Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

June 21, 2010
AcademyHealth Annual Research Meeting begins Sunday
AcademyHealth's Annual Research Meeting, June 27-29 in Boston, convenes more than 2,300 researchers, policymakers and practitioners to discuss research addressing the critical challenges confronting the nation's health care delivery system, including the ways health services research can inform current efforts to improve health care quality, reduce rising costs and expand access.

Diabetes patients admitted for acute exacerbations of COPD have longer hospital stay
A new study in the journal Respirology reveals that patients with diabetes who are hospitalized with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experience longer time in the hospital and are also at an increased risk of death, compared to those without diabetes.

People who suppress anger are more likely to become violent when drunk
A study published today in the journal Addiction reveals that drunkenness increases the risk for violent behavior, but only for individuals with a strong inclination to suppress anger.

Researchers create self-assembling nanodevices that move and change shape on demand
By emulating nature's design principles, researchers have created nanodevices made of DNA that self-assemble and can be programmed to move and change shape on demand.

Compost filter socks improve runoff from croplands
Study finds that compost filters socks can reduce soil erosion from croplands and reduce the amount of herbicide in runoff.

Harmful bacteria carried by pigeons
Sampling of pigeons captured on the streets of Madrid has revealed the bacterial pathogens they carry.

New UCLA book cracks open complex, surprising history of Liberty Bell
In a new book, a prominent UCLA authority on the American Revolution tells the surprisingly rich and complicated history of the Liberty Bell, which next year will be 260 years old.

National School Lunch Program increases educational achievement
A new study from the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management asserts that the National School Lunch program is a success for increasing educational achievement.

Swiss surgeons report negative effects of resident work hour limits
Many Swiss surgical residents and consultants believe recently implemented 50-hour workweek limitations for residents have a negative effect on surgical training and the quality of patient care, according to a report in the June issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

New scientific statement evaluates benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy
The Endocrine Society presented its Scientific Statement on menopausal hormone therapy Monday in San Diego, Calif., at ENDO 2010: The 92nd Annual Meeting & Expo.

NTU ramps up collaboration with Israel's top university
Singapore's leading science and technology university, NTU and Israel's number one university, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, announced a new collaboration to jointly offer a Doctor of Philosophy program and to increase the level of exchanges between the two leading universities.

Cancers of sweat glands, other skin-related structures may be increasing in United States
Cutaneous appendageal carcinomas -- tumors of the skin appendages such as hair, nails, sweat glands and mammary glands -- are rare but rates appear to be increasing in the United States, according to a report in the June issue of Archives of Dermatology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

New possibility to determine the severity of appendicitis
The symptoms of appendicitis are often diffuse and it can be difficult to obtain an accurate diagnosis early in the course of the disease.

Gender-bending fish problem in Colorado creek mitigated by treatment plant upgrade
Male fish are taking longer to be

American Chemical Society webinar focuses on exit strategies for business plans
News media and others interested in the chemical sciences are invited to join the next in a series of American Chemical Society Webinars, focusing on exit strategies for business plans.

Work travel may reinforce gender roles
A new doctoral thesis from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, concludes that traditional gender roles and norms about

Early life exposure to BPA may affect testis function in adulthood
Exposure to environmental levels of the industrial chemical bisphenol A, or BPA, in the womb and early life may cause long-lasting harm to testicular function, according to a new study conducted in animals.

Of lice and man: Researchers sequence human body louse genome
Like an unwelcome house guest or itinerant squatter, the human body louse shows up when times are bad and always makes them worse.

Study sheds light on reducing energy costs
A new research project at the University of Leicester is examining the problem of high electricity prices around the world.

X-rays help physicians diagnose and treat gastric band slippage
Standard radiography (X-rays) can help physicians diagnose laparoscopic adjustable gastric band slippage, a known complication of adjustable gastric banding surgery, according to a study published in the July issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology.

University sets up solar farm for photovoltaic research
Work to install one of the city's first major solar farms on the roof of a University of Sheffield building begins today (June 21, 2010) -- the date of the summer solstice -- as part of a £120,000 ($178,000) investment into boosting photovoltaic research.

Unusual rhino beetle behavior discovered
The coconut rhinoceros beetle continues to munch its way through the crowns of coconut trees on the northwest coast of Guam.

Cycad pest uses small size to hide from predators
One way to keep from getting eaten is to run.

From bark to bedside: Study looks at canine cancer genes, human health impact
Michigan State University veterinarians are taking part in a two-year, $5.3 million project to analyze five cancers in dogs, research that could offer new insight into canine cancer genes and their potential impact on the human form of the disease.

Every year, nearly 200,000 women are victims of gender violence in Madrid (Spain)
According to a study in which a researcher from Carlos III University of Madrid has participated, the women who are subjected to physical or psychological abuse by their partners every year in the Autonomous Community of Madrid could fill the largest football stadium in Spain twice.

Lemurs lose weight with 'life-extending' supplement
The anti-obesity properties of resveratrol have been demonstrated for the first time in a primate.

Nanyang Tech University hosts World Bank conference to raise East Asia education standards
About 100 education policymakers and school administrators from 20 Asia-Pacific countries are in Singapore from today till Wednesday (June 21-23, 2010) to attend the East Asia Conference on Benchmarking Education Systems for Results.

Full reproductive and sexual health rights essential for maternal health goals
In an editorial published this week titled

Rabbinic dreams during Late Antiquity
Dreams have always held significance for human beings through the ages, and dreaming has been associated with a multitude of different notions.

Youth define spirituality in terms of positive behaviors, connections
Few studies have examined the differences between spirituality and religion in adolescents.

Large medical center reduces cumulative radiation exposure and CT scans through imaging algorithm
A large, academic medical center implemented an imaging algorithm that allowed radiologists to successfully reduce the cumulative radiation exposure and number of computed tomography (CT) angiography and CT perfusion studies performed on patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages (a form of stroke), according to a study published in the July issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology.

Portable media players associated with short-term hearing effects
Temporary changes in hearing sensitivity are associated with potential harmful effects of listening to an MP3 player, according to a report in the June issue of Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Elsevier pilots PeerChoice in Chemical Physics Letters
Elsevier announced the launch of PeerChoice, a new pilot peer review program for Chemical Physics Letters where reviewers now have the freedom to choose which articles they would like to review.

Conceptions of bias and appointments to CIHR Governing Council
Under the principles of reasonable apprehension of bias, the appointment of Dr.

Studying cells in 3-D could reveal new cancer targets
Showing movies in 3-D has produced a box-office bonanza in recent months.

Quality in e-learning is bound up to our value
Since higher education is booming in developing countries, so is e-learning.

NSF funds mathematical research at Stevens
Dr. Alexei Miasnikov, Dr. Robert Gilman and Alexander Ushakov of Stevens Institute of Technology were recently awarded NSF funding that enables them to organize the thematic semester on geometric, combinational and computational group theory at the Centre de Recherches Mathmatiques in Montreal.

Global audit researchers and regulators to meet in Singapore
Top global researchers and regulators/standard setters in the highly important field of auditing will be meeting here in Singapore for a two-day international symposium, June 24-25, for the 16th Annual International Symposium on Audit Research.

Puberty and sleep regulation can influence alcohol use during early adolescence
Alcohol is known to disrupt sleep, but little is known about alcohol use and sleep problems during adolescence.

Flame retardant linked to altered thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy
A new UC Berkeley-led study of pregnant women links higher blood levels of PBDEs, a common type of flame retardant, with altered thyroid hormone levels.

Noise reduction in motor boat cockpits and cabins possible
Noisy cockpits and cabins have long been a challenge facing domestic manufacturers of motor boats.

Tumor suppressor APC could stop cancer through its effect on actin cytoskeleton
The APC protein serves as the colon's guardian, keeping tumors at bay.

More than skin deep, tanning product of sun's rays
People who remain pale and never tan can blame their distant ancestors for choosing to live in the northern reaches of the globe and those who easily achieve a deep tan can thank their ancestors for living in the subtropical latitudes, according to Penn State anthropologists.

Expanding blast-proof curtain will reduce impact of bomb explosions
A new type of blast-proof curtain that gets thicker, not thinner, when stretched is being developed to provide better protection from the effects of bomb explosions.

Children with special needs are at increased risk for oral disease
At the beginning of 2010, as many as 17 percent of children in the United States were reported as having special health care needs.

Enzyme trio for biosynthesis of hydrocarbon fuels
Scientists with the Joint BioEnergy Institute have identified a trio of bacterial enzymes that can catalyze key steps in the conversion of plant sugars into hydrocarbon compounds for the production of green transportation fuels.

Young children are skilled negotiators
Young children are skilled negotiators when it comes to relationships and the content of play, reveals a thesis from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Underwater gliders may change how scientists track fish
Tracking fish across Alaska's vast continental shelves can present a challenge to any scientist studying Alaska's seas.

Chimpanzee gangs kill for land, new study shows
Bands of chimpanzees violently kill individuals from neighboring groups in order to expand their own territory, according to a 10-year study of a chimp community in Uganda that provides the first definitive evidence for this long-suspected function of this behavior.

Encouraging results from the largest clinical study ever conducted on treating depression with Omega-3
The use of Omega-3 supplements is effective among patients with major depression who do not have anxiety disorders, according to a study directed by Dr.

How lead exposure damages the brain: New research fills in the picture
Exposure to lead during early childhood and even later in life has long been known to affect the release of critical neurotransmitters.

1000 Genomes Project releases pilot data
The completion of three pilot projects designed to determine how best to build an extremely detailed map of human genetic variation begins a new chapter in the international project called 1000 Genomes said the director of the Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center, which is a major contributor to the effort.

Experts discover heavenly solar music
Musical sounds created by longitudinal vibrations within the sun's atmosphere, have been recorded and accurately studied for the first time by experts at the University of Sheffield, shedding light on the sun's magnetic atmosphere.

Elsevier announces the winner of the Ahmed Zewail prize in molecular sciences
The editors of the leading international journal Chemical Physics Letters are pleased to announce that the third Ahmed Zewail Prize in Molecular Sciences has been awarded to Professor William H.

Ben-Gurion U. professor develops computer program that detects depression in bloggers' texts
The software is capable of identifying language that can indicate the writer's psychological state, which could serve as a screening tool.

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have higher BPA blood levels
Women with the polycystic ovary syndrome, the most common hormone imbalance in women of reproductive age, may be more vulnerable to exposure to the chemical bisphenol A (BPA), found in many plastic household items, according to a new study.

Babies' first bacteria depend on birthing method, says new study
A new study indicates different delivery methods of newborn babies has a big effect on the types of microbial communities they harbor as they emerge into the world, findings with potential implications for the heath of infants as they grow and develop.

Physician-journalist guidelines proposed in wake of Haiti earthquake
In the wake of extensive television news reporting in Haiti by physicians such as Dr.

Child welfare services need radical changes to guard against abuse
A new international review of research into child welfare services shows that radical changes are needed to improve assessments and support for families where there are concerns about parental abuse.

Scholar calls for a new legal, ethical framework for research with human tissue specimens
A lawyer and researcher at the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics says a new legal and ethical framework needs to be placed around the donation and banking of human biological material, one that would more clearly define the terms of the material's use -- and address donor expectations before research begins.

Ocean stirring and plankton patchiness
Computer simulations performed by researchers at the National Oceanography Centre and the University of Glasgow show how oceanic stirring and mixing influence the formation and dynamics of plankton patches in the upper ocean.

Language competition in Rwanda and Uganda
Despite the fact that the African languages in Rwanda and Uganda are marginalized in most formal domains in society, they are used far more extensively than commonly believed.

Insight into cells could lead to new approach to medicines
A surprising discovery about the complex make-up of our cells could lead to the development of new types of medicines, a study suggests.

A crack in the case for supersolids
Plastic deformations may explain the odd behavior once thought to indicate that helium had become supersolid.

Increasing potato production
A research team from Michigan State University conducted a study to determine how the chemical and physical properties of soil, along with the light waves the plant absorbs and reflects, affect potato yield and variability.

ASIR technique significantly reduces already low radiation dose from CT colonography
A newly adapted low-dose computed tomography (CT) technique called adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) can help radiologists reduce the already low radiation dose delivered during CT colonography by another 50 percent, according to a study published in the July issue of the American Journal of Roentgenology.

Study examines, compares bacteria in the nose and throat
Scientists have completed the most comprehensive comparative analysis to date of bacterial communities inhabiting the human nose and throat, which could provide new insights into why some individuals become colonized with pathogens while others do not.

Ear tubes appear safe for children with cochlear implants
A history of ear tubes to treat infections does not appear to adversely affect children with cochlear implants, regardless of whether the tubes are left in place or removed before implantation, according to a report in the June issue of Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Electronic health records could give rise to more liability risk
Electronic health record systems likely will soon become a fixture in medical settings.

NIH-supported study finds novel pathway may open doors for new blood pressure treatments
Researchers have found that increasing certain proteins in the blood vessels of mice, relaxed the vessels, lowering the animal's blood pressure.

Adults with newly diagnosed diabetes at risk of liver disease
Adults with newly diagnosed diabetes are at higher long-term risk of serious liver disease, including cirrhosis and liver failure, according to a research article published in CMAJ.

Pre-stored phrases make it easier to be part of a conversation
Researchers at the University of Gothenburg have now developed a system where pre-stored phrases are used in addition to writing, with a view to making communication faster and more easy-going for people with serious speech disorders.

Using the notion of 'accounting periods' for time as well as money
Consumers account for their time differently than they track their money, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

African nations commit to saving chimps
The nations of East and Central Africa have developed a 10-year action plan to save one of humankind's closest relatives -- the eastern chimpanzee -- from hunting, habitat loss, disease and other threats, according to an announcement made today by the Wildlife Conservation Society and the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

NYU Langone Medical Center receives $5.4 million NYSTEM grant for stem cell research
NYU Langone Medical Center has received a $5.4 million shared facility award from the Empire State Stem Cell Board's New York State Stem Cell Science (NYSTEM) program for the NYU RNAi CORE FACILITY to conduct stem cell research.

Abusive mothering aggravates the impact of stress hormones
In a new Biological Psychiatry article, Dr. Regina Sullivan and colleagues have dissected the behavior of mother rats and their infant pups, modeling nurturing by stroking and abuse with electric shock.

New drugs to relieve cancer pain
Pioneering research at the Universities of Leicester and Ferrara tests new drugs that could relieve cancer pain.

Loneliness, poor health appear to be linked
Two UA studies have found that hoarding friends doesn't necessarily diminish forlorn feelings and that loneliness is a matter of perception.

Can a Victoria's Secret shopping bag make you feel glamorous?
Certain brands have personalities that can actually change the way some people feel about themselves, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

Creating a preliminary neurobehavioral profile of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
A new study has created a preliminary neurobehavioral profile of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

Life of plastic solar cell jumps from hours to 8 months
A team of researchers from the U of A and NINT has extended the operating life of an unsealed plastic solar cell, from mere hours to eight months.

Why chimpanzees attack and kill each other
Chimpanzees have long been known to kill their neighbors, and now researchers reporting in the June 22 issue of Current Biology, a Cell Press publication, think they have a motive.

Director of top 10 nurse midwifery program inducted into the American College of Nurse Midwives
Jane Dyer, Ph.D., M.S., C.N.M., F.N.P., M.B.A., associate professor (clinical) and director of the Nurse Midwifery and Women's Health Nurse Practitioner Program at the University of Utah College of Nursing has been formally inducted into the American College of Nurse Midwives as one of the 2010 new Fellows.

CMAJ calls for resignation of IDRC chair Barbara McDougall
The recent revelation that the chair of the board of Canada's International Development Research Agency was a tobacco executive until April 2010 sends an unfortunate message to the world that tobacco control is no longer a priority, states an editorial in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

UCI researchers develop world's first plastic antibodies
UC Irvine researchers have developed the first

Freely available data supporting next generation of human genetic research
The 1000 Genomes Project, an international public-private consortium to build the most detailed map of human genetic variation to date, announces the completion of three pilot projects and the deposition of the final resulting data in freely available public databases for use by the research community.

Rice yields researched to tackle food security issues
A pioneering project in the Philippines, which aims to develop a new, higher-yielding rice plant which could ease the threat of hunger for the poor, is being led by an academic at the University of Sheffield.

Violence, not overdose, the likely method of suicide in veterans with substance use disorders
Veterans with substance use disorders who die by suicide are more likely to use violent means (such as a firearm) rather than nonviolent means (such as a drug overdose), new research suggests.

Exercise may be an effective and nonpharmacologic treatment option for alcohol dependence
Alcohol abuse is highly disruptive of circadian rhythms, which refers to the timing of daily rhythms.

NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites view Tropical Storms Blas and Celia
Tropical cyclones Blas and Celia are both spinning in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, and two NASA satellites captured them in visible and infrared imagery.

New research shows peer drug use may increase an individual's genetic tendency to use drugs
The nature-nurture debate is usually about how much of something is due to our genes and how much is caused by our environment.

A*STAR scientist receives international award for innovation in healthcare technology
Physicist David William Townsend will be honored with the prestigious 2010 IEEE Medal for Innovations in Healthcare Technology for the design, commercial development and clinical implementation of the PET/CT scanner.

Eager yet humble bishop candidates
A new doctoral thesis in history from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, concludes that a person interested in becoming a Swedish bishop in the 1900s had to be careful not to appear too anxious.

Discovery of subatomic particles could answer deep questions in geology
An international team including scientists from Princeton University has detected subatomic particles deep within the Earth's interior.

Brain signs of schizophrenia found in babies
UNC researchers are the first to identify brain abnormalities in children at high risk for schizophrenia shortly after birth.

Humans have a mighty bite
The robust jaws and formidable teeth of some of our ancestors and ape cousins may suggest that humans are wimps when it comes to producing a powerful bite: but a new study has found the opposite is true.

Chemicals remaining after wastewater treatment change the gender of fish
Male fish that used to be feminized after chemicals, such as the pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol, made it through the Boulder, Colo., Wastewater Treatment Plant and into Boulder Creek, are taking longer to become feminized after a plant upgrade to an activated sludge process, according to a new study.

Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute develop new method for mass-producing graphene
Researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed a simple new method for producing large quantities of the promising nanomaterial graphene.

$2.4 million CDC grant aids researchers in quest to identify Utah children with autism
In the ongoing effort to understand the growing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders nationwide, the University of Utah has received a $2.4 million, four-year grant to estimate the number of Utah 8-year-olds with ASDs and other developmental disabilities.

Dionysian ecstatic cults in early Rome
A new doctoral thesis from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, shows that, in contrast to traditional scholarly claims, Dionysian cultic activities may very well have occurred in archaic Rome in the decades around 500 B.C.

New text focuses on microbiology of historic artifacts
Historic and culturally important artifacts, like all materials, are vulnerable to microbial attack.

Early menopause linked to higher risk of future cardiovascular disease
Women who experience early menopause appear to have more than twice the risk of having a heart attack, stroke or other cardiovascular disease event later in life than do women who do not go through early menopause, a new study indicates.

The challenges of learning to use new products
Consumers learn how to use new products best if they get a chance to try them out repeatedly, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

OSA student members to gather in Moscow for IONS 2010
IONS will be hosting IONS-8 in Moscow, Russia, June 21-25 at the N.E.

A possible role for Smurf1 in pulmonary arterial hypertension
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease, marked by shortness of breath and fatigue which can be fatal if untreated.

High-precision drilling robot, amongst novelties at Machine-Tool Biennial
It is clear that the future of manufacturing and automation is sustained on two fundamental premises -- portable machinery and cooperative robotics -- according to the Machine-Tool Biennial, held recently at the BEC Trade Fair Centre in Bilbao.

UCLA's James Liao receives Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award from EPA
James C. Liao, chancellor's professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at the UCLA Engineering, has been awarded the 2010 Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award from the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Seasonality of child abuse a myth
A new study of homicides of 797 children younger than age 5 has found that these deaths occur uniformly throughout the year, dispelling the widely held anecdotal notion that the winter months, and especially winter holidays, are a time of increased child abuse.

Inconspicuous consumption: Insiders vs. outsiders
Why would a consumer spend $10,000 on a handbag that doesn't identify the brand, when most observers would confuse it with a $50 alternative?

Progesterone is effective for hot flash treatment and provides an alternative to estrogen
Postmenopausal women who experience bothersome hot flashes or night sweats may have an alternative treatment to estrogen.

The 'bumpy ride' of linguistic change
A recent study of an ancient language provides new insights into the nature of linguistic evolution, with potential applications for today's world.

Greater religiosity during adolescence may protect against developing problem alcohol use
Phenotypes are measurable and/or observable traits or behaviors. The heritability of an alcohol-related phenotype depends upon the social environment within which it is measured, such as urbanicity, marital status or religiosity.

New 2009 Impact Factors soar for newest Cell Press journals
In the year since their 2008 preliminary ranking, Cell Press journals Cell Stem Cell and Cell Host and Microbe saw their Impact Factors surge, according to new data released in the 2009 Journal Citation Reports published by ThomsonReuters.

NHLBI funds research to improve safety of red blood cell transfusions
The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health, is funding nine research grants to determine if the safety and efficacy of red blood cell transfusions vary depending on how long the cells have been stored.

Are you promotion- or prevention-focused and what does this mean when considering choices?
When consumers make choices, their style of pursuing their goals changes the way they search and decide what to purchase, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

ARS and New Mexico scientists take a long look at livestock and locoweed
Keeping livestock away from poisonous locoweed during seasons when it's a forage favorite is one way ranchers can protect their animals and their profits, according to a 20-year collaboration by Agricultural Research Service scientists and their university partners.

US Department of Defense helps move spinal cord injury treatment closer to clinical trials
The United States Department of Defense Spinal Cord Injury Research Program has announced a grant of more than a million dollars (US) to support research at the Robarts Research Institute at the University of Western Ontario.

Marines to use autonomous vehicles built by Virginia Tech engineering students using TORC products
Four Ground Unmanned Support Surrogate vehicles headed to Hawaii are an outgrowth of university research to develop technology for DARPA competitions and the commercialization capabilities of a small business.

Country action is needed for maternal and child health in Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa has only 11 percent of the world's population, yet more than half of the world's maternal, newborn and child deaths, and two-thirds of the world's AIDS deaths.

JDR increases its 5-Year SIF and remains number one dental journal of 64 in its category
Today the International and American Associations for Dental Research announced that its Journal of Dental Research remains the number one journal of 64 journal published in the

Scientists announce discovery of 3.6 million-year-old relative of 'Lucy'
An international team of scientists discovered and analyzed a 3.6 million-year-old partial skeleton found in Ethiopia.

Surveillance colonoscopy should be targeted to high-risk patients
Surveillance colonoscopy is effective and cost-effective when targeted to high-risk patients.

Some types of arousal can lead to unhealthy choices
You might want to avoid food shopping right after a heavy workout or drinking after an intense day of high-powered negotiations, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

Both fixed and varying gender patterns in children's everyday activities
While the shock absorbers are always girls, both boys and girls can be the teacher's helper.

Many clinicians maintain positive attitudes toward industry marketing activities
Despite current policy trends, many clinicians continue to hold positive attitudes toward gifts from and marketing interactions with pharmaceutical and device companies, according to a report in the June issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to