Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 03, 2010
Genetic makeup of Hispanic/Latino Americans influenced by Native American, European and African-American ancestries
A new study from researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center found that the imprint of European colonialism and imperialism is evident in the genetic makeup of today's Hispanic/Latino American populations.

Home medication errors common among children with chronic conditions
Parents of children with chronic conditions make many mistakes when giving lifesaving medicines.

A stress-response system in the ear protects against hearing loss
An in vivo study shows for the first time that there is a local stress-response system within the cochlea that mirrors the signaling pathways of the body's fight or flight response.

Scientists alter developing brain to resemble that of another species
Biologists have been able to change the brain of a developing fish embryo to resemble that of another species.

The protein tPA provides protection for nerve cells
The protein tPA is best known for its role in breaking down blood clots that form in blood vessels and the heart.

Research helps end guesswork in prescribing ADHD drug
Children with ADHD who carry a specific type of dopamine receptor gene respond better to the drug methylphenidate than those without the genotype, according to new research from Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.

Common steroid medications hold promise for tissue repair
A class of drugs commonly used for asthma, inflammation and skin injury also may hold promise for tissue-repairing regenerative medicine, according to Duke University Medical Center researchers.

Study evaluates importance of timeliness of care in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment
While timely care can reduce stress among breast cancer patients about their condition, the drive for expediency should not compromise other factors important to care, such as safety, effectiveness, efficiency and equity, according to new research findings published in the April issue of the Journal of the American College of Surgeons.

Pancreatic cancer: Minimally invasive treatments and possible links to GI diseases
Researchers have confirmed a suspected link between pancreatic cancer and inflammatory bowel disease, while other science shows that intra-abdominal fat serves as a predictor of survival in pancreatic cancer patients, and new technology shows promising results for improvements in complicated surgery for pancreatic pseudocysts.

A shrunken giant
Sauropod dinosaurs, like the famous Brachiosaurus or Argentinosaurus, are known above all for their enormous size.

Novel genes associated with risk for oral cleft malformation identified
An international consortium of scientists has identified two genes that when altered are closely associated with cleft lip and/or cleft palate.

A&A special feature: Science with AKARI
This week, Astronomy & Astrophysics is publishing a special feature devoted to the new results obtained with the infrared satellite AKARI, a JAXA project with the participation of ESA.

The effect of dietary supplements, acids and animal protein on gastrointestinal disorders
High protein intake may be associated with increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease, while fatty acids found in olive, peanut and grapeseed oils may protect against the development of ulcerative colitis, according to new data being presented at Digestive Disease Week 2010.

UCSF transgenic mouse mimics Parkinson's earliest symptoms
UCSF researchers have created the first transgenic mouse to display the earliest signs of Parkinson's disease using the genetic mutation that is known to accompany human forms of the disease.

Reveal-all scanner for works of art
Painted-over murals were thought to be irretrievably lost because conventional methods are seldom suitable to rendering the hidden works visible without causing damage.

Study shows vitamin A supplementation does not reduce maternal mortality (ObaapaVitA study)
A trial in Ghana has shown that vitamin A supplementation does not reduce maternal mortality -- contradicting previous findings from a trial in Nepal which showed a 44 percent decrease.

Being obese can attract bullies
New University of Michigan research shows obese children are more likely to be bullied regardless of gender, race, academic achievement, social skills or economic status.

Image filters improve image quality and lower patient radiation dose associated with CT scans
Adaptive image filters can lower the patient radiation associated with chest and abdominal computed tomography scans while significantly improving image quality, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2010 Annual Meeting in San Diego, Calif.

Plumage-color traits more extreme over time
Ever since Darwin, researchers have tried to explain the enormous diversity of plumage color traits in birds.

Early childhood experiences have lasting emotional and psychological effects
Experiences between birth and age 5 matter significantly to children's long-term emotional and psychological health, and changing these experiences for the better pays dividends, according to an editorial and several new reports in the May issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Rescue NET for lupus patients
Scientists find a new insight into lupus pathogenesis.

JCI online early table of contents: May 3, 2010
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, May 3rd, 2010, in the JCI: The protein tPA provides protection for nerve cells; Conquering a severe complication of celiac disease; How statins modulate immune function; One, two: counting the genes causing deafblindness in individual patients; Immune system going downhill fast with IL-10; Immune cells learn how to dominate an immune response; and others.

Making serial parts out of metal powder
Complex-shaped components in aircraft engines can be produced quickly and at a reasonable price using selective laser melting.

Breast MRI could reduce local breast cancer recurrence rates, study suggests
The use of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgical intervention (for the treatment of breast cancer) can reduce the number of local (confined to the breast) cancer recurrences at follow-up, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2010 Annual Meeting in San Diego, Calif.

T cell protein boosts learning
Stress, sickness and depression can generate inflammation in the brain, which is detrimental to learning.

ADA releases updated position paper on nutrition assistance programs for children
The American Dietetic Association has published an updated position paper on nutrition assistance programs for children that reviews existing programs and their value, discusses barriers to participation and encourages more research to evaluate the programs' long-term effectiveness in helping children get and stay healthy.

New blood test may help in the fight against lung cancer
A new blood test could increase the success of a popular lung cancer drug called erlotinib by allowing doctors select which patients will react positively to the drug.

Hutchinson Center receives $10.24 million from NIH for Latina breast cancer research
The National Institutes of Health has awarded $10.24 million to Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center to lead a five-year study that aims to understand and prevent breast cancer disparities in Hispanic women.

HIV-positive women are less likely to find work than men affected by the virus
Juan Oliva, a researcher at the University of Castilla -- La Mancha explores the relationship between the employment status of HIV-positive individuals and socioeconomic characteristics in Spain between 2001 and 2004.

Indeterminate breast lesions found in high-risk patients should be evaluated aggressively to exclude malignancy
Short-term follow-up is often used to evaluate indeterminate breast lesions found on breast magnetic resonance imaging.

Schepens scientist wins prize from SID
Dr. Eli Peli, a senior scientist at Schepens Eye Research Institute, has been selected by the Society for Information Display for the Otto Schade Prize.

Tags on, tags off
The group of proteins called Polycomb complexes -- which ensure correct embryonic development and play an important role in stem cell differentiation and cancer -- has a new member, whose form of action surprised the EMBL Heidelberg scientists who identified it in a study published online today in Nature.

Biodesign Institute project aimed at earlier diagnosis of diabetes
For the estimated 21 million people in the United States with type 2 diabetes and the 57 million more at risk of developing the illness, a new project at the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University will address a critical need to develop technologies aimed at early detection.

UEA launches climate change collaboration with top Chinese university
Fudan University in Shanghai is launching a Chinese hub of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research in a significant and long-lasting partnership with the University of East Anglia.

Quality-of-life testing may predict malignancy and survival in patients with pancreatic disease
Quality-of-life measures used routinely to assess treatment outcomes for patients with pancreatic disease may be used to predict both malignancy and survival for those patients, according to a study by Henry Ford Hospital.

Stanford imaging study discovers brain development differences in kids with fragile X syndrome
Fragile X syndrome is the most common known cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism.

An optical traffic cop for rapid communication
Dr. Koby Scheuer of Tel Aviv University has developed a new technology for the nano-photonics market, which manufactures optical devices and components.

March of Dimes awards $250,000 prize to scientist who discovered how to reprogram human cells
Shinya Yamanaka, M.D., Ph.D., of the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, and Kyoto University, Japan, received the 2010 March of Dimes Prize for reprogramming adult cells into embryonic-like stem cells and altering the field of developmental biology and research into the prevention of birth defects.

Large amounts of nitrogen stored beneath selected agricultural areas
Scientists at the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program and the USDA Agricultural Research Service used a new version of the Root Zone Water Quality Model to estimate unsaturated zone nitrogen mass balances at four agricultural fields.

Young assault victims often involved in subsequent violence
When adolescents are treated in an emergency department after being assaulted, they have a significant chance of being involved in another violent encounter soon afterward.

Cold-blooded mothers: Magpie parents seem to induce mortality of 'unwanted' chicks
A new pattern of nestling mortality was found in magpies' nests.

Bald eagle diet shift enhances conservation
An unprecedented study of bald eagle diet, from about 20,000 to 30,000 years ago to the present, will provide wildlife managers with unique information for reintroducing Bald Eagles to the Channel Islands off California.

Food insecurity can lead to greater weight gain and complications during pregnancy
Living in a food-insecure household during pregnancy may increase the odds of greater weight gain and pregnancy complications, particularly gestational diabetes mellitus, according to a new study published in the May issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

People with common heart defect also more likely to have brain aneurysms
A new study shows that people with a common heart defect may also be more likely to have brain aneurysms.

African-American infants at increased risk from tobacco smoke exposure
Low levels of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure are associated with a higher risk of developmental problems for African-American children than white children, according to new research from Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.

Large caps this spring's must-have for water fleas
It remains one of the unresolved mysteries of the animal world: Why do females change the way they look each season while males look the same all year round?

Reducing fossil energy use on the farm
Researchers examine fossil energy use in conventional 2-year cropping systems and low-external-input 3- and 4-year cropping systems.

Improving the health of all the world's children
Each year, millions of children in developing countries die from diseases for which known treatments exist.

Study: Darwin was right to worry that marriage to his cousin affected his offspring
New research suggests that Charles Darwin's family was a living human example of a theory that he developed about plants: that inbreeding could negatively affect the health and number of resulting offspring.

Researchers develop computer-based system to automatically track radiation dose exposure from CT scans
Researchers have developed a computer-based system that can automatically track patient-specific radiation dose exposure (based on a patient's size and weight) on every patient that receives a computed tomography scan, providing patients with a way to start tracking their cumulative health care-related radiation exposure, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2010 Annual Meeting in San Diego, Calif.

Embargoed news from Annals of Internal Medicine
Below is information about three articles being published in the May 4 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine and one article being published early online.

Revolution with a salad spinner
A simple salad spinner will save lives this summer, if everything goes as planned by two Rice University undergraduates.

Toddlers and TV: Early exposure has negative and long-term impact
Want kids who are smarter and thinner? Keep them away from the television set as toddlers.

Young Latino children show strong classroom skills, despite many growing up in poverty
Immigrant Latinos display strong parenting practices and raise socially agile children, but these early gains are likely to be eroded by mediocre schools and peer pressure in poor neighborhoods, according to findings published by the American Psychological Association.

Ben-Gurion U researchers isolate microalgal strain that could reduce cholesterol
A research team at BGU's Landau Family Microalgal Biotechnology Lab in the Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research headed by Prof.

Cedars-Sinai research shows antibiotic prevents ibs symptoms for weeks after final dose
A targeted antibiotic provides effective and long-lasting relief of Irritable Bowel Syndrome symptoms, according to the results of two multisite Phase III clinical trials designed by Cedars-Sinai researchers.

ASNTR meeting presents Sanberg Awards to Prof. Lin & Prof. Dunnett
The American Society for Neural Therapy and Repair awarded Shinn-Zong Lin, M.D., Ph.D., professor of neurosurgery, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, The 2010 Bernard Sanberg Memorial Award for Brain Repair.

Cholesterol drugs may help improve hip replacement outcomes
The use of statins -- drugs commonly prescribed to help lower cholesterol levels -- may play an important role in decreasing complications among patients undergoing total hip replacement, according to a study published in the May 2010 issue of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery.

Conquering a severe complication of celiac disease
One severe complication of celiac disease is enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma, an invasive lymphoma with poor prognosis.

NIH awards $10 million to Rush University Medical Center to address health disparities
Rush University Medical Center has been awarded a $10 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to establish the Rush Center for Urban Health Equity.

Earlier, later puberty may trigger aggression in boys
Puberty that arrives earlier or later in adolescent boys relative to their peers can trigger chemicals that are related to antisocial behavior, according to researchers, whose findings have key implications for parents with aggressive boys.

New publication focuses on molecular imaging and cardiovascular conditions
The Journal of Nuclear Medicine -- the top-rated medical imaging journal worldwide -- has published Multimodality Molecular Imaging of the Cardiovascular System, presenting the state of the art of cardiovascular molecular imaging and discussing opportunities and challenges in advancing cardiovascular molecular imaging to clinical practice.

May's Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features plant gene expression methods, Xenopus imaging
The May issue of Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features methods for examining gene expression in plants and imaging in Xenopus.

Male obesity linked to low testosterone levels, study shows
Obesity, a condition linked to heart disease and diabetes, now appears to be associated with another health problem, but one that affects men only -- low testosterone levels.

Women want answers, but what questions should be asked?
One in two women in the United States will have an osteoporosis-related fracture in her lifetime.

Users believe electronic cigarettes can help you quit
Electronic cigarettes, or

Scientists create human embryonic stem cells with enhanced pluripotency
For the first time, Whitehead Institute researchers have converted established human induced pluripotent stem cells and human embryonic stem (ES) cells to state that corresponds to that of mouse embryonic stem cells.

Magnetic stimulation scores modest success as antidepressant
Some depressed patients who don't respond to or tolerate antidepressant medications may benefit from a noninvasive treatment that stimulates the brain with a pulsing electromagnet, a study suggests.

Noted entomologist to receive science excellence award
The Academy of Natural Sciences today announced it will give its highest science award to a noted behavioral ecologist who has done more than anyone to document one of the most economically important groups of insects: grasshoppers.

Standard heel-stick test ineffective at screening for CMV in newborns
A national study involving a UT Southwestern Medical Center neonatologist and pediatric infectious diseases specialist suggests that a screening test routinely performed in newborns is not very good at identifying cytomegalovirus infection, a leading cause of hearing loss in children.

Are obese adolescents too young for bariatric surgery?
Severely obese adolescents may desire or potentially benefit from bariatric surgery.

Capitol Hill briefing to focus on Denmark's ban on routine antibiotic use in food animal production
On May 4, the Pew Campaign on Human Health and Industrial Farming, in collaboration with Senator Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.), Representative Louise Slaughter (D-N.Y.) and Representative Howard Berman (D-Calif.), will host Capitol Hill briefings on Denmark's experience in ending the routine use of antibiotics in healthy food animals.

Survivors of childhood cancers 4 times more likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder
Young adult survivors of childhood cancers are four times more likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder than their control group siblings, a Childhood Cancer Survivors Study has found.

Purple is the new green
Purple bacteria seem to have the best structural solution for harvesting solar energy.

Regular use of aspirin increases risk of Crohn's disease by 5 times
People who take aspirin regularly for a year or more may be at an increased risk of developing Crohn's disease, according to a new study by the University of East Anglia.

Study finds shorter work shifts aid in detection of colon polyps
A shorter daily shift schedule for endoscopists, the physicians who perform colonoscopies, avoids a decrease in the polyp detection rate as the day progresses, research from Mayo Clinic indicates.

Academy of Natural Sciences honors Pa. naturalist for excellence in communicating science to public
The Academy of Natural Sciences today announced the awarding of a prestigious honor to a Pennsylvania naturalist and prolific author for his outstanding contributions to making the science of nature and the physical world more accessible to the general public.

Scripps researchers outline strategy to limit global warming
Major greenhouse gas-emitting countries agreed in December climate talks held in Copenhagen that substantial action is required to limit the increase of global average temperature to less than 2 degrees C (3.6 degrees F).

Disease caused by insect bites can be transmitted to children at birth
A North Carolina State University researcher has discovered that bacteria transmitted by fleas -- and potentially ticks -- can be passed to human babies by the mother, causing chronic infections and raising the possibility of bacterially induced birth defects.

Sunlight with cooling factor
Although it sounds like a contradiction in terms, using the power of the sun for refrigeration is proving to be an original energy concept.

Low-maintenance strawberry may be good crop to grow in space
Astronauts could one day tend their own crops on long space missions, and Purdue University researchers have found a healthy candidate to help satisfy a sweet tooth -- a strawberry that requires little maintenance and energy.

Improving UAVs using holographic adaptive optics
US Air Force Office of Scientific Research-supported holographic, adaptive, optics research may help transform software into computer-free, electronics for unmanned aerial vehicles, high energy lasers and free-space optical communications that will enable each to run faster and more efficiently than before.

Risk of suicide, suicide attempt similar across types of antidepressant medication
Among adults beginning antidepressant therapy, the risk of suicide or suicide attempts does not appear to vary by individual type or class of medication, according to a report in the May issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

On birth control pill's 50th anniversary, LA BioMed announces grant to study male contraceptive
As the birth control pill marks its 50th birthday this month, LA BioMed announced today that it has received $1.5 million in grant funding to study a male contraceptive.

Weird, ultra-small microbes turn up in acidic mine drainage
For nearly a decade, Jillian Banfield and her UC Berkeley colleagues have been studying the microbe community that lives in one of the most acidic environments on Earth: the drainage from a former copper mine in Northern California.

Swedes think highly of the government -- but not of the royal family
Swedes feel that their government has managed the financial crisis quite well.

Purple periwinkles battle inflammatory diseases
A widely and safely used plant extract acts as a novel anti-inflammatory agent that may one day be used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, as well as other inflammatory conditions.

No simple explanation for why adolescents take risks
Conventional wisdom holds that adolescents are susceptible to drug use and other risk-taking behavior.

Study documents geographic variation in childhood obesity
The prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight appears to vary widely among states, according to a report posted online today that will appear in the July print issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Mayo Clinic researchers find chronic injury in kidneys of healthy adults
Mayo Clinic researchers have found that the kidneys of healthy adults show signs of chronic mild injury that increase with age.

A century-old puzzle comes together: Scientists ID potential protein trigger in lung disease sarcoidosis
Lung researchers at Johns Hopkins have identified a possible protein trigger responsible for sarcoidosis, a potentially fatal inflammatory disease marked by tiny clumps of inflammatory cells that each year leave deep, grainy scars on the lungs, lymph nodes, skin and almost all major organs in hundreds of thousands of Americans.

Adolescent smokers don't recognize early signs of nicotine dependence
Kids who have just started smoking, but not on a daily basis, don't seem to recognize the early symptoms of dependence, according to a new study.

UCLA researchers use new microscope to 'see' atoms for first time
A group of UCLA researchers at the California NanoSystems Institute have imaged an aquareovirus structure at 3.3 Angstroms, the first published instance of a virus imaged at such a high resolution.

Improper use of opioids sparks a new Canadian practice guideline
Increases in opioid prescriptions, leading to increased misuse, serious injuries, and overdose deaths have spurred Canadian colleges of physicians and surgeons to create a new guideline for opioid use with chronic noncancer pain, states an article in CMAJ.

Return home from war not always peaceful for young vets
When young servicemen and women return home from a tour of duty, their family and friends breathe a sigh of relief, knowing their loved ones finally are safe and sound.

President Bill Clinton and South African Health Minister Aaron Motsoaledi to join 25,000 scientists, people living with HIV, and other stakeholders at XVIII International AIDS Conference in Vienna
Organizers of the XVIII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2010) announced today that President Bill Clinton, founder of the William J.

K-State professor using NSF award to study the impact of nitrogen deposition on global change
To understand how global change is happening today, Kansas State University's Kendra McLauchlan is looking back 10,000 years at nitrogen availability in forest and grassland ecosystems.

Study shows for first time decrease in mortality associated with physician order entry system
esearchers at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital and Stanford University School of Medicine have shown for the first time that a significant decrease in hospital-wide mortality rates can be associated with implementation of a computerized physician order entry system.

Keck Futures Initiative awards $1.25 million for 13 research projects
The National Academies' Keck Futures Initiative announced today the recipients of its latest round of FUTURES grants, awarded to support interdisciplinary research.

Parental involvement key to preventing child bullying
Survey results showed the prevalence of bullying was 15 percent.

Densest dice packing and computing with molecules
Physicists have made two new breakthroughs -- discovering a shape that packs more efficiently than any other known, and completing a high speed quantum calculation thousands of times faster than possible with conventional computation.

Envisat monitoring changes in oil spill
ESA's Envisat has captured the changes in direction of the rapidly-growing oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico as strong winds over the weekend pushed it around and hampered clean-up efforts.

Treating battlefield injuries with light-activated technology
Airmen's traumatic battlefield injuries may be more effectively treated by using a new light-activated technology developed as a result of research managed by US Air Force Office of Scientific Research and supported by funds from the Office of the Secretary of Defense.

High rate of obesity in disabled children
Disabled children are at great risk of developing obesity. In the current issue of Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, Thomas Reinehr and his colleagues from Witten/Herdecke University describe possible ways to prevent or treat this problem.

NASA, Purdue study offers recipe for global warming-free industrial materials
A new study by NASA and Purdue University researchers offers at least a partial recipe that industrial chemists could use in developing alternatives with less global warming potential than materials commonly used today.

Mood and anxiety disorders affect many older adults
Rates of mood and anxiety disorders appear to decline with age but the conditions remain common in older adults, especially women, according to a report in the May issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

UGA researchers awarded $2.4 million to study Amazon River to ocean continuum
An international team of American and Brazilian researchers led by a University of Georgia scientist has been awarded more than $2.4 million by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation to investigate organic matter and nutrients flowing from the Amazon River into the adjacent Atlantic Ocean.

Ku70 shown to be critical regulator of DNA damage in Huntington's disease
Ku70, a component of the DNA repair complex, is shown to be a new critical player in the DNA damage-linked pathologies of Huntington's disease, according to a study in the May 3 issue of the Journal of Cell Biology.

Aboriginal hunting and burning increase Australia's desert biodiversity, Stanford researchers find
In Australia, Martu hunter-gatherers light fires to expose the hiding places of their prey: monitor lizards called goanna that can grow up to 6 feet long.

'My kid wouldn't do that' -- study shows parents' difficulty with teen sexuality
It can be difficult for parents of teenagers to come to terms with the fact their kids may have sex, particularly given widespread concerns about the consequences of teen sexual activity.

Those who exercise when young have stronger bones when they grow old
The positive effects of exercise while growing up seem to last longer than previously believed.

Despite tests, high blood pressure hard to recognize in children
A Johns Hopkins Children's Center study of 2,500 patient records suggests that medical staff fails to check a child's blood pressure a fifth of the time, and is not recognizing what constitutes an abnormal reading in those whose blood pressure they do check.

Diagnosing heart attacks may be a lick and a click away
A diagnostic tool developed by Rice University scientists to detect heart attacks using a person's saliva is being tested at the Michael E.

New emergency preparedness information available for dental offices
Best practices for managing medical emergencies in dental clinics have evolved over the past decade to account for advances in knowledge and the development of new medications and medical equipment.

Getting to the heart of cardiovascular disease among Latinos in East Los Angeles
The UCLA School of Public Health received a $10 million grant from the NIH to fund a partnership with USC and community collaborators.

Hartford grants increase support for geriatric social work training
The prestigious Hartford Doctoral Fellows and Hartford Faculty Scholars programs have awarded $800,000 in combined new grants to ten researchers in the field of geriatric social work.

New Canadian organization will help fund solutions to health challenges in developing countries
Canada commits C$225 million over five years to Grand Challenges Canada, a new organization to support collaborative international research into solutions to major global health challenges.

Brain changes associated with fragile X take place before age 2
Brain changes associated with the most common cause of mental retardation can be seen in magnetic resonance imaging scans of children as young as 1 to 3 years old, according to a study by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Stanford University.

Copycat behavior in children is universal and may help promote human culture
A new study of Australian preschoolers and Kalahari Bushman children finds that a particular kind of imitation -- overimitation, in which a child copies everything an adult shows them, not just the steps that lead to some outcome -- appears to be a universal human activity, rather than something the children of middle-class parents pick up.

Are poor workspace ergonomics causing radiologists pain?
A lack of attention to workspace ergonomics could be to blame for radiologists' musculoskeletal symptoms, including lower back pain, wrist pain, shoulder pain, neck pain and headaches, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2010 Annual Meeting in San Diego, Calif.

Special paper provides synthesized view of the dynamic Ordovician Earth
Spanning 44 million years, the Ordovician is a significant chapter in Earth's history.

Transportation governed by simple rules
Max Planck scientists unlock the secret of how cells maintain the spatial distribution of proteins.

Screening mammograms in younger women have low accuracy and detect few cancers
Screening mammograms in women under age 40 result in high rates of callbacks and additional imaging tests but low rates of cancer detection, according to a study published online May 3 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

The bivalve effect
McGill biologist Dr. Frederic Guichard says marine life can communicate over thousands of kilometers, calling into question current fishery management and marine preservation practices.

Estimated radiation risks associated with abdominal CT scans are greater in younger patients
In younger patients, the estimated radiation risks associated with abdominal and pelvic computed tomography scans are twice those of older patients, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2010 Annual Meeting in San Diego, Calif.

Asthma rates in Inuit below national average
New research shows that asthma rates in Inuit populations in northern Canada are below that of Aboriginal populations in the rest of the country, especially those living in urban areas.

A new online system for legal mediation has been developed
Researchers at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid have created an electronic platform for mediation and arbitration to resolve legal conflicts without the need for a judge's services, and which is aimed at individuals with disabilities.

Breast cancer staging should include breast MRI, study suggests
Breast magnetic resonance imaging can detect breast lesions missed on mammography and ultrasound and help surgeons plan the most appropriate surgical treatment, improving patient outcomes, according to a study to be presented at the ARRS 2010 Annual Meeting in San Diego, Calif.

Environmentally safe fuel cells may emerge from Air Force-funded MIT research
MIT researchers are exploring a new technology funded by the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and the National Science Foundation, which they call a thermopower wave, that may convert chemical energy to fuel cells for micro-machines, sensors and emergency communication beacons.

Do we want a kind of work that doesn't ruin our lives?
The way people's work is organized can harm their health by causing a range of ailments, from cardiovascular disease to problems with mental health.

Upgrade to advanced photon source announced by DOE
Advances in energy conservation, better materials for frontier technologies and new economic engines, and breakthroughs in understanding diseases: these are just a few of the potential discoveries, both basic and applied, to be enabled by an upgrade to the Advanced Photon Source at the US Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory.

Rapid analysis of DNA damage now possible
Our DNA is under constant siege from a variety of damaging agents.

Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant Arab women requires urgent attention
Pregnant Arab women have an

Brain-stimulation method appears to help induce remission in some patients with depression
Daily transcranial magnetic stimulation -- an intervention that uses magnetic currents to activate certain brain areas -- appears to help induce remission in patients with treatment-resistant depression, according to a report in the May issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

New treatments, diagnoses for women and children with gastrointestinal disorders
Undiagnosed and untreated pediatric hepatitis C is a grave concern, antibiotic use in the first year of life triples the risk of inflammatory bowel disease, drugs used to treat IBD in pregnant women are beginning to show that children at nine months are slightly developmentally delayed compared to non-use of this medication during pregnancy, and drugs commonly used to treat reflux in pregnant women may be associated with cardiac birth defects, according to data being presented at Digestive Disease Week.

Millions awarded for earthquake monitoring
More than $7 million in cooperative agreements will be awarded for earthquake monitoring by the US Geological Survey in 2010.

CO2 effects on plants increases global warming
Trees and other plants help keep the planet cool, but rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are turning down this global air conditioner.

Most common cancers in the world decreasing in Alberta: Study
In the largest Canadian study of non-melanoma skin cancer, Andrei Metelitsa, Gordon Jung and their research group have found skin cancer rates in Alberta are going down in men and have leveled off for women.

JGH researchers help pinpoint osteoporosis genes
A team of international researchers has identified 20 genes associated with osteoporosis and bone weakness, including 13 genes never previously associated with the disease.

Inbreeding may have caused Darwin family ills
An analysis of 25 families in the extended Darwin/Wedgwood dynasty in 19th-century Britain shows a link between childhood mortality and individuals' inbreeding coefficient.

Global Alliance of Technological Universities (GlobalTech) to tackle 'Grand Challenges'
Senior representatives and dozens of scholars from seven founding universities of the Global Alliance of Technological Universities (GlobalTech) came together on May 3, 2010, at Shanghai Jiao Tong University to hold the 2010 GlobalTech Steering Committee Meeting and the First Workshop on Sustainable Urban Solutions.

Sanger, Persaud, Marchase receive highest honors from anatomy society
The American Association of Anatomist's presented its highest awards on April 27 during the society's Annual Meeting in Anaheim.

A new approach that saves eyesight and lives in the developing world
Two Agricultural Research Service scientists are part of an international team that has found a way to boost the nutritional value of corn, with the potential to reduce the number of children in developing countries who lose their eyesight, become ill or die each year because of vitamin A deficiencies.

Reaching the tipping point on global child health
Dr. Danielle Laraque will draw parallels between her work in Haiti and her work in urban areas of the US during an address entitled

Surgeons' pilot prevention program reduces incidence of postoperative pneumonia
The results of new research results published in the April issue of the Journal of the American College of Surgeons show that a pilot pneumonia-prevention program significantly reduced postoperative pneumonia in a hospital surgical ward.

Phase II study of an oral therapy for Gaucher disease yields positive results
Gaucher disease, a rare enzyme deficiency disorder, is one of many conditions with few approved treatment options for patients.

Broccoli component limits breast cancer stem cells, U-M study finds
A compound derived from broccoli could help prevent or treat breast cancer by targeting cancer stem cells -- the small number of cells that fuel a tumor's growth -- according to a new study from researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Symposium spotlights new paradigms in genomics, celebrates AIDS-fighting drug at 25 years
Samuel Broder, the former director of the National Cancer Institute who presided over the successful testing of the AIDS-fighting drug AZT, will speak on the AIDS pandemic and how AZT changed public attitudes toward the disease.
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