Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 11, 2010
Young people with mental health problems at risk of falling through 'gap' in care services
Many young people with mental health problems are at risk of falling through a huge gap in provision when they move from adolescent to adult care services, according to new research from the University of Warwick.

Insulin resistance may be associated with stroke risk
Insulin resistance, a condition in which insulin produced by the body becomes less effective in reducing blood glucose levels, appears to be associated with an increased risk of stroke in individuals without diabetes, according to a report in the October issue of Archives of Neurology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Geological Society of America salutes creators of transformative technology
Geological Society of America Past President Jean Bahr will award GSA's prestigious President's Medal for 2010 to the founders of Keyhole, Inc., developers of Earth Viewer, which evolved into Google Earth.

Afatinib benefits lung cancer patients whose cancer progressed after treatment with EGFR inhibitors
Lung cancer patients who have already been treated with the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or gefitinib seem to gain further benefits in terms of progression-free survival and tumor shrinkage when treated with the new drug afatinib, the results of a Phase IIb/III trial show.

Insurance and socioeconomic status do not explain racial disparities in breast cancer care
Racial disparities in the receipt of breast cancer care persist despite accounting for patients' insurance and social and economic status.

Nanoscopic particles resist full encapsulation, Sandia simulations show
It may seem obvious that dunking relatively spherical objects in a sauce -- blueberries in melted chocolate, say -- will result in an array of completely encapsulated berries.

New German-Japanese collaboration in the neurosciences
The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the Japan Science and Technology Agency are expanding their successful collaboration to encompass a particularly promising area of research.

Ballou High School event to kick off National Chemistry Week
The Ballou Senior High School in southeast Washington, D.C., will host a day-long, kick-off event of hands-on chemistry activities for 350 students as part of this year's National Chemistry Week celebration.

JCI online early table of contents: Oct. 11, 2010
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, Oct.

Whale poop pumps up ocean health
Whales carry nutrients, especially nitrogen, from the depths where they feed back to the surface via their feces.

Swimming microorganisms stir things up, and the LHC takes over
Studies of microscopic swimming creatures show that the fluid flow they produce is much more complex than previously believed, and leads to large scale stirring of oceans and lakes that could affect the global carbon cycle.

Adding cetuximab to chemotherapy doubles response rate in hard-to-treat breast cancer
European researchers have proven for the first time that targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor can provide substantial clinical benefit for women with hard-to-treat triple-negative breast cancer.

Genomic comparison of ocean microbes reveals East-West divide in populations
Much as an anthropologist can study populations of people to learn about their physical attributes, their environs and social structures, some marine microbiologists read the genome of microbes to glean information about the microbes themselves, their environments and lifestyles.

Early research reveals new clues to origin of diabetes
University of Michigan scientists have identified events inside insulin-producing pancreatic cells that set the stage for a neonatal form of non-autoimmune Type 1 diabetes, and may play a role in Type 2 diabetes as well.

Listen up: Ocean acidification poses little threat to whales' hearing
Contrary to some previous, highly publicized, reports, ocean acidification is not likely to worsen the hearing of whales and other animals, according to a Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution scientist who studies sound propagation in the ocean.

Abiraterone acetate improves survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have progressed after chemotherapy live significantly longer if treated with the drug abiraterone acetate compared to placebo, the results of a large Phase III clinical trial confirm.

You don't have to go out into the woods anymore
We often read about dreadful new zoonoses -- animal diseases that are now infecting people -- that have jumped species in distant parts of the world such as Asia or Africa and are now headed our way.

Preventive medication, behavior management skills help combat frequent migraines
The combination of preventive medication and behavioral changes offered significant relief for 77 percent of the individuals enrolled in a study aimed at combating frequent, disabling migraine headaches, according to new Ohio University research published this week in the British Medical Journal.

A picture worth a thousand words: New research links visual cues to male sexual memory
A new study published in Applied Cognitive Psychology finds that college-aged men are very likely to remember a woman's initial sexual interest (attraction or rejection), especially when the woman in question is thought to be attractive, is dressed more provocatively and expresses positive sexual interest.

Chest pain drug put to test against arrhythmias
A drug approved to treat chest pain is being tested as a treatment for ventricular arrhythmias, irregular heart rhythms that are associated with increased hospitalizations and death and for which there are limited options for patients with heart disease.

New Phase II study shows first-line promise of lung cancer drug PF-299
A new-generation lung cancer drug has shown an impressive ability to prevent disease progression when administered as a first-line treatment in patients with advanced disease, investigators reported at the 35th Congress of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

Carotid stents associated with greater risk of stroke or death than carotid endarterectomy surgery
For patients with blockages in the carotid artery that supplies blood to the brain, carotid artery stenting (a non-surgical treatment) appears to be associated with an increased risk of both short- and long-term adverse outcomes when compared with surgical treatment (carotid endarterectomy), according to a meta-analysis of previously published studies that was posted online today and will appear in the February 2011 print issue of Archives of Neurology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Smaller and cheaper but 300 times more intense
More brilliant X-rays, more cost-effective methods for developing new energy sources and advanced manufacturing processes are just some of the benefits which may come from a novel technology, proven at the theoretical level by a consortium of British and European laser scientists.

Scientists pinpoint gene linked to drug resistance in malaria
Scientists have shed light on how malaria is able to resist treatment with a leading drug.

Treatment of retinal conditions appears to have changed significantly in previous decade
The number of Medicare recipients undergoing treatment for retinal conditions nearly doubled between 1997 and 2007, with significant shifts in the types of procedures most commonly performed, according to a report in the October issue of Archives of Ophthalmology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Planar power
PNNL research shows a planar, or flat, sodium-beta battery can deliver 30 percent more power than its cylindrical counterpart.

Certain new therapies for age-related eye disease do not appear to increase heart risks
Newer treatments for age-related macular degeneration -- including an intravitreous (into the eye) injection of a chemotherapy drug and use of a related compound approved for use against the eye disease -- do not appear to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications or death when compared with existing therapies, according to a report in the October issue of Archives of Ophthalmology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Too much light at night at night may lead to obesity, study finds
Persistent exposure to light at night may lead to weight gain, even without changing physical activity or eating more food, according to new research in mice.

Landing lights for bumblebees
Gardeners could help maintain bumblebee populations by growing plants with red flowers or flowers with stripes along the veins, according to field observations of the common snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus, at the John Innes Centre in the UK.

Selective strategy could lead to new approaches against schizophrenia
A new class of compounds identified by researchers could be developed into drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia.

Rutgers part of team awarded $3.3 million National Institutes of Health grant for prostate cancer research
NIH has awarded $3.3 million to a research team that includes Rutgers University to increase the reliability of imaging prostate cancer.

Lack of antiepileptic drugs hurts awareness, treatment efforts in Zambia
Despite an international effort to raise awareness about epilepsy in resource-poor nations, a recently published study found nearly 50 percent of pharmacies in Zambia do not carry antiepileptic drugs, seriously hampering efforts to tackle one of the most cost-effective chronic conditions to treat.

Dogs' anxiety reflects a 'pessimistic' mood
Many dogs become distressed when left home alone, and they show it by barking, destroying things, or toileting indoors.

Meta-analysis shows no heart benefits for folic acid supplements
Use of folic acid supplements appears to lower blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine -- theorized to be a risk factor for heart and blood vessel disease -- but does not appear to be associated with reduced rates of cardiovascular events, cancer or death over a five-year period, according to a meta-analysis of previously published studies in the Oct.

Scripps Florida scientists awarded $3 million to identify learning and memory genes
The Scripps Research Institute has been awarded a three-year, $3.2 million grant by the National Institutes of Health to identify the full spectrum of genes involved in learning and memory in Drosophila, the common fruit fly.

University of Florida research provides new understanding of bizarre extinct mammal
University of Florida researchers presenting new fossil evidence of an exceptionally well-preserved 55-million-year-old North American mammal have found it shares a common ancestor with rodents and primates, including humans.

Diabetes hospitalizations rise dramatically for young women
The burden of diabetes hospitalizations is shifting toward young adults, particularly women.

Successful kidney transplantation despite tissue incompatibility
Donor kidneys can be successfully transplanted even if there is strong tissue incompatibility between donor and recipient.

When in Rome: Study-abroad students increase alcohol intake
For American students, spending a semester or two studying in a foreign country means the opportunity to improve foreign language skills and become immersed in a different culture.

UF research provides new understanding of bizarre extinct mammal
University of Florida researchers presenting new fossil evidence of an exceptionally well-preserved 55-million-year-old North American mammal have found it shares a common ancestor with rodents and primates, including humans.

Birth registration using mobile phones advances civil rights in developing countries
VTT and Crisis Management Initiative (CMI), an organization specialized in peace processes and conflict resolution, are to cooperate in a project utilizing information and communications technology in developing countries.

CU-Boulder student dust counter breaks distance record on New Horizons mission to Pluto
A University of Colorado at Boulder space dust counter designed, tested and operated by students that is flying aboard NASA's New Horizons mission to Pluto now holds the record for the most distant working dust detector ever to travel through space.

Fertility concerns of cancer survivors inadequately addressed, study finds
Many cancer survivors experience changes in sexual function that leave them feeling guilty and a longing for intimacy, Australian researchers told at the 35th Congress of the European Society for Medical Oncology in Milan, Italy.

New discovery may help to identify the healthiest embryos in IVF treatment
Australian scientists have developed a potentially groundbreaking new measure of the health of an embryo and the likelihood of a successful pregnancy in IVF treatment.

Physical symptoms common, disabling among patients with cancer and pain or depression
Patients with cancer who experience pain or depression also have a high rate of physical symptoms, such as fatigue, dry mouth and nausea, according to a report in the Oct.

Researcher's new book reveals environmental history of New York
The Empire State has led the nation in preserving landscapes, replenishing forests and cracking down on tenement housing, yet it also leads the nation in its struggles with other environmental threats.

Physical symptoms prevalent no matter what stage of cancer including remission
Twenty-two physical symptoms associated with cancer -- symptoms often unrecognized and under-treated -- are prevalent in all types of cancers regardless of whether the patient is newly diagnosed, undergoing treatment or is a cancer survivor, according to researchers from the Regenstrief Institute and the Indiana University schools of medicine and nursing.

Estrogen therapy may be associated with kidney stones in postmenopausal women
Use of estrogen therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing kidney stones in postmenopausal women, according to a report in the Oct.

Study finds monarch butterflies use medicinal plants to treat offspring for disease
New research led by Emory University finds that monarch butterflies appear to use medicinal plants to treat their offspring for disease, and that some species of milkweed, the larva's food plants, can reduce parasite infection in the monarchs.

Dogs may be pessimistic too
A study by academics at the University of Bristol, and funded by the RSPCA, has gained new insight into the minds of dogs, discovering that those that are anxious when left alone also tend to show

Research reveals likely housing winners and losers
There is a great deal of uncertainty and speculation about the direction of the housing market in the UK and the USA -- both for homeowners and renters.

AACR to honor leading researchers at breast cancer symposium
The 33rd Annual CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium will honor two leading breast cancer researchers during its meeting, which will be held Dec.

University of Illinois College of ACES receives $9 million to modernize Extension in poor countries
A consortium led by the University of Illinois' College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences received $9 million to improve the livelihoods of rural farmers in the world's poorest nations by modernizing and strengthening their agricultural Extension systems.

Population trends: Another influence on climate change
Changes in population growth and composition, including aging and urbanization, could significantly affect global emissions of carbon dioxide over the next 40 years, according to a new study in PNAS out next week.

Sexual issues a major concern for cancer patients taking new targeted drugs
New drugs that target specific molecular mechanisms of cancer have improved the treatment of cancer patients in recent years, but those benefits may come with a cost to the patient's sex life, researchers have found.

Adding topotecan to standard treatment for ovarian cancer does not improve progression-free survival
Adding topotecan to carboplatin plus paclitaxel, the standard treatment for ovarian cancer, does not improve progression-free survival in patients and leads to greater toxicity, according to a study published online Oct.

End-of-life care patterns shift for patients with heart failure in both US and Canada
Health care in the last six months of life has become progressively more expensive for patients with heart failure both among Medicare beneficiaries in the United States and older adults in Canada, with a high rate of hospitalizations in the final six months of life in both countries.

NFL players with concussions now sidelined longer
NFL players with concussions now stay away from the game significantly longer than they did in the late 1990s and early 2000s, according to research in Sports Health.

Intriguing viral link to intestinal cancer in mice
More than 50 percent of adults in the United States test positive for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection.

Microbial hair: It's electric
Some bacteria grow electrical hair that lets them link up in big biological circuits, according to a study in PNAS.

Hormone therapy after menopause might increase risk of kidney stones
The use of estrogen therapy by postmenopausal women might increase the risk of developing kidney stones, according to findings by UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers.

Global research effort leads to new findings on genes and obesity
Two major international studies looking at data from a quarter of a million people around the globe have found a new set of genes associated with body fat distribution and obesity.

Pazopanib shows promise in Phase II trial for relapsed/refractory urothelial cancer
An ongoing Phase II trial investigating a new, targeted therapy for metastatic urothelial cancer has generated promising early results, Italian researchers reported at the 35th Congress of the European Society for Medical Oncology in Milan, Italy.

Re-evaluating the time of your life
Professor Dov Shmotkin of Tel Aviv University's recently published research reveals that people's well-being and their adaptation can be ascertained by their

Researchers test sweet sorghums for best ethanol production
The continued demand for cleaner-burning fuels has Texas AgriLife Extension Service and Texas AgriLife Research specialists working to determine which varieties of sweet sorghum will produce the most ethanol.

Scientist develops new, innovative methods for characterizing proteins
Using a combination of high-powered computers and advanced experimental magnetic resonance data, a Florida State University biophysical chemist has developed techniques that improve the way scientists can study and predict the structure and dynamics of proteins found in the human body.

Half the productivity, twice the carbon
Unless the IT industry adopts new energy-efficient technologies in the coming decade, it runs a serious risk of being unable to contribute to growing the global economy if limits are placed on carbon emissions.

Screen time linked to psychological problems in children
Children who spend longer than two hours in front of a computer or television screen are more likely to suffer psychological difficulties, regardless of how physically active they are.

UT Southwestern study to determine whether leptin helps type 1 diabetes patients
A clinical trial at UT Southwestern Medical Center aims to determine whether adding the hormone leptin to standard insulin therapy might help rein in the tumultuous blood-sugar levels of people with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes.

Study supports the long-term benefits of transcranial magnetic stimulation for depression
In a study to determine the durability and long-term effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation, psychiatric researchers at Rush University Medical Center have found the non-invasive, non-drug therapy to be an effective, long-term treatment for major depression.

Large study shows females are equal to males in math skills
The mathematical skills of boys and girls, as well as men and women, are substantially equal, according to a new examination of existing studies in the current online edition of journal Psychological Bulletin.

Microchip technology rapidly identifies compounds for regrowing nerves in live animals
Engineers at MIT have now used a new microchip technology to rapidly test potential drugs on tiny worms called C. elegans, which are often used in studies of the nervous system.

Wild 'teenage' galaxies booming with star births
Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute have been studying distant galaxies, which are among the most active star-forming galaxies in the Universe.

Phase III study shows everolimus delays tumor progression in hard-to-treat neuroendocrine tumors
The results of a large Phase III clinical trial have shown that the drug everolimus delays tumor progression in patients with a hard-to-treat group of rare cancers that affect particular hormone-producing cells.

Cartilage comeback
Scientists of the German Jena University -- together with colleagues from France, England, Germany and Switzerland -- are working on a tiny device that is being implanted in the joint and is supposed to trigger the regeneration of cartilage produced naturally in the body.

Modeling shows that factors beyond crowding affect how molecules interact within cells
Using large-scale computer simulations, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have identified the most important factors affecting how molecules move through the crowded environment inside living cells.

Is infertility more common in women with epilepsy?
Women with epilepsy may be more likely to experience infertility, according to new research published in the Oct.

On the trail of the epigenetic code
A test system on Drosophila should provide the key to histone function.

Major grant aims at breaking the habit of implicit bias
A University of Wisconsin-Madison doctor who has long worked to increase the entry of women into the scientific workforce has won a grant to develop video games to uncover and neutralize implicit, unintentional biases against women, minorities and people with disabilities.
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