ISAR-TEST-4 study
Drug-eluting stents, which slowly release medication to inhibit the build-up of scar tissue, have proved very successful in preventing restenosis (renarrowing) of stented coronary arteries.

Infective endocarditis: An old but changing disease
Infective endocarditis is a severe form of valve disease characterized by infection located in the valves of the heart.

Does the distance a patient has to travel affect where they choose to get their care?
Do patients choose where to get their care based on how long it takes to them to get there?

Study reveals how a common virus eludes the immune system
Viruses have numerous tricks for dodging the immune system. Stagg et al. reveal a key detail in one of these stratagems, identifying a protein that enables cytomegalovirus to shut down an antiviral defense.

National Science Foundation awards $1.4 million for GenoCAD development
An NSF award supports development of a web-based Computer Assisted Design environment for synthetic biology, which applies methods developed in engineering to design artificial biological systems that meet user-defined specifications.

New assessment quantifies risks and benefits of warfarin treatment for atrial fibrillation
Warfarin therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation -- the most common type of significant heart rhythm disorder -- appears to be most beneficial for the oldest patients, those who have had a prior stroke and for patients with multiple risk factors for stroke.

Silk-based optical waveguides meet biomedical needs
Researchers at Tufts and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign demonstrate a new way to make silk-based optical waveguides that are biocompatible, biodegradable and readily functionalized with active molecules.

Rhododendron expansion may increase the chance of landslides on Southern Appalachian slopes
Research by US Forest Service Southern Research Station scientists and partners suggests that the expansion of rosebay rhododendron (Rhododendron maximum) in Southern Appalachian mountain hollows may increase the likelihood of landslides during and after intense rain events.

New strategies for reperfusion therapy
PCI is the preferred strategy in acute myocardial infarction when performed by an experienced team as soon as possible after first medical contact.

Natural compounds, chemotherapeutic drugs may become partners in cancer therapy
Research in the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University suggests that some natural food compounds, which previously have been studied for their ability to prevent cancer, may be able to play a more significant role in treating it -- working side-by-side with the conventional drugs that are now used in chemotherapy.

Mastectomy decisions among racially and ethnically diverse breast cancer patients
Women diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer who were concerned about body image and their spouse's opinion were less likely to have a mastectomy than those who placed less concern on these issues, according to new study published online Aug.

New hope for deadly childhood bone cancer
Researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah have shed new light on Ewing's sarcoma, an often deadly bone cancer that typically afflicts children and young adults.

Central Mississippi River Valley 'wasn't always so placid and dull'
This new volume from the Geological Society of America presents the geologic history of the central Mississippi River Valley and the surrounding area from Precambrian through Holocene times.

New treatment in sight for ovarian cancer
In the future, women with metastatic ovarian cancer could be treated with a radioactive substance that can seek and destroy tumor cells.

Results from the PRAGUE-7 study
The outcome of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock is generally very poor.

Eating less red meat can prevent cancer, heart attacks and global warming
Eating large amounts of meat from pigs, cows, goats or sheep increases the risk of death from cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, by about 30 percent.

Platinum nanocatalyst could aid drugmakers
Nanoparticles combining platinum and gold act as superefficient catalysts, but chemists have struggled to create them in an industrially useful form.

NASA satellite sees Hurricane Jimena explode in strength over 4 days
NASA's AIRS data showed how Hurricane Jimena exploded in strength over four days.

New European guidelines on syncope revise diagnostic definitions and re-evaluate extent of risk
A new definition of syncope -- most commonly perceived as an episode of fainting -- makes its diagnosis more precise and now dependent on a specific cause.

Entomological Society of America names 2009 Fellows
The Entomological Society of America has elected 10 new Fellows of the Society for 2009.

Breast cancer intervention reduces depression, inflammation
A psychological intervention for newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with symptoms of depression both relieves patients' depression and lowers indicators of inflammation in the blood.

New sensitive markers to detect myocardial infarction
Sensitive cardiac troponin and copeptin, a marker of endogenous stress, in combination with standard cardiac troponin allow accurate diagnosis in a shorter time.

No such thing as ethnic groups, genetically speaking
Central Asian ethnic groups are more defined by societal rules than ancestry.

New family care model aids at-risk families
Many families struggle on a day-to-day basis with insufficient in-home care or problematic out-of-home care for their emotionally or behaviorally troubled children and adolescents.

Signs of ideal surfing conditions spotted in ocean of solar wind
Researchers at the University of Warwick have found what could be the signal of ideal wave

Results from the TRIANA trial
Primary angioplasty is superior to thrombolysis in the treatment of very old patients with acute myocardial infarction, according to results from the TRIANA study, a randomized trial sponsored by the Spanish Society of Cardiology.

University of Hawaii at Manoa oceanographers examine mercury levels of pelagic fish in Hawaii
University of Hawaii at Manoa oceanographers find that mercury levels in pelagic fish found around Hawaii are influenced by depth.

'Watchful waiting' is a viable option for prostate cancer patients with low-risk tumors
Appropriately selected prostate cancer patients, including older men and men with small, low-risk tumors, may safely defer treatment for many years with no adverse consequences, according to a new study led by researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Awards to be presented at AIAA Space 2009 Conference and Exposition
The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics will present the following awards, recognizing key contributions to space science and technology, at a noon awards luncheon on September 16 as part of the AIAA SPACE 2009 Conference & Exposition, September 14, at the Pasadena Convention Center, Pasadena, Calif.

Ongoing challenges for cardiovascular prevention in Europe
A comprehensive strategy, focusing on changes in lifestyle and on the management of risk factors, is needed to prevent premature mortality and reduction of life expectancy in good health due to cardiovascular disease.

Rotman Ph.D. student wins 2009 Dissertation Proposal Award from the Aspen Institute
A doctoral student from the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto has been announced as one of the winners of the 2009 Dissertation Proposal Award from the Center for Business Education at the Aspen Institute.

The link between weight and importance
Weighty. Heavy. What do these words have to do with seriousness and importance?

APS Foundation awardees honored at 2009 annual meeting
The American Phytopathological Society Foundation presented several monetary awards at the society's annual meeting in Portland, Ore.

Acute impact on brain function in earthquake survivors
New research has found that the Wenchuan, China, earthquake that occurred on May 12, 2008, had an acute impact on the brain function of physically healthy survivors and poses a risk to the mental health of these survivors.

Rhode Island Hospital awarded $11 million, 5-year renewal
Rhode Island Hospital has received an $11 million renewal of a National Institutes of Health grant to fund its Center of Biomedical Research Excellence Center for Cancer Research Development.

Human impacts and environmental factors are changing the northwest Atlantic ecosystem
Fish in US waters from Cape Hatteras to the Canadian border have moved away from their traditional, long-time habitats over the past four decades because of fundamental changes in the regional ecosystem, according to a new report by NOAA researchers.

NIH study reveals new genetic culprit in deadly skin cancer
Drawing on the power of DNA sequencing, National Institutes of Health researchers have identified a new group of genetic mutations involved in the deadliest form of skin cancer, melanoma.

Elsevier publishes Jiang Zemin's book on China's energy policy in English
Elsevier, the world-leading publisher of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, announced today that its Science & Technology division will publish an English translation of former President of China Jiang Zemin's book Research on Energy Issues in China.

Childhood obesity: The increasing vascular drama
Obesity is one of the most important health problems in industrialized countries irrespective of socio-economic status, age, sex or ethnicity.

Are intravenous treatments safe? New research raises doubts
German scientists identified serious and previously misunderstood contaminants that bring the safety and efficacy of intravenous treatments into question.

New book on signal transduction
This new edition offers inclusive coverage of targeting transduction pathways for research and medical intervention.

Family, friends may impact breast cancer surgery decision, U-M study finds
About three-quarters of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer have a friend or family member with them at their first visit with a surgeon.

The effect of economic recessions on population health
Paradoxically, mortality rates during economic recessions in developed countries decline rather than increase, according to an analysis in CMAJ.

New developments in reproductive medicine
Three out of ten women who undergo polar body diagnosis go on to have a child.

VBI researcher receives NIH Recovery Act funding for infectious disease modeling
A researcher from the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech has received a grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences to support ongoing work to develop high-performance computer models for the study of very large networks.

Canada's universal health care system should fund in-vitro fertilization
Canada should extend universal health coverage to fund in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, writes Dr.

Access to motorbikes without taking a prior exam increases the number of accidents
Pedestrians and motorcyclists continue to be those most vulnerable in traffic accidents.

Cigarettes, not Swedish snuff linked to increased risk of MS
While smoking cigarettes appears to significantly increase a person's risk of developing multiple sclerosis, using Swedish snuff does not, according to a study published in the Sept.

Women, blacks, Medicare recipients less likely to be evaluated for liver transplantation
Patient race, gender and insurance status influence decisions about who will go on to receive liver transplants, according to a University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine study.

Hidden diversity in key environmental cleanup microbes found by systems biology assessment
Researchers analyzed the gene sequences, proteins expressed and physiology of 10 strains of bioremediation microbes called Shewanella.

Family stability may be more crucial than 2 parents for child success
The advantage that children get from living in two-parent families may actually be due to family stability more than the fact that their parents are married.

Proton pump inhibitors do not interfere with benefit of antiplatelet drugs clopidogrel or prasugrel in patients after an acute coronary syndrome
Proton pump inhibitors do not interfere with the clinical benefit of the anti-clotting drugs clopidogrel or prasugrel in patients after an acute coronary syndrome.

Scientists from University of Hawaii at Manoa find genetic marker
A new genetic marker associated with ovarian cancer risk was recently discovered by an international research group, led by scientists from the Cancer Research Genetic Epidemiology Unit in the United Kingdom.

Yerkes researchers show early life nurturing impacts later life relationships
Prairie voles may be a useful model in understanding the neurochemistry of social behavior and how early life nurturing impacts later life relationships.
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