Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 18, 2010
Study shows how technology may improve treatment for children with brain cancer
A study presented today at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine shows that children with brain tumors who undergo radiation therapy (the application of X-rays to kill cancerous cells and shrink tumors) may benefit from a technique known as

Canadian study shows introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment for HIV patients has halved new HIV diagnoses since 1996
A Canadian study being presented at the forthcoming International AIDS Society conference shows that the annual number of new HIV diagnoses has more than halved since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV patients in 1996.

Many HIV-exposed infants in African countries not receiving medication to help prevent HIV
Only about half of infants born to HIV-infected mothers in some African countries receive a minimum preventive dose of the drug nevirapine to help reduce the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission, according to a study in the July 21 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on HIV/AIDS.

MIT creates technology for high-speed study of zebrafish larvae
With the aim of speeding up the process of studying zebrafish larvae and enabling large-scale studies, engineers at MIT have developed a new technique that can analyze the larvae in seconds.

Discovery suggests possible treatment strategy for aggressive leukemias
Researchers at Duke University Medical Center have identified a mechanism that could explain how patients move into the worst phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).

Vitamin A deficiency in New York City
In high-income countries, diseases related to vitamin deficiencies are not as frequent as in poorer settings but are nonetheless regular occurrences.

New HIV treatment guidelines indicate importance of early, individualized antiretroviral treatment
Advances in antiretroviral treatment have shown that the progressive immune system destruction caused by HIV infection, including AIDS, can be prevented, indicating the importance of beginning ART early, when a person with HIV infection is without symptoms, according to the 2010 recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA Panel, published in the July 21 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on HIV/AIDS.

Vaccine-delivery patch with dissolving microneedles eliminates 'sharps,' boosts protection
A new vaccine-delivery patch based on hundreds of microscopic needles that dissolve into the skin could allow persons without medical training to painlessly administer vaccines -- while providing improved immunization against diseases such as influenza.

New method revolutionizes study of metal-containing proteins
In a study led by a researcher at the University of Georgia and published in the journal Nature, scientists have shown through an entirely new method that metalloproteins are much more diverse and extensive than previously recognized and that it is possible to determine all the metals in an organism in one fell swoop through a reliable, genome-wide approach.

Scientists identify key molecular regulator of cardiac hypertrophy
Scientists have identified a key molecular regulator of cardiac hypertrophy (enlargement of the heart) that may provide a therapeutic target for a major risk factor of heart failure and early death.

HIV vaccines may induce HIV antibodies in trial participants, can cause false-positive test result
During trials of preventive HIV vaccines, trial participants may develop HIV-related antibody responses that could lead to a positive HIV test by routine antibody detection methods (called vaccine-induced seropositivity/reactivity [VISP]), and the potential for false-positive test results and an incorrect HIV diagnosis, according to a study in the July 21 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on HIV/AIDS.

NIH leaders outline strategy for controlling and ultimately ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic
According to a new editorial, the world can control and ultimately end the HIV/AIDS pandemic through a three-pronged strategy.

Half of HIV-exposed babies in parts of Africa not receiving available HIV prevention
A JAMA study finds programmatic failures and common problems that occur along the path to mother-to-child transmission prevention, including HIV testing inadequacies and patients not taking their medications, authors say.

New study finds major league pitchers 34 percent more likely to be injured than fielders
Watch out if you are a Major League Baseball pitcher prior to the All-Star break.

Point-of-sale advertising major cause of teen smoking, Stanford study shows
A study to be published in the August issue of Pediatrics led by Lisa Henriksen, Ph.D., senior research scientist at the Stanford Prevention Research Center, reports that teens' exposure to cigarette advertising at retail outlets substantially increases the odds they will start smoking.

Early ACL surgery in kids would save money and prevent secondary injuries, study says
Nearly $30 million a year would be saved in hospital charges if early rather than delayed ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction surgery was performed on pediatric patients, according to a study presented today at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's Annual Meeting in Providence, R.I.

Cash rewards with counseling could help prevent STIs
Giving out cash can be an effective tool in combating sexually transmitted infections in rural Africa, according to a new study conducted jointly by researchers at UC Berkeley, the World Bank and the Ifakara Health Institute in Tanzania.

Unearthing King Tet: Key protein influences stem cell fate
UNC researchers reveal how a protein called Tet1 helps stem cells keep their

Studies gauge techniques for measuring breast density -- a predictor of cancer
Two new studies announced this week have tested three different methods for accurately measuring breast density -- the relative portion of tissue to fat in a woman's breasts and a strong indicator of breast cancer risk.

Scientists develop new genomics-based approach to understand origin of cancer subgroups
An international team led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists has developed a new approach that uses genomic information from different species to understand the biology that drives the formation of these different cancer subtypes.

At opening of XVIII International AIDS Conference, scientific, community and political leaders applaud recent progress toward universal access and urge continued momentum to 'finish what we've started'
Encouraged by recent progress but wary of signs of possible retrenchment, an estimated 20,000 participants from more than 185 countries have assembled in Vienna for the start of the XVIII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2010) today.

Routine emergency dept. HIV screenings find only small increase in newly diagnosed HIV patients
The use of routine HIV screening in a hospital emergency department, which patients had the option to decline, was associated with only a modest increase in the number of patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection, compared to physician-directed diagnostic rapid HIV testing, according to a study in the July 21 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on HIV/AIDS.

HIV/AIDS treatment curbs spread of HIV among drug users, according to NIH supported study
Highly active antiretroviral therapy, currently known for its therapeutic benefits against HIV, also reduced the spread of the virus among people with a history of injection drug use.
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