Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

August 02, 2010
1 great force leaves its mark across the solar system: large meteorite impacts
Some 50 years after the emergence of impact cratering studies as a distinct discipline within the geosciences, impact cratering is now recognized as a fundamental process contributing to the formation and evolution of all bodies in the Solar System.

Pathological internet use among teens may lead to depression
Teens who use the Internet pathologically appear more likely to develop depression than those who do not, according to a report posted online today that will appear in the October print issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Women more attracted to men in red
It's a symbol of courage and sacrifice, of sin and sexuality, of power and passion -- and now new research demonstrates that the color red makes men more alluring to women.

Georgia Tech awarded a $20M Center for Chemical Innovation from NSF and NASA
A Georgia Tech-led team was awarded $20 million from NSF and NASA to pursue research that could lead to a better understanding of how life started on Earth.

Entomological Society of America names 2010 Fellows
ESA has selected 10 new Fellows of the Society for 2010.

Sociological study links state tax credit programs to higher birth weight
Relieving poverty during pregnancy can reduce the incidence of low-birth-weight babies and may help break the succession of childhood poor health, a study published in the August 2010 issue of the American Sociological Review has found.

Body weight and glaucoma risk; new 'map' for severe myopia
This month's Ophthalmology journal includes surprising research from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary on the relation of body weight to the risk for glaucoma.

1 high-fat diet, 2 different outcomes: The path to obesity becomes clearer
Why is it that two people can consume the same high fat, high-calorie Western diet and one becomes obese and prone to diabetes while the other maintains a slim frame?

Non-human primate study generates information relevant to HIV-1 vaccine strategies
Monkeys repeatedly immunized with a particular form the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein generated antibodies capable of neutralizing diverse strains of HIV-1, according to a paper published online in the Journal of Experimental Medicine on Aug.

FDA approves Merz Pharmaceuticals' Xeomin (incobotulinumtoxinA) for the treatment of cervical dystonia and blepharospasm
Merz Pharmaceuticals today announced that the US Food and Drug Administration has approved Xeomin (incobotulinumtoxinA), a botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of adults with cervical dystonia or blepharospasm.

Caltech and Canadian Space Agency awarded NASA project to develop spectrometer headed for Mars
The California Institute of Technology and the Canadian Space Agency announced today that they will be partnering on the development of the Mars Atmospheric Trace Molecule Occultation Spectrometer instrument to be flown aboard the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter when it launches in 2016.

Cholesterol levels in young adults predict risk of future heart disease
Young people with even modestly elevated cholesterol levels are more likely to develop coronary artery calcium and atherosclerosis later in life, according to a 20-year study to be released on Aug.

IU receives $9.2 million from NSF to expand global networks and research
Indiana University has been awarded $9.2 million from the National Science Foundation to lead two high-speed international network services.

Disparities in cardiovascular risk based more on socioeconomic status than race, ethnicity
A new study suggests that disparities in cardiovascular disease risk in the United States are due less to race or ethnicity than to socioeconomic status.

Addressing environmental challenges and controversies through science communication
What can we do for the environment? What can individual scientists, agencies and institutions do to improve the quality of environmental decision-making?

Dose optimization workshop helps reduce radiation dose associated with MDCT scans
Numerous radiology practices were able to significantly reduce the radiation dose associated with multidetector computed tomography scans by participating in a one day dose optimization workshop provided by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists and supported by the local state health department, according to a study in the August issue of the Journal of the American College of Radiology.

UH salt marsh expert studies damage to Gulf Coast
A giant vacuum powered by a lawnmower engine may not seem like a tool for scientific study, but salt marsh experts from the University of Houston are using the contraption to study the effects of the oil spill on insects and spiders along the Gulf Coast.

Embargoed news from Annals of Internal Medicine
Below is information about five articles being published in the Aug.

Md., N.Y., N. J. and Conn. students bring home gold medals from International Chemistry Olympiad
Four students from high schools in Maryland, New York, New Jersey and Connecticut have won gold, silver and bronze medals from the 42nd annual International Chemistry Olympiad, the American Chemical Society announced today.

Is biochar the answer for ag?
Scientists find that over several months, biochar applied to soil can significantly reduce emissions of nitrous oxide and leaching of nitrates.

Zinc finger nuclease, immunoprecipitation methods featured in Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Freely accessible articles from this month's issue of Cold Spring Harbor Protocols include a detailed protocol for the detection and analysis of large genomic deletions in cultured cells introduced by the expression of zinc finger nucleases and instructions for the lysis of cultured cells to be used in immunoprecipitation.

NOAA report reviews ecosystem management in national marine sanctuaries
A new NOAA report assesses the role National Marine Sanctuaries play in helping implement ecosystem-based management practices in US waters.

'Conference on Island Sustainability' for Guam and Micronesia
The University of Guam will host a

Our brain can be taught to control cravings, Yale researcher finds
Standard therapeutic techniques decrease cravings of cigarette smokers by regulating activity in two separate but related areas of the brain, a new study led by a Yale University researcher shows.

Bankruptcy, international style: What financial factors predict corporate bankruptcy globally
In data mining more than a decade's worth of international bankruptcy records, a University of Cincinnati researcher has identified the company-related factors most likely to lead to bankruptcy in the US, UK and Japan.

Biologists meet with members of Congress
The American Institute of Biological Sciences is pleased to announce the launch of the 2nd Annual Biological Sciences Congressional District Visits event.

Blue whales align the pitch of their songs with extreme accuracy, study finds
Blue whales are able to synchronize the pitch of their calls with an extremely high level of accuracy, and a slim margin of error from call to call, according to a study of blue whales in the eastern North Pacific, published in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America.

Relatives of individuals with autism tend to display abnormal eye movements
Abnormal eye movements and other sensorimotor and neurobehavioral impairments appear common in unaffected family members of individuals with autism, according to a report in the August issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Stress hormones help lizards escape from fire ants
When some fence lizards are attacked by fire ants they

New carbon dioxide emissions model
Meteorologists have determined exactly how much carbon dioxide humans can emit into the atmosphere while ensuring that the Earth does not heat up by more than two degrees.

Scientists at University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus discover new fat cell
Researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus discover new fat cell that may inhibit ability to dispose of fat and cause inflammation.

New study examines effects of drought in the Amazon
Recent research surrounding the impact of drought in the Amazon has provided contradictory findings as to how tropical forests react to a drier and warmer climate.

Cancer-causing bacterium targets tumor-suppressor protein
Researchers have discovered a mechanism by which Helicobacter pylori, the only known cancer-causing bacterium, disables a tumor suppressor protein in host cells.

Socioeconomic status predicts survival of Canadian cancer patients
A new analysis finds that cancer patients from poorer communities have a greater chance of dying prematurely than individuals from more affluent backgrounds even though cancer stage at time of diagnosis is similar across socioeconomic groups.

Drug trials funded by industry are more likely to publish favorable results
When published results are systematically tracked for drug trials registered with, those from industry-funded trials are the likeliest to be favorable to the drug in question, report researchers at Children's Hospital Boston.

Scientists discover how neuroglobin protects against Alzheimer's
The researchers developed predictions from computational modeling and validated them with biological experiments.

'Ribbit Radio' shows frog population estimates are likely flawed
Scientists track amphibian populations because these animals are sensitive to changes in their environment and can serve as

Ketamine may relieve depression quickly for those with treatment-resistant bipolar disorder
A single intravenous dose of the anesthetic agent ketamine appears to reduce symptoms of depression within 40 minutes among those with bipolar disorder who have not responded to other treatments, according to a report in the August issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Expectations may affect placebo response in patients with Parkinson's disease
Individuals with Parkinson's disease were more likely to have a neurochemical response to a placebo medication if they were told they had higher odds of receiving an active drug, according to a report in the August issue of Archives of General Psychiatry, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Boosting the efficacy of anticancer vaccines
Researchers have now developed a way to overcome some of the hurdles that limit the efficacy of therapeutic anticancer vaccines and found that their new approach is associated with longer overall patient survival.

Gene variant may increase severity of MS
A new study shows a gene variant may increase the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms.

Census of Marine Life publishes historic roll call of species in 25 key ocean areas
Representing the most comprehensive and authoritative answer yet to one of humanity's most ancient questions --

Study finds high heels may lead to joint degeneration and knee osteoarthritis
While women have been making a fashion statement in high heels for years, there's now reason for concern about what those heels may be doing to their knees and joints over time.

JCI online early table of contents: August 2, 2010
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, August 2, 2010, in the JCI:

Colitis patients diagnosed later in life tend to have better disease outcomes
Adults diagnosed with ulcerative colitis after age 50 are more likely to achieve remission from their symptoms than patients diagnosed at younger ages, even when those patients receive similar treatments, according to research at Washington University School of Medicine in St.

Top predators and biodiversity historically pressured in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary
The numbers of top-level predators in Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, such as halibut and swordfish, have decreased significantly over what existed 100 years ago, according to a new NOAA report released today by the US Office of National Marine Sanctuaries.

Hungry children and youth have more health problems
Children and youth who experience hunger appear more likely to have health problems, and repeated episodes of hunger may be particularly toxic, according to a report in the August issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Generation gaps at work not just about age, study says
Businesses that look only at age to bridge generational gaps among workers risk losing knowledge to retirements, higher turnover and other productivity-clogging problems, new University of Illinois research has found.

NOAA awards $2.5 million for research on invasive species in the Great Lakes
NOAA has awarded $2.5 million to the University of Notre Dame and its partners to predict the next wave of invasive species likely to enter the Great Lakes and to identify cost-effective countermeasures.

Eruptive characteristics of Oregon's Mount Hood analyzed
A new study has found that a mixing of two different types of magma is the key to the historic eruptions of Mount Hood, Oregon's tallest mountain, and that eruptions often happen in a relatively short time -- weeks or months -- after this mixing occurs.

American Chemical Society names 2010 Fellows
The American Chemical Society today named the 2010 class of ACS Fellows, an honor bestowed upon 192 distinguished scientists who have demonstrated outstanding accomplishments in chemistry and made important contributions to ACS, the world's largest scientific society.

Pancreatic cancers use fructose, common in the Western diet, to fuel their growth
Pancreatic cancers use the sugar fructose, very common in the Western diet, to activate a key cellular pathway that drives cell division, helping the cancer to grow more quickly, a study by researchers at UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center has found.

Mentoring, skills development associated with improved mental health in foster care children
Incorporating mentoring and group skill-building intervention programs for children in foster care may help improve mental health outcomes in this population, according to a report in the August issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Research defines timeframes, factors to deem early stage lung cancer cured
In patients with non-small cell lung cancer, five-year disease-free survival is currently the benchmark of cure.

The boundless promise -- and mystery -- of glass
For more than 40 years, Rensselaer Professor Minoru Tomozawa has been pioneering new innovations in a field that most people take for granted: glass.

Sociologist finds combat veterans face more lifelong socioeconomic challenges
From the many images sent home from foreign battlefields over the last several decades, Americans have viewed the plight of their country's combat-weary veterans as stark and often iconic scenes that seem somehow frozen in time.

New catalyst of platinum nanoparticles could lead to conk-out free, stable fuel cells
In the quest for efficient, cost-effective and commercially viable fuel cells, scientists at Cornell University's Energy Materials Center have discovered a catalyst and catalyst-support combination that could make fuel cells more stable, conk-out free, inexpensive and more resistant to carbon monoxide poisoning.

Doctors not strongly encouraging HPV vaccine to girls of certain age
Doctors are not strongly encouraging girls ages 11-12 to get the HPV vaccine, despite guidelines.

Synthetic bone graft recruits stem cells for faster bone healing
Scientists have developed a material for bone grafts that could one day replace the

Instruments selected for Mars
ESA and NASA have selected the scientific instruments for their first joint Mars mission.

Aurora alert: The sun is waking up
Sky viewers might get to enjoy some spectacular Northern Lights, or aurorae, tomorrow.

New technique in robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy
Stress urinary incontinence is one of the most feared complications of radical prostatectomy.

Study suggests intervention for overcoming reading-comprehension difficulties in children
Effective reading requires recognizing words and also understanding what they mean.

People reject popular opinions if they already hold opposing views, study finds
What would happen if you developed a strong opinion on an issue, and later found that the majority of people disagreed with you?

Ice-free ocean may not absorb CO2, a component in global warming
The summer of 2010 has been agonizingly hot in much of the continental US, and the record-setting temperatures have refocused attention on global warming.

Sisters protect siblings from depression, study shows
Having a sister protects young teens from feeling lonely, unloved, guilty, self-conscious and fearful.

Alphavirus-based vaccine may slow some cancers
An experimental vaccine based on a virus that causes encephalitis in the wild appears to block tumor growth in some cases of advanced cancer, according to researchers at Duke University Medical Center.

Lung cancer survivors experience long-term effects of breathlessness
With the growing number of long-term lung cancer survivors, research is needed to identify and address cancer survivorship issues.

Oxygen fuels the fires of time
Scientists from the Field Museum in Chicago and Royal Holloway University of London publishing their results this week in the journal Nature Geoscience have shown that the amount of charcoal preserved in ancient peat bogs, now coal, gives a measure of how much oxygen there was in the past.

Study finds deep, open ocean is vastly under-explored
New research from the University of Sheffield has discovered that the deep open ocean, by far the largest habitat for life on Earth, is currently the most under-explored area of the sea, and the one we know least about.

NSF funds Virginia Tech program to train researchers at intersection of engineering, biology
The Multi-Scale Transport in Environmental and Physiological Systems project at Virginia Tech will educate graduate students on issues of biological transport, such as fluid motion ranging from blood flow to ocean currents, that affect the development and health of organisms, the viability of ecosystems, and growth of the global economy.

When memory-related region of brain is damaged, other areas compensate, study finds
Many neuroscientists believe the loss of the brain region known as the amygdala would result in the brain's inability to form new memories with emotional content.

Ice core drilling effort involving CU-Boulder to help assess abrupt climate change risks
An international science team involving the University of Colorado at Boulder that is working on the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling project hit bedrock July 27 after two summers of work, drilling down more than 1.5 miles in an effort to help assess the risks of abrupt future climate change on Earth.

The evolutionary origins of coral sex
University of Guam Marine Lab associate professor, Alexander Kerr, is senior author of a paper on the evolutionary origins of coral sex published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

UM School of Medicine finds mentorship program successfully fights childhood obesity
A program pairing healthy young adults with urban middle schoolers helped the adolescents adopt healthy habits, active lifestyles and a healthy weight, according to a study from the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

Researchers develop advanced search tool to help physician's sort and retrieve vital EMR data
Researchers at one of the top five hospitals in the United States have developed an advanced search tool called the Queriable Patient Inference Dossier that helps radiologists and other physicians extract useful data from a patient's electronic medical record in a timely and efficient manner, according to an article in the August issue of the Journal of the American College of Radiology.

New diagnostic chip able to generate single-cell molecular 'fingerprints' for brain tumors
Given the clinical need for improved in vitro molecular diagnostic technologies for brain tumor biopsies, the UCLA research team combined the advantages of microfluidics and microscopy-based cell imaging to develop the microfluidic image cytometry platform.

Livermore's DTEM earns innovation award from Microscopy Today
An innovation that can help scientists observe a reaction moving at greater than 10 meters per second, with a few nanometers spatial resolution, is a feat some would say is nearly impossible.

New studies question vascular multiple sclerosis hypothesis and treatment
Two important new studies challenge the controversial hypothesis that venous congestion -- chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) -- contributes to the development of multiple sclerosis (MS).

New solar energy conversion process could revamp solar power production
A new process that simultaneously combines the light and heat of solar radiation to generate electricity could offer more than double the efficiency of existing solar cell technology, say the Stanford engineers who discovered it and proved that it works.

How blocking the 'Programmed Death 1' protein may treat or prevent sepsis and severe infection
Scientists have made an important discovery that could lead to new drugs that reduce the severity of blood infections leading to sepsis.

Management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis
The European Association for the Study of the Liver -- the leading European scientific society dedicated to promoting research and education in hepatology -- publishes clinical practice guidelines for the management of ascites, the most common complication of cirrhosis.

Healthiest pregnant women feel a strong sense of community
It takes a village to keep a pregnant woman at her healthiest, a new University of Michigan study shows.

A cellular housekeeper, and potential target of obesity drugs, caught in action
New clues emerge about how a molecular machine breaks down unwanted proteins in cells, a critical housekeeping chore that helps prevent diseases such as cancer.

Scientists target possible cause of 1 form of bowel disease
A possible cause of irritable bowel syndrome has been traced to a small piece of RNA that blocks a substance protecting the colon membrane, leading to hostile conditions that can produce diarrhea, bloating and chronic abdominal pain.

Windy cities: Researchers invent new tool to calculate hurricane risk
Bad news, Miami. Of all Florida's major population centers, the city is the most vulnerable to strong hurricane winds, according to Florida State University researchers who developed a new tool to estimate the frequency of extreme hurricane winds at a particular location.

Purified blood stem cells improve success of bone marrow transplants in mice, Stanford study shows
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have challenged decades of accepted wisdom about bone marrow transplantation with a new study showing that mice receiving purified blood stem cells are less prone to complications than mice receiving stem cells plus purified T cells.

Otolaryngology -- Head and Neck Surgery Annual Meeting supplement now available
The 2010 Annual Meeting & OTO EXPO of the American Academy of Otolaryngology -- Head and Neck Surgery Foundation, the largest meeting of ear, nose and throat doctors in the world, will convene Sept.

Study finds permafrost warming, monitoring improving
Permafrost warming continues throughout a wide swath of the Northern hemisphere, according to a team of scientists assembled during the recent International Polar Year.

Tongue piercing may cause gapped teeth, according to UB study
Mark this one down as a parental nightmare. First, your child gets her tongue pierced.

University of Colorado School of Medicine study: Mental health outcomes in children in foster care improved with mentoring, skills development
Incorporating mentoring and group skill-building intervention programs for children in foster care may help improve mental health outcomes in this population, according to a report by two University of Colorado School of Medicine researchers published in the August issue of Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Rebuilding flood plains, agriculture, economy
When the Missouri River flooded in 1993 and 1995, it left a deep layer of sandy silt that covered thousands of acres of rich farmland.

Ecological scientists assess the fundamentals of animal behavior
In this time of global change, understanding the basics of animal behavior and environmental interactions is just as important as predicting and planning for widespread impacts.

Purdue-IU team uncovers potential prostate cancer marker
Studies have revealed a potential marker for prostate cancer. A new analysis technique to create a profile of the lipids, or fats, found in prostate tissue and revealed a molecular compound that appears to be useful in identifying cancerous and precancerous tissue.

Women attracted to men in red, research shows
Wearing the color red or being bordered by the rosy hue makes a man more attractive and sexually desirable to women, finds a multicultural study published Aug.

Fractures significantly reduce quality of life in women with osteoporosis
Researchers with the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women seeking to understand the impact of osteoporosis and fractures on various aspects of health have found that women who had previous fractures experienced a significant reduction in health-related quality of life similar to or worse than that experienced by patients with diabetes, arthritis, lung disease and other chronic illnesses.

MIT researchers show silicon can be made to melt in reverse
Like an ice cube on a warm day, most materials melt -- that is, change from a solid to a liquid state -- as they get warmer.

Viral infection predicts heart transplant loss in children
Scientists report that viral infection of the heart is a predictor of heart transplant failure in young children and adolescents, although it can be detected by screening for viral genes and treated to improve organ survival.

Students get a feel for soil-water relationships
Educators develop a simple yet powerful demonstration of soil water retention and field capacity, two concepts that are often difficult to teach without expensive equipment.

A living aortic valve replacement leads to better survival and quality of life than provided by a dead donor
When a patient needs their aortic valve replacing, using the valve in their own pulmonary artery for the replacement leads to better survival and quality of life than if the aortic valve from a dead donor is used.

Researchers find universal law for material evolution
Peter Voorhees and his collaborators found that when a material composed of more than one phase is heated, it breaks into smaller pieces and the shape of the interfaces during break-up is universal.

Novel bee venom derivative forms a nanoparticle 'smart bomb' to target cancer cells
The next time you are stung by a bee, here's some consolation: a toxic protein in bee venom, when altered, significantly improves the effectiveness liposome-encapsulated drugs or dyes, such as those already used to treat or diagnose cancer.

What the doctor prescribes: Customized medical-image databases
Digital archives of biomedical images could someday put critical information at doctors' fingertips within seconds, illustrating how computers can improve the way medicine is practiced.

Brain may age faster in people whose hearts pump less blood
Keep your heart healthy and you may slow down the aging of your brain, according to a new study reported in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association.

Mayo Clinic finds withdrawing ventricular assist device support ethical
Patients have the right to refuse or request the withdrawal of any unwanted treatment.

Iron oxide nanoparticles becoming tools for brain tumor imaging and treatment
Tiny particles of iron oxide could become tools for simultaneous tumor imaging and treatment, because of their magnetic properties and toxic effects against brain cancer cells.

Pilot safety protocol could help dentists reduce errors
Pilots and dentists have more in common than one might think: Both jobs are highly technical and require teamwork.

Census of Marine Life publishes historic roll call of species in 25 key world areas
The global Census of Marine Life publishes a landmark series of papers in PLoS ONE that detail biodiversity in 25 key world ocean areas on all seven continents.

LA Tumor Registry at LSUHSC awarded $12 million SEER contract by NCI
The Louisiana Tumor Registry at the LSU Health Sciences Center New Orleans School of Public Health has been awarded a $12 million contract over seven years by the National Cancer Institute to continue its work as a SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) Program-designated cancer registry.

Adolescents with type 2 diabetes have diminished cognitive performance and brain abnormalities
A study by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center have found that obese adolescents with type 2 diabetes have diminished cognitive performance and subtle abnormalities in the brain as detected by magnetic resonance imaging.

Mind over matter? The psychology of healing
People suffering from diabetes-related foot ulcers show different rates of healing according to the way they cope and their psychological state of mind, according to new research by a health psychologist at the University of Nottingham.

Mallory and Irvine: Did extreme weather cause their disappearance?
Their legend has inspired generations of mountaineers since their ill-fated attempt to climb Everest over 80 years ago, and now a team of scientists believe they have discovered another important part of the puzzle as to why George Mallory and Andrew Irvine never returned from their pioneering expedition.

Certain meat components may increase bladder cancer risk
A new study suggests that consuming specific compounds in meat related to processing methods may be associated with an increased risk of developing bladder cancer.

New methods, new math speed detection of drug-resistant malaria
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University developed techniques to quickly identify evolution of drug resistance in strains of malaria.

The taste of quinine: It's in your bitter genes
Scientists from the Monell Center and collaborators report that individual differences in how people experience quinine's bitterness are related to underlying differences in their genes.

Research shows what you say about others says a lot about you
How positively you see others is linked to how happy, kind-hearted and emotionally stable you are, according to new research by a Wake Forest University psychology professor.

A candid look inside the life and work of influential psychologist Albert Ellis
Albert Ellis -- one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th and 21st centuries -- created Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.

Keeping patients 'in good hands'
Hand therapy is one of the most vital treatment steps in recovery from hand injury surgery, according to a literature review published in the August 2010 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Exercise and caloric restriction rejuvenate synapses in lab mice
Harvard University researchers have uncovered a mechanism through which caloric restriction and exercise delay some of the debilitating effects of aging by rejuvenating connections between nerves and the muscles that they control. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to