Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 12, 2010
Redefining electrical current law with the transistor laser
A major current law has been rewritten thanks to the three-port transistor laser, developed by Milton Feng and Nick Holonyak Jr. at the University of Illinois.

Why is breast milk best? It's all in the genes
The ability to track which genes are operating in an infant's intestine has allowed University of Illinois scientists to compare the early development of breast-fed and formula-fed babies.

Study demonstrates art therapy's effectiveness in pediatric asthma
In the first randomized trial of art therapy for asthma, National Jewish Health researchers found that children with persistent asthma enjoyed decreased anxiety and increased quality of life after seven weekly art-therapy sessions.

The International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR)
The International Meeting for Autism Research, the world's largest conference devoted to a better understanding of autism,. will be held at the Philadelphia Marriott, May 20-22, 2010.

Scripps Research study overturns decade-old findings in neurobiology
In findings that should finally put to rest a decade of controversy in the field of neurobiology, a team at the Scripps Research Institute has found decisive evidence that a specific neurotransmitter system -- the endocannabinoid system -- is active in a brain region known to play a key role in the processing of memory, emotional reactions and addiction formation.

DCA research on brain cancer
Medical Researchers at the University of Alberta reported today evidence that the orphan generic drug Dichloroacetate may hold promise as potential therapy for perhaps the deadliest of all human cancers: a form of brain cancer called glioblastoma.

IOM report recommends framework to evaluate science behind health claims for foods and drugs
The US Food and Drug Administration should apply the same rigor to evaluating the science behind claims of foods' and nutritional supplements' health benefits as it devotes to assessing medication and medical technology approvals, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine.

Adhesion and immunomodulatory properties of a probiotic strain B. lactis HN019
A research group from China elucidated the adherence and immunomodulatory properties of a world-wide consumed probiotic strain Bifidobacterium lactis HN019.

New technology aids in prostate cancer treatment
Researchers at Queen's University have developed a new way of performing lab tests that could improve the way doctors manage prostate cancer treatment.

Academic probation hits college guys harder
Male college students, especially those who had done well in their high-school classes, are much more likely than females to drop out when placed on academic probation after their first year in school, according to a researcher now at the University of Oregon.

How pest insects might adapt to climate change, affecting agriculture and health
Entomologist Peter Atkinson will give a talk at the University of California, Riverside, on May 20 that discusses how pest insects might adapt to climate change, thereby affecting agriculture and health.

Giving sweet solutions to children before immunization reduces pain
Infants who receive sweet solutions before being immunized experience less pain and are more comfortable, reveals research published ahead of print in the Archives of Disease in Childhood.

Level of frailty predicts surgical outcomes in older patients, Johns Hopkins researchers find
A simple, 10-minute

A human hepatoma multidrug resistant cell line in vitro
Drug resistance is still a major impediment in the treatment of cancer.

Study finds protein that plays key role in early embryonic development
Researchers studying the common genetic disorder chromosome 22q.11 deletion syndrome have identified key proteins that act together to regulate early embryonic development.

Tiny sensors tucked into cell phones could map airborne toxins in real time
A tiny silicon chip that works a bit like a nose may one day detect dangerous airborne chemicals and alert emergency responders through the cell phone network.

Investigating how spiders spin their silk, researchers unravel a key step
Scientists from the Technische Universitaet Muenchen and the University of Bayreuth have unraveled a decisive step in nature's way of producing spider silk; with industrial partners, they are working toward biomimetic production of synthetic fibers with comparable strength and elasticity.

SAGE launches further Therapeutic Advances journals
SAGE has extended its suite of Therapeutic Advances journals with the launch of a further two titles: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease and Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism.

NIST releases successor to venerable handbook of math functions
NIST has released the Digital Library of Mathematical Functions and its printed companion, the NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions, the much-anticipated successors to the agency's most widely cited publication of all time.

Mirror neuron system functions normally in autism
New research suggests that a brain system called the mirror neuron system, previously implicated as being dysfunctional in autism appears to function normally in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Professor David Corr receives NSF CAREER award
David T. Corr, assistant professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, has won a Faculty Early Career Development Award from the National Science Foundation.

Ancient galaxy cluster contains 'modern' galaxies
A team of astronomers including Ivelina Momcheva of the Carnegie Observatories has discovered the most distant cluster of galaxies ever found.

Can wage regulation be deadly?
A study forthcoming in the Journal of Political Economy suggests that government regulation of nurses' pay leads to higher death rates in UK hospitals.

American Society for Microbiology to honor Scripps, Claude ZoBell
The American Society for Microbiology will honorClaude ZoBell's accomplishments as part of its week-long 110th general meeting in San Diego.

Forest access roads affect walleye populations in northern Ontario lakes
Forestry access roads can have undesirable outcomes on fish populations in remote Northern Ontario lakes due to increased access, according to research by Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources scientists recently published in the North American Journal of Fisheries Management.

NASA deploys planes, targets satellites to aid in oil spill response
NASA has mobilized its remote-sensing assets to help assess the spread and impact of the Deepwater Horizon BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico at the request of US disaster response agencies.

Carnegie Mellon's Bruno Sinopoli receives grant
Carnegie Mellon's Bruno Sinopoli received a five year, $400,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to develop computer tools for securing and controlling cyber-physical systems.

Terumo to simultaneously evaluate MISAGO Self-Expanding Stent System in the United States and Japan
Terumo Medical Corporation, a US-based subsidiary of Terumo Corp., today announced it has received an investigational device exemption conditional approval from the US Food & Drug Administration for its Occlusive/Stenotic Peripheral Artery Revascularization Study in the US, which will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the MISAGO Self-Expanding Stent System for use in the superficial femoral artery.

Death of a star in 3 dimensions
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching have for the first time managed to reproduce the asymmetries and fast-moving iron clumps of observed supernovae by complex computer simulations in all three dimensions.

Always best connected
Design multimedia services and mobile cloud applications for smart phones and Tablet PCs.

Biofuel chemistry more complex than petroleum, say Sandia and Lawrence Livermore researchers
Biofuel combustion chemistry more complex than petroleum-based fuels, say Sandia and Lawrence Livermore researchers.

Population health plays a bigger role in geographic differences in Medicare spending
In a study conducted by researchers from George Mason University and the Urban Institute, it was determined that variations in Medicare beneficiaries' health across geographic areas accounts for a significant share of Medicare costs that vary widely by region.

No more pills: Male contraceptive takes new approach
Positive initial results have earned a University of North Carolina team a Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Grand Challenges Explorations grant to study therapeutic ultrasound as a long-acting male contraceptive, adding to hope that this lead will finally be fully explored.

Real-time, evidence-based information at clinicians' fingertips to streamline mental health care
Mental health, the second leading cause of disability and premature death in Canada, impacts the lives of every Canadian, much like technology.

Elsevier develops Scopus Alerts (Lite) iPhone app to help researchers stay up-to-date
Elsevier, a world-leading publisher of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, today announced it has built a new iPhone application, Scopus Alerts (Lite) , that gives researchers mobile access to the Searching and Alerting features of Scopus, the world's largest abstract and citation database.

Of microorganisms and man
More than 150 years ago, Darwin proposed the theory of universal common ancestry, linking all forms of life by a shared genetic heritage from single-celled microorganisms to humans.

Higher HCC risk with increased insulin resistance in hepatitis C patients
Insulin resistance, a potential risk factor for a wide variety of cancers, has been reported to increase in chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

Molecular adsorbent recirculating system treatment for acute liver failure
The molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) is used in the treatment of liver failure patients to enable either native liver recovery or as a bridging treatment to liver transplantation.

How do four caged xanthones inhibit cholangiocarcinoma cell growth?
Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a key mechanism in the cell exploited by several currently used anticancer drugs to kill tumor cells.

Music aids Alzheimer's patients in remembering new information
Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine have shown that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are better able to remember new verbal information when it is provided in the context of music even when compared to healthy, older adults.

Carnegie Mellon's Onur Mutlu receives outstanding award
Carnegie Mellon's Onur Mutlu received a five year, $549,306 grant from the National Science Foundation to research technologies and algorithms for creating scalable, high-performance, and quality-of-service memory systems for multicore purposes.

European Alliance targets separation technologies for sustainable energy systems
A significant part of European membrane research is focused on the separation technologies required for clean and sustainable energy systems.

How to diagnose superior mesenteric artery aneurysm correctly for radiologists?
Aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms of the superior mesenteric artery are potentially lethal, and should be treated as urgently as possible.

Researchers discover additional benefit of vitamin A
Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health recently discovered a link between offspring lung function and maternal vitamin A supplementation.

3 new climate change reports to be released at May 19 public briefing
As part of its most comprehensive assessment to date, the National Research Council -- the operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering -- will release three new reports examining how the nation can combat the effects of global warming.

Einstein researcher awarded prestigious cancer research grant
Matthew Gamble, Ph.D., assistant professor of molecular pharmacology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, has been awarded a $200,000 Kimmel Scholar Award.

Rate of childhood peanut allergies more than tripled from 1997 to 2008
Results of a nationwide telephone survey have shown that the rate of peanut allergies in children more than tripled from 1997 to 2008.

Biofuel combustion chemistry more complex than petroleum-based fuels
Understanding the key elements of biofuel combustion is an important step toward insightful selection of next-generation alternative fuels.

Meet Phannie, NIST's standard 'phantom' for calibrating MRI machines
NIST has unveiled the first

Carnegie commits to Giant Magellan Telescope construction
At its May meeting, the Carnegie Institution for Science board of trustees endorsed the construction of the proposed Giant Magellan Telescope.

Texas Children's Hospital vaccine experts present 4 studies
Advances in vaccine delivery and efficacy were discussed at the 44th National Immunization Conference sponsored by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Self-directed behavioral IBS treatment rapidly relieves even the most severe symptoms
Nearly one-third of patients with irritable bowel syndrome who underwent a novel behavior treatment developed by a University at Buffalo behavioral scientist achieved significant relief within four weeks of beginning treatment.

Research team shows how bacterial community evolves to survive
An international team led by a University of Cincinnati researcher has shown how a bacterial community evolves to survive hostile host defenses in the body.

NYU, Nanjing U. chemists create DNA assembly line
Chemists at New York University and China's Nanjing University have created a DNA assembly line that has the potential to create novel materials efficiently on the nanoscale.

The joke is on us: A new interpretation of bared teeth in archaeological artifacts
Bared teeth are a prominent and eye-catching feature on many historical and archaeological artifacts, and are commonly interpreted as representing death, aggression and the shamanic trance.

Discarded data may be gateway to new brain insights
Scientists regularly discard up to 90 percent of the signals from monitoring of brain waves, one of the oldest techniques for observing changes in brain activity.

Eureka! Neural evidence for sudden insight
A recent study provides intriguing information about the neural dynamics underlying behavioral changes associated with the development of new problem solving strategies.

Minorities face barriers to effective ADHD treatments, MSU study contends
Several barriers prevent minority children with ADHD from receiving the most effective treatments, according to a new study by Michigan State University researchers.

Symposium: Implications for the future of personalize medicine
Are Americans ready to glimpse into the future of their health?

Opinion polls underestimate Americans' concern about the environment, Stanford study finds
When pollsters ask Americans to name the most important problem facing the country, the environment is rarely mentioned.

Variations in decisions for care of patients with brain injury 'disturbing'
Treatment decisions involving patients with severe brain injury vary widely between medical institutions and appear to be more driven by hospital and physician practices and priorities.

Long-acting insulin analogues in type 1 diabetes: No proof of additional benefit
It has so far not been proven that the long-acting insulin analogues insulin detemir (trade name: Levemir) and insulin glargine (trade name: Lantus), which are approved for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, offer patients an additional benefit versus long-acting human insulin.

Acclaimed researcher wins Michelson Postdoctoral Prize
David Hanneke's most recent project has been hailed as the physics breakthrough of the year and his prior work is considered by many to be the most accurate experiment in science.

MIT researchers find that 2 proteins are key for normal-sized brains
n work that may one day correct or prevent genetic conditions tied to smaller-than-normal brains and shed light on the evolution of human head size, researchers at MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory analyzed the interaction of two proteins key to brain development.

Changing thoughts key to battling even severe depression
Moderate to severely depressed clients showed greater improvement in cognitive therapy when therapists emphasized changing how they think rather than how they behave, new research has found.

U of I partners in rebuilding top university in Sierra Leone
On May 6, University of Illinois officials signed a memorandum of understanding with Njala University of the West African country of Sierra Leone to partner in the rebuilding of the university it helped establish 46 years ago.

Doctors interrupted at work give shorter and poorer care to patients
Hospital doctors who are frequently interrupted while working in a clinical environment spend less time on tasks and fail to return to almost a fifth of their jobs in hand, reveals research published ahead of print in the journal Quality and Safety in Health Care.

Building a better student discussion
Patricia A. Sorrano of Michigan State University describes an approach to student lead discussions that removes responsibility of choosing discussion content from the student leader, and instead places it on the group.

3 payloads built by CU-Boulder set for launch on space shuttle Atlantis
NASA's space shuttle Atlantis will make its final flight May 14 carrying three University of Colorado at Boulder-built biomedical payload devices, including one to help scientists understand how and why slimy and troublesome clumps of microorganisms flourish in the low-gravity conditions of space.

Easter Island discovery sends archaeologists back to drawing board
Archaeologists have disproved the 50-year-old theory underpinning our understanding of how the famous stone statues were moved around Easter Island.

Why can surgical treatment improve type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a commonly used surgical treatment for patients with morbid obesity.

Duodenocaval fistula
A series of follow-up computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of duodenocaval fistula (DCF) were reported recently.

Researchers find mirror neuron system functions normally in individuals with autism
A team of neuroscientists has found that the mirror neuron system, which is thought to play a central role in social communications, responds normally in individuals with autism.

Microsoft Research and FAPESP invest to advance scientific discovery in Latin America
Microsoft Research and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Fapesp) kicked-off the sixth annual Latin American Faculty Summit 2010 in Brazil, where they welcomed more than 200 academic, government and industry leaders from across the globe to share their approaches and build new opportunities for creative innovation through scientific research and development in the region.

Researchers demonstrate that 'safe' cigarettes are as hazardous as tobacco
Using a technique they developed to document the harmful effects of tobacco products, researchers at New York Medical College have found that so-called

TGen researcher awarded American Cancer Society fellowship
Dr. James Bogenberger has been awarded a three-year, $150,000 postdoctoral fellowship by the American Cancer Society to research acute myeloid leukemia at the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen).

UNC's Patrick Sullivan receives grant for genetics study of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder
Patrick Sullivan, M.D., has received a 2010 Distinguished Investigator Award from NARSAD for a comparison of genetics in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Schizophrenia drugs raise the volume of a key signaling system in the brain
All the major groups of medications for schizophrenia turn up the volume of a brain signal known to be muted in individuals with this psychiatric disorder -- a signal that also can be influenced by diet.

Better dental care may help people with diabetes, study finds
Treating serious gum disease in diabetics can help to lower their blood sugar levels, a study has shown.

Which esophageal stent is more effective, Ultraflex or Choostent?
A research group at University of Milan Medical School investigated the effectiveness, safety and outcome of two popular nitinol esophageal stents (Ultraflex and Choostent) in patients with esophageal cancer.

Naval Research Laboratory scientists investigate acoustics in Gulf of Mexico
Scientists from the Naval Research Laboratory at Stennis Space Center, MS, and Washington, D.C., recently completed an investigation of the acoustic properties of the deep seafloor in the Gulf of Mexico.

Marriage and life expectancy
Marriage is more beneficial for men than for women -- at least for those who want a long life.

Response to vaccines could depend on your sex
Biological differences between the sexes could be a significant predictor of responses to vaccines.

Recycling 'tiny trash' -- cigarette butts
A new study suggests expanding community recycling programs beyond newspapers, beverage containers, and other traditional trash to include an unlikely new potential treasure: Cigarette butts.

New plastic-like materials may say 'shhhh' to hush disease-causing microbes
Scientists are reporting success in a first attempt to silence the biochemical conversations that disease-causing bacteria use to marshal their forces and cause infections.

Virtual reality body transfer illusion and more
The following papers are among those in the May 12, 2010, release:

Duties to human remains in universities and museums
Human remains are stored in universities and museums all over the world.

Severity of binge eating disorder linked to childhood sexual or emotional abuse: JGH researchers
Researchers at the Jewish General Hospital in Montreal have discovered a link between childhood sexual and emotional abuse and binge eating disorder in adulthood.

Volcanic ash in Meridiani Planum
Deposits of volcanic ash color this view of the Meridiani Planum, as seen by the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera.

Size matters: Eavesdropping on sexual signals
Biologists at the University of California, Riverside, have found that male crickets growing up in the presence of abundant male song tend to be larger, behave differently, and invest nearly 10 percent more reproductive tissue mass in their testes than male crickets growing up in a silent environment.

Louisiana Tech, LSU engineering students present jointly at senior design forum
Industrial engineering students from Louisiana Tech University joined their peers from Louisiana State University this week to present their work at the 2010 Jointed Industrial Engineering Senior Design Forum in Baton Rouge.

LSU identifies community conditions related to malnutrition deaths among older adults
In the May 2010 issue of Annals of Epidemiology, two LSU researchers tackle a problem seldom acknowledged in the United States -- the incidence of malnutrition-related deaths among older adults.

Spiders at the nanoscale: Molecules that behave like robots
A team of scientists from Columbia University, Arizona State University, the University of Michigan, and Caltech have programmed an autonomous molecular
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