Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

January 04, 2010
New research findings may help stop age-related macular degeneration at the molecular level
Researchers at University College London say they have gleaned a key insight into the molecular beginnings of age-related macular degeneration, the No.

Nurse home visitation program reduces girls' potential criminality later in life
Girls whose mothers were visited at home by nurses during pregnancy and the children's infancy appear less likely to enter the criminal justice system by age 19, according to a report in the January issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Eavesdropping on bacterial conversations may improve chronic wound healing
Listening in on bacterial conversations could be the solution for improving chronic wound care, says a team of researchers at Binghamton University, State University of New York.

Extremity war injuries: More research is needed
The fourth annual Extremity War Injuries Symposium was held in Washington, D.C., last January to bring together military and civilian orthopedic surgeons, researchers, experts from governmental agencies, and others to discuss challenges faced by US medical personnel working in Iraq and Afghanistan and to discuss ways to synergize resources and improve care for wounded warriors.

New discovery by Harvard scientists aims to correct cellular defects leading to diabetes
A new research discovery published online in the FASEB Journal may change the perception and treatment of diabetes.

Refusing chickenpox vaccine associated with increased risk of disease
Children whose parents refuse the varicella (chickenpox) vaccine appear more likely to develop the disease, according to a report in the January issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

A single atom controls motility required for bacterial infection
Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have discovered that a single atom -- a calcium, in fact -- can control how bacteria walk.

Institute of Medicine recommends stricter resident duty hour regulations to prevent medical errors
At the request of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce as part of an investigation into preventable medical errors, the Institute of Medicine has issued a report recommending further restrictions regarding duty hours for resident physicians and other actions to reduce resident fatigue and ensure patient safety, according to an article published in the January issue of the Journal of the American College of Radiology.

Can kitchen spoons be dangerous spoons?
A new study published in the Jan. 5 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine illustrates the dangers of using kitchen spoons to measure liquid medicine.

FDA clears TransOral robotic surgery developed at Penn
A minimally invasive surgical approach developed by head and neck surgeons at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine has been cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration.

Solar-powered irrigation significantly improves diet and income in rural sub-Saharan Africa
Solar-powered drip irrigation systems significantly enhance household incomes and nutritional intake of villagers in arid sub-Saharan Africa, according to a new Stanford University study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Reducing some water flow rates may bring environmental gains
Although conservationists have often concentrated on increasing water flow through ecosystems to bring about more natural conditions in altered landscapes, increasing flows can have unfavorable consequences in some situations, notably those where invasive species or pollution are problematic.

Mobile homes provide satisfaction, drawbacks for rural Pennsylvania
A majority of Pennsylvania's mobile home residents say they are overwhelmingly satisfied with their homes despite problems like construction quality, social stigma and financing associated with them, according to Penn State geographers.

A trip to the candy store might help ward off rare, but deadly infections
As it turns out, children were not the only ones with visions of sugar plums dancing in their heads over this past holiday season.

A silly pat on the head helps seniors remember daily med, study suggests
Doing something unusual, like knocking on wood or patting yourself on the head, while taking a daily dose of medicine may be an effective strategy to help seniors remember whether they've already taken their daily medications, suggests new research from Washington University in St.

JCI online early table of contents: Jan. 4, 2009
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, January 4, 2009, in the JCI:

Running shoes may cause damage to knees, hips and ankles
Running, although it has proven cardiovascular and other health benefits, can increase stresses on the joints of the leg.

Radiofrequency ablation safe and effective for reducing pain from bone metastases
Image-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA), a minimally invasive cancer treatment which can be performed in the outpatient setting, significantly reduced the level of pain experienced by cancer patients with bone (osseous) metastases, limiting the need for strong narcotic pain management, and supporting improved patient frame of mind, according to results of an American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) study published online in the journal Cancer.

Half of depressed Americans go untreated, finds UCLA/Wayne State study
UCLA/Wayne State researchers found that only 21 percent of Americans suffering from clinical depression receive medical care consistent with American Psychiatric Association guidelines.

St. John's wort not helpful treatment for irritable bowel syndrome, Mayo Clinic researchers say
A Mayo Clinic research study published in the January issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology finds that St.

Changes needed to ensure quality of new orthopedic surgeons
Changes are needed in the programs that train orthopedic surgeons to ensure these doctors are adequately trained, according to a study by researchers at Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City.

Head-to-head studies identify best treatment regimen for hepatitis C
In patients with chronic hepatitis C, treatment with peginterferon alpha-2a (PegIFN2a) plus ribavirin (RBV) better suppresses the virus to undetectable levels in the blood than treatment with peginterferon alpha-2b (PegIFN2b) plus RBV.

Genes for drought-tolerance, aflatoxin may mingle to boost corn production
Scientists plan to put two and two together in a study that will likely yield improved US corn quality and yields.

Biodegradable particles can bypass mucus, release drugs over time
Researchers have created biodegradable nanosized particles that can easily slip through the body's sticky and viscous mucus secretions to deliver a sustained-release medication cargo.

More US patients receive multiple psychotropic medications
An increasing number of US adults are being prescribed combinations of antidepressants and antipsychotic medications, according to a report in the January issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Eclipses yield first images of elusive iron line in the solar corona
Solar physicists attempting to unlock the mysteries of the solar corona have found another piece of the puzzle by observing the sun's outer atmosphere during eclipses.

Researchers pin down long-elusive protein that's essential to 'life as we know it'
A team of researchers is being recognized for devising a new way to study a human protein that long has evaded close scrutiny by scientists investigating its role in the communication of important genetic messages inside a cell's nucleus to workhorse molecules found elsewhere.

New study finds low mortality risk following knee and hip replacement
Total hip and total knee replacement surgeries are highly successful and very common procedures for people experiencing pain associated with degenerative joints.

Analysis of microbes, immune response featured in Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Freely accessible articles in the January 2010 issue of Cold Spring Harbor Protocols describe a method for identifying microbes for metagenomic analyses and a method for analyzing the immune response.

New key factor identified in the development of Alzheimer's disease
A new study published online by Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences identifies ßCTF, a small protein found in the gene- ß -amyloid precursor protein, APP, as a novel factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease related endosome abnormalities, which have also been tied previously to the loss of brain cells in Alzheimer's disease.

Metabolic risks remain largely unmonitored in Medicaid patients taking antipsychotics
Despite government warnings and professional recommendations about diabetes risks associated with second-generation antipsychotic drugs, fewer than one-third of Medicaid patients who are treated with these medications undergo tests of blood glucose or lipid levels, according to a report in the January issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Targeting cancerous vessels
By lowering the level of a neuronal protein, researchers halted the growth of blood vessels that tumors rely on for survival.

Few Americans with major depression receive adequate treatment
Many US adults with major depression do not receive treatment for depression or therapy based on treatment guidelines, and some racial and ethnic groups have even lower rates of adequate depression care, according to a report in the January issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Sexual responses differ for women and men, new Queen's study shows
New research led by Queen's University Psychology professor Meredith Chivers finds that men's reports of feeling sexually aroused tend to match their physiological responses, while women's mind and body responses are less aligned.

Closing the loop for ALMA
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array has passed a key milestone crucial for the high quality images that will be the trademark of this revolutionary new tool for astronomy.

Blocking inflammation receptor kills breast cancer stem cells, U-M study finds
Scientists at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have uncovered an important link between inflammation and breast cancer stem cells that suggests a new way to target cells that are resistant to current treatments.

Embargoed news from Annals of Internal Medicine
Below is information about four articles being published in the January 5 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine.

Pain management failing as fears of prescription drug abuse rise
Millions of Americans with significant or chronic pain associated with their medical problems are being under-treated as physicians increasingly fail to provide comprehensive pain treatment -- either due to inadequate training, personal biases or fear of prescription drug abuse.

Thai hill farmers help preserve genetic diversity of rice
Traditional rice cultivation methods practiced in the isolated hillside farms of Thailand are helping preserve the genetic diversity of rice, one of the world's most important food crops, according to a new study by researchers at Washington University in St.

New finding may help baby boomers get buff
If you're an aging baby boomer hoping for a buffer physique, there's hope.

Natural compound blocks hepatitis C infection
Researchers have identified two cellular proteins that are important factors in hepatitis C virus infection, a finding that may result in the approval of new and less toxic treatments for the disease, which can lead to liver cancer and cirrhosis.

Pediatrics GI recommendations -- first step to guidelines for children with autism
The consensus statement and recommendations for evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of GI disorders in children with ASD represents long-sought mainstream medical community recognition that treatment of GI problems in children with autism requires specific, specialized approaches.

Springer launches the Review of Philosophy and Psychology
Springer is launching in March 2010 the Review of Philosophy and Psychology, a peer-reviewed journal focusing on research trends at the intersection of philosophy, psychology and cognitive science.

Runaway anti-matter production makes for a spectacular stellar explosion
University of Notre Dame astronomer Peter Garnavich and a team of collaborators have discovered a distant star that exploded when its center became so hot that matter and anti-matter particle pairs were created.

Spectacular Mars images reveal evidence of ancient lakes
Spectacular satellite images suggest that Mars was warm enough to sustain lakes three billion years ago, a period that was previously thought to be too cold and arid to sustain water on the surface, according to research published today in the journal Geology.

Insect cells provide the key to alternative swine flu vaccination
A new technique for producing vaccines for H1N1,

Giant intergalactic gas stream longer than thought
The Magellanic Stream, a giant flow of gas from neighbor galaxies around our own Milky Way, is much longer and older than previously thought.

New SBI and ACR recommendations suggest breast cancer screening should begin at age 40
The new recommendations from the Society of Breast Imaging and the American College of Radiology on breast cancer screening, published in the January issue of the Journal of the American College of Radiology, state that breast cancer screening should begin at age 40 and earlier in high-risk patients.

WUSTL-led moon mission is finalist for NASA's next big space venture
Nearly 40 years after the Apollo astronauts first brought samples of the Moon to Earth for study, researchers from Washington University in St.

2 NTU dons clinch prestigious IEEE Fellowship
Two professors from Nanyang Technological University's School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering -- Prof.

New ALS drug slips through telling 'Phase II' clinical trials
A drug already used to treat symptoms of epilepsy has potential to slow the muscle weakening that comes with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), scientists report after completing a Phase II clinical trial -- an early, small-scale test to show if the drug works and continues to be safe.

The PARASOL Satellite moving off the A-Train's track
After nearly 5 years of concurrent operations with the Afternoon Constellation, known as the

MyoD helps stem cells proliferate in response to muscle injury
The master regulator of muscle differentiation, MyoD, functions early in myogenesis to help stem cells proliferate in response to muscle injury, according to researchers at Case Western Reserve University.

Gladstone scientists identify target that may inhibit HIV infectivity
Scientists at the Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology have discovered a new agent that might inhibit the infectivity of HIV.

Women's bodies and minds agree less than men's on what's sexy
Women's minds and genitals respond differently to sexual arousal, whereas in men, the responses of the body and mind are more in tune with each other, according to Assistant Professor Meredith Chivers, from Queen's University in Kingston, Canada, and her international collaborators.

Overexposure to credit default swaps contributed to financial meltdown, new Rotman study finds
Overexposure to credit default swaps (CDS) -- a market-traded form of investment insurance -- are believed to have contributed to last year's financial meltdown.

Experimental drug shows promise against brain, prostate cancers
An experimental drug currently being tested against breast and lung cancer shows promise in fighting the brain cancer glioblastoma and prostate cancer, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have found in two preclinical studies.

Uniform method to interpret autism spectrum disorders is defined at Ben-Gurion University
The main criterion defining autism spectrum disorders is difficulty in emotional-social behavior.

Toxicants detected in Asian monkey hair may warn of environmental threats to people and wildlife
Testing hair from Asian monkeys in dense urban areas may provide early warnings of toxic threats to humans, especially children, and wildlife.

Smoking cessation may actually increase risk of developing type 2 diabetes
Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but new research from Johns Hopkins suggests that quitting the habit may actually raise diabetes risk in the short term.

ALMA test sharpens vision of new observatory
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array passed a key milestone crucial to producing the high-quality images that will be this revolutionary new observatory's trademark.

Researchers develop 'nano cocktail' to target and kill tumors
A team of researchers in California and Massachusetts has developed a

Depleting breast cancer-initiating cells by targeting the protein CXCR1
Recent data suggest that breast cancer is initiated and maintained by a rare population of cells within the tumor known as cancer stem cells.

Clinical trial seeks to improve patient treatment for Crohn's disease
Robarts Clinical Trials at the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada, has been awarded a $4.7 million grant to conduct a randomized controlled trial evaluating treatment options for Crohn's disease.

TRB's 89th Annual Meeting to Highlight Investing in US Transportation Future
The 89th annual meeting of the National Research Council's Transportation Research Board will host more than 3,000 transportation-related presentations in nearly 600 sessions and workshops.

Protein central to being male plays key role in wound healing
A molecular receptor pivotal to the action of male hormones such as testosterone also plays a crucial role in the body's ability to heal.

Finally, an excuse for pregnant women to eat bacon and eggs
If you're pregnant and looking for an excuse to eat bacon and eggs, now you've got one: a new research study published in the January 2010 print issue of the FASEB Journal by a team of University of North Carolina researchers shows that choline plays a critical role in helping fetal brains develop regions associated with memory.

Update on vitamins and diabetic retinopathy; ethnic norms for preschoolers' eyesight
This month's Ophthalmology, the journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology, includes a research review of the effects of Vitamins C and E and magnesium on diabetic retinopathy and findings from the first large study of vision problems in Hispanic and African-American infants and young children.

New year, new vitamin C discovery: It 'cures' mice with accelerated aging disease
A new research discovery published in the January 2010 print issue of the FASEB Journal suggests that treatments for disorders that cause accelerated aging, particularly Werner's syndrome, might come straight from the family medicine chest.

Refusing immunizations puts increases the risk of varicella illness in children
Children of parents who refuse vaccines are nine times more likely to get chickenpox compared to fully immunized children, according to a new study led by a vaccine research team at Kaiser Permanente Colorado's Institute for Health Research.

UC Davis researchers identify autism clusters in California
Researchers at UC Davis have identified 10 locations in California where the incidence of autism is higher than surrounding areas in the same region.

How to build bone: Separate bone formation from bone destruction
Treatments for osteoporosis need to increase the amount and/or quality of bone.

LSU professor develops technology to take mystery out of fishing
Fishing, a supposedly relaxing pastime, all too often becomes a frustrating series of near misses and lost chances for the recreational sportsman.

Virus may chauffeur useful 'packages' into plants
This time of year, the word

Apelian honored by American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers
Diran Apelian, Howmet Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute and director of WPI's Metal Processing Institute, has been selected to receive the 2010 Robert Earll McConnell Award from the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers.

Scientists target East Coast rocks for CO2 storage
Scientists say buried volcanic rocks along the heavily populated coasts of New York, New Jersey and New England, as well as further south, might be ideal reservoirs to lock away carbon dioxide emitted by power plants and other industrial sources.

Childhood metabolic measurements may predict diabetes development years later
A child's blood pressure, body mass index, blood glucose level and other laboratory tests and simple office measures may predict the risk of developing type 2 diabetes nine and 26 years later, according to a report in the January issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.
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