Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

February 24, 2011
Cleveland Clinic researchers honored for contributions to science and technology
Three Cleveland Clinic researchers were recently named as Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which seeks

Missing sugar molecule raises diabetes risk in humans
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Rady Children's Hospital-San Diego say an evolutionary gene mutation that occurred in human millions of years ago and our subsequent inability to produce a specific kind of sugar molecule appears to make people more vulnerable to developing Type 2 diabetes, especially if they're overweight.

Multiple childbirth linked to increased risk of rare, aggressive 'triple-negative' breast cancer
Full-term pregnancy has long been associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer, but a new study finds that the more times a woman gives birth, the higher her risk of

IOF calls for action following release of Eastern European & Central Asian Regional Audit
An audit report by the International Osteoporosis Foundation consolidates information on the status and burden of osteoporosis in 21 countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, including the Russian Federation.

Rare HIV-positive individuals shed light on how body could effectively handle infection
Although untreated HIV infection eventually results in immunodeficiency (AIDS), a small group of people infected with the virus, called elite suppressors (0.5 percent of all HIV-infected individuals), are naturally able to control infection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, or HAART.

Home urine test measures insulin production in diabetes
A simple home urine test has been developed which can measure if patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are producing their own insulin.

Homoplasy: A good thread to pull to understand the evolutionary ball of yarn
With the genetics of so many organisms that have different traits yet to study, and with the techniques for gathering full sets of genetic information from organisms rapidly evolving, the

Study confirms long-lasting benefit of trastuzumab (herceptin) for women with early-stage breast cancer
Women with an aggressive type of early-stage breast cancer (HER2-positive disease) given trastuzumab (Herceptin) for one year following standard chemotherapy are at significantly less risk of the cancer returning, and the effect is long lasting, according to the long-term results of the landmark HERA trial published online first in The Lancet Oncology.

Radiation increases cancer risk for dialysis patients
High radiation doses put a significant number of dialysis patients at increased risk of cancer, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society Nephrology.

A North American first at the Montreal Heart Institute could help treat thousands of Canadians
The interventional cardiology team at the Montreal Heart Institute recently began patient enrolment for a new device, the Neovasc Reducer, designed to treat patients suffering from refractory angina.

Strong link found between victimization, substance abuse
A strong link between victimization experiences and substance abuse has been discovered by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

New study shows ability of transgenic fungi to combat malaria and other bug-borne diseases
New findings by a University of Maryland-led team of scientists indicate that a genetically engineered fungus carrying genes for a human anti-malarial antibody or a scorpion anti-malarial toxin could be a highly effective, specific and environmentally friendly tool for combating malaria, at a time when the effectiveness of current pesticides against malaria mosquitoes is declining.

FDA and Georgetown University Medical Center announce partnership
The US Food and Drug Administration and Georgetown University Medical Center today announced a new partnership to stimulate innovation in regulatory science, ethics, education and training.

Rare, unique seeds arrive at Svalbard Vault, as crises threaten world crop collections
The Svalbard Global Seed Vault celebrated its third anniversary today with the arrival of seeds for rare lima beans, blight-resistant cantaloupe, and progenitors of antioxidant-rich red tomatoes from Peru and the Galapagos Islands.

Probiotic identified to treat ulcers
Researchers from Spain have identified a strain of probiotic bacteria that may be useful in treating ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori.

Hospital infections and multidrug-resistant pathogens
Infections are among the most frequent complications of a stay in hospital and raise the complication and mortality rates.

Discovery of oldest northern North American human remains provides new insights into Ice-Age culture
A newly excavated archaeological site in Alaska contains the cremated remains of one of the earliest inhabitants of North America.

When the doctor is a woman, patients expect them to be involved in decision making
A study conducted at the University of Granada reveals that patients have greater expectations of their family doctor listening actively to them, keeping them informed and considering their opinions than in getting involved in decision making.

New volume explores high-grade metamorphism via South African Limpopo Complex
Many early Precambrian high-grade metamorphic provinces differ subtly from more recent ones, with higher temperatures at shallower depth in the crust.

Researcher lists more than 4,000 components of blood chemistry
After three years of exhaustive analysis led by a University of Alberta researcher, the list of known compounds in human blood has exploded from just a handful to more than 4,000.

Drier conditions projected to accelerate dust storms in the southwest
Drier conditions projected to result from climate change in the Southwest will likely reduce perennial vegetation cover and result in increased dust storm activity in the future, according to a new study by scientists with the US Geological Survey and the University of California, Los Angeles.

New path to water efficient seeds opens as TIP pips PIP as water gatekeeper
Research by the University has opened up a new path to produce water efficient seeds.

Baker Institute policy report looks at cybersecurity
A new article written by a fellow at Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy calls on the intelligence community to jointly create a policy on cybersecurity and determine the degree to which the US should protect intellectual property and national infrastructure of other nations.

Qualified Latin American immigrants earn less than similarly qualified Spaniards
A study by the University of Salamanca has looked into how salaries would differ if immigrants were paid in the same way as Spanish workers according to education and experience.

Child's cremation site reveals domestic life in Paleoindian Alaska
Scientists have discovered the cremated skeleton of a Paleoindian child in the remains of an 11,500-year-old house in central Alaska.

Collisions of protein machines cause DNA replication derailment
Scientists have published results that will forever change the way researchers view the interplay between gene expression, DNA replication and the prevention of DNA damage.

Is dairy colostrum the key to Olympic success?
Scientists investigating natural ways to enhance athletic performance have found that bovine colostrum can massively reduce gut permeability -- otherwise known as

Newborn heart muscle can grow back by itself, UT Southwestern researchers have found
In a promising science-fiction-meets-real-world juxtaposition, researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have discovered that the mammalian newborn heart can heal itself completely.

Children's Hospital of Orange County receives largest gift in hospital history
Children's Hospital of Orange County today announced it has received a $30 million estate gift -- the largest gift in the hospital's history.

Protein could be new target to reduce damage after heart attack
A protein called fibronectin-EDA was linked to heart muscle damage after a heart attack in an animal study.

Ancient catastrophic drought leads to question: How severe can climate change become?
How severe can climate change become in a warming world?

La Jolla Institute-led team illuminates cell pathway key to insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes
A research team, led by La Jolla Institute scientist Joel Linden, Ph.D., has shed new light on the problem of insulin resistance, and identified the key participants in a molecular pathway that holds therapeutic promise for reducing the severity of Type 2 diabetes.

Scientists find gene responsible for color patterns in mice
Scientists at Harvard University are moving closer to answering some age-old questions.

NIH scientists unveil characteristic of HIV early in transmission
A new finding from scientists at NIH could help efforts to design vaccines and other prevention tools to block HIV in the early stages of sexual transmission, before infection takes hold.

GSA Bulletin highlights: New research posted Feb. 4-11, 2011
GSA Bulletin is now posting pre-issue publication content -- finalized papers that are ready to go to press and not under embargo.

ONR's TechSolutions creating green ideas that light up ships and submarines
One Sailor's request to replace humming fluorescent bulbs with a quiet alternative inspired the Office of Naval Research to create the Solid State Lighting project, currently being evaluated aboard several ships and submarines across the US Navy.

Rituximab and fludarabine produce long-term remissions in CLL
New research shows that a combination of the targeted agent rituximab and the chemotherapeutic drug fludarabine can produce long-term remissions in some chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients without increasing the risk of later therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome.

Antioxidants in pecans may contribute to heart health and disease prevention
New research shows that after eating pecans, gamma-tocopherol levels in the body doubled and unhealthy oxidation of LDL (bad) cholesterol in the blood decreased by as much as 33 percent.

Rare gene glitch may hold clues for schizophrenia -- NIH-funded study
Scientists are eyeing a rare genetic glitch for clues to improved treatments for some people with schizophrenia.

Lack of health insurance limits hepatitis C patients' access to latest antiviral therapy
New research has determined that patients in the U.S. with hepatitis C virus are twice as likely to not have health insurance coverage compared with those without the disease.

Just like cars, developmental genes have more than 1 way to stop
There's more than one way to silence gene activity, according to a Michigan State University researcher.

ONR-funded technology improves humanitarian aid initiative at Exercise Cobra Gold
Sailors and Marines may soon have the power of mobile data storage and mapping, following the testing of an information-collection system at Exercise Cobra Gold 2011 held Feb.

GPs take more than a month to record ovarian cancer diagnosis in one in 10 cases
Family doctors can take more than a month to record ovarian cancer, once diagnosed by a specialist, in one in 10 cases, indicates research published in the launch issue of the new online journal BMJ Open.

MIT scientists say ocean currents cause microbes to filter light
Paul Matisse's glass-enclosed liquid sculptures contain an object whose movement through the liquid creates whorls that can be seen only because elongated particles trailing the object align with the direction of the current; light reflects off the particles, making the current visible to the viewer.

Making the 'irrelevant' relevant to understand memory and aging
Age alters memory. But in what ways, and why? These questions comprise a vast puzzle for neurologists and psychologists.

WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition sheds new light on feeding behavior of domestic cats
In the most extensive study of macronutrient regulation yet undertaken on any carnivore, scientists have found that healthy cats regulate the amount of protein, fat and carbohydrate they consume, i.e. their macronutrient intake.

As America's senior population grows, meeting to outline effective education about aging
The Association for Gerontology in Higher Education -- the educational branch of The Gerontological Society of America -- will hold its 37th Annual Meeting and Educational Leadership Conference from March 17-20 at the Hilton Cincinnati Netherland Plaza in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Language patterns are roller-coaster ride during childhood development
Why, and when, do we learn to speak the way that we do?

Denosumab better than current gold standard of zoledronic acid for preventing bone events in men with hormone-resistant prostate cancer
An article published online first by the Lancet shows that a new drug denosumab is better than the current standard treatment of zoledronic acid for delaying and preventing bone events in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

DOE grant joins climate modeling with local, regional empirical data
Local and regional researchers collect large amounts of high quality data on climate change and its effects, but the researchers that create the economic and climate models do not always have access to this information.

Enzyme cocktail could eliminate a step in biofuel process
Conversion of biomass to fuel requires several steps: chemical pretreatment to break up the biomass, detoxification to remove the toxic chemicals required in pretreatment, and microbial fermentation to convert the soluble sugars to fuels.

Menopausal hot flashes may be a good sign for heart
A new study finds women who suffer from hot flashes when they begin menopause are at lower risk for cardiovascular events.

Stress and tension do not stop fertility treatment from working
Women undergoing IVF or other assisted reproduction therapy can be reassured that emotional distress caused by their infertility or other life events will not prevent the treatment from working.

8 special sessions at European Congress on Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis in Valencia
ECCEO11-IOF (CME accredited) will feature plenary lectures, oral presentations, Meet-the-Professor sessions, satellite symposia and, for the first time, eight special ESCEO-FROMO symposia.

Oldest subarctic North American human remains found
A newly excavated archaeological site in Alaska contained the cremated remains of one of the earliest inhabitants of North America.

A glove to prevent premature birth
Changes to the microbiological equilibrium in the female genital tract can lead to obstetric complications.

$7.9 million grant to improve food security, nutrition in Mozambique
Michigan State University has secured a $7.9 million award to improve agriculture and food security in Mozambique through increasing the African nation's agricultural productivity, creating economic opportunities and enhancing nutrition.

Fatty liver may herald impending Type 2 diabetes
A recent study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism found that individuals with fatty liver were five times more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes than those without fatty liver.

Science honors American Museum of Natural History website
Because of its effectiveness and quality, the Resources for Learning website has been selected to receive the Science Prize for Online Resources in Education.

New research suggests that obesity and diabetes are a downside of human evolution
As if the recent prediction that half of Americans will have diabetes or pre-diabetes by the year 2020 isn't alarming, a new genetic discovery published online in the FASEB Journal provides a disturbing explanation as to why: we took an evolutionary

UF study traces global red imported fire ant invasions to southern US
Red imported fire ant invasions around the globe in recent years can now be traced to the southern US, where the nuisance insect gained a foothold in the 1930s, new University of Florida research has found.

Missing chromium is clue to planet formation
Early in the formation of the Earth, some forms of the element chromium separated and disappeared deep into the planet's core, a new study by UC Davis geologists shows.

Diabetics are not benefiting from advances in kidney care
Despite significant advances in kidney care over the past 20 years, efforts to improve therapy for Type 1 diabetes patients with kidney dysfunction remain unsuccessful, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society Nephrology.

Low vitamin D levels linked to allergies in kids
A study of more than 3,000 children shows that low vitamin D levels are associated with increased likelihood that children will develop allergies, according to a paper published in the Feb.

Serotonin plays role in many autism cases, studies confirm
Nearly a third of cases of autism spectrum disorder may have a serotonin component.

Multiplexed capillary isoelectric focusing increases efficiency in protein measurements
The Springer journal Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry has chosen Oluwatosin O.

Mean girls and queen bees: Females threatened by social exclusion will reject others first
Many studies have suggested that males tend to be more physically and verbally aggressive than females.

Genetically modified fungi kill malaria-causing parasites in mosquitoes
Spraying malaria-transmitting mosquitoes with a genetically modified fungus can kill the malaria parasite without harming the mosquito, potentially reducing malaria transmission to humans, according to a new study published in the journal Science.

American Museum of Natural History's online learning gets prestigious Science award
Resources for Learning, an innovative online catalog of educational content for teachers and students developed by the American Museum of Natural History, has received the Science Prize for Online Resources in Education -- the first time a natural history museum has won this coveted honor.

A glass half full
It is important to acknowledge the setbacks, but equal attention and value need to be given to what is going well.

Gene expression to distinguish metastasizing from non-metastasizing head and neck cancers
The validation of a test, based on gene expression and predicting the tumors that will metastasize in lymph nodes of head and neck cancers, was presented today at the 3rd International Conference on innovative approaches in Head and Neck Oncology, in Barcelona.

Migrating sea turtles have magnetic sense for longitude
From the very first moments of life, hatchling loggerhead sea turtles have an arduous task.

New method powerfully boosts efficiency of RNA interference (RNAi) in shutting down genes
A research team led by scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory has developed a powerful method that allows them to sift through thousands of candidate hairpin-shaped RNA molecules at a time and pull out only those RNAs that potently shut down the activity of a target gene.

PSA screening declines following publication of large trials, guidelines
PSA screening has declined in one large US healthcare network since publication of two large screening trials and a set of guidelines, according to a study published online Feb.

Maternal fructose intake impacts female and male fetuses differently
A recent study accepted for publication in Endocrinology, a publication of The Endocrine Society, reports for the first time that maternal fructose intake during pregnancy results in sex-specific changes in fetal and neonatal endocrinology.

NASA postpones launch of Glory mission
The launch of NASA's Glory spacecraft from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California has been postponed at least 24 hours.

Advancing delirium care through research
At least seven million hospitalized Americans suffer from delirium each year, however the condition goes unrecognized in more than 60 percent of patients.

Binghamton University nanoscientist chosen for the Air Force's Young Investigator Research Program
A Binghamton University faculty member with an interest in nanoscience is among just 43 researchers nationwide chosen for the Air Force's Young Investigator Research Program this year.

Change in PSA level does not predict prostate cancer
Researchers at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center have found that change in PSA levels over time -- known as PSA velocity -- is a poor predictor of prostate cancer and may lead to many unnecessary biopsies.

Examining climate change effects on wheat
Wheat growers in the Southwest have a better idea about how to adjust to climate change in the decades ahead, thanks to US Department of Agriculture scientists in Arizona.

Solar experts detect waves in giant magnetic holes the size of the UK
Massive waves in giant magnetic holes on the surface of the Sun have been discovered for the first time by solar scientists from the University of Sheffield and Queen's University Belfast, something that will bring experts a step closer to unlocking the secrets of the Sun.

Redesign of US donor-liver network could boost transplants by several hundred per year
University of Pittsburgh researchers redesigned the nation's haphazard donor-liver distribution network to better account for urban and rural population differences, geographic distance, and the anticipated supply of and demand for donor livers.

American Chemical Society National Meeting & Exposition, March 27-31, Anaheim, Calif.
For a week in March, the permanent home of Disneyland, world-famous theme parks, Los Angeles Angels baseball, and other attractions becomes the world capital of science as more than 13,000 scientists and others gather here for the 241st National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society.

Space Shuttle to deliver first UCLA-led experiment to International Space Station
The International Space Station is set to receive its first UCLA-led experiment next week when the Space Shuttle delivers a payload of scientific experiments.

PSA velocity screening for prostate cancer may lead to unnecessary biopsies
Guidelines of several cancer organizations have recommended that men with a rapid rise in PSA have a biopsy for prostate cancer, even if there is no other indication and the PSA is within the

Planet formation in action?
Using ESO's Very Large Telescope an international team of astronomers has been able to study the short-lived disc of material around a young star that is in the early stages of making a planetary system.

UK stroke care is improving, but inequalities still exist
The quality of stroke care in the UK is improving, but significant inequalities still exist, warns a new study published on bmj.com today.

Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation awards nearly $1M to HBV, HCV awareness, prevention and care
The Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation has awarded four new grants to help improve awareness, prevention and care of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in China and India.

Analysis shows which people most likely found incompetent to stand trial
People found incompetent to stand trial are more likely to be unemployed, have been previously diagnosed with a psychotic disorder or have had psychiatric hospitalization, according to an analysis of 50 years of research, published by the American Psychological Association.

Vilcek Foundation names recipients of 2011 Vilcek Prizes in Biomedical Science
The Vilcek Foundation is pleased to announce the 2011 winners of its annual prizes honoring the contributions of foreign-born scientists and artists in the US.

Elderly patients admitted with high glucose levels are more likely to die in hospital
A two-country hospital study of 808 elderly patients found a strong association between high, undiagnosed blood glucose in non-diabetic patients and increased hospital death rates.
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