Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 04, 2011
Latinas victimized by domestic violence much likelier to experience postpartum depression
Latinas who endure violence at the hands of a partner during or within a year of pregnancy are five times more likely to suffer postpartum depression than women who have not experienced such violence.

Researchers show heparan sulfate adjusts functions of growth factor proteins
Boston University School of Medicine researchers are showing how heparan sulfate, a carbohydrate that is expressed on the surface of all human cells, adjusts the functions of growth factor proteins.

Evolutionary lessons for wind farm efficiency
Evolution is providing the inspiration for University of Adelaide computer science research to find the best placement of turbines to increase wind farm productivity.

Making the move to exercise for overweight and obese people
How much exercise are overweight and obese people getting? More than many might think, according to research findings by nurses from Case Western Reserve University's Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing.

Susceptibility-weighted imaging can improve detection of and treatment for stroke patients
A new study shows that susceptibility-weighted imaging is a powerful tool for characterizing infarctions (stroke) in patients earlier and directing more prompt treatment.

Nonprofit health organizations increase health literacy through social media
Researchers at the University of Missouri have found that nonprofit organizations and community groups appear to be more actively engaged in posting health information and interacting with the public on Twitter than other types of health-related organizations, such as health business corporations, educational institutions and government agencies.

Air pollution near Michigan schools linked to poorer student health, academic performance
Air pollution from industrial sources near Michigan public schools jeopardizes children's health and academic success, according to a new study from University of Michigan researchers.

Thomas Jefferson University and Hospitals tasked to find new radiation drugs
Jefferson radiation oncology team receives part of major NIH award to develop better drugs to mitigate effects of radiation exposure.

The contraceptive pill and HRT may protect against cerebral aneurysm
Women who develop cerebral aneurysms are less likely to have taken the oral contraceptive pill or hormone replacement therapy, suggesting taking estrogen could have a protective effect, reveals research published in the Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery.

More knowledge not always helpful for women dealing with heart disease
Women with congestive heart failure who repress their emotions, especially anger, are more likely than emotionally expressive women to experience symptoms of depression associated with knowledge about their disease, according to new research.

Hitting target in cancer fight now easier with new nanoparticle platform, UCLA scientists say
Researchers demonstrate mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP) as an optimal drug delivery platform providing the ability to change the size and surface properties of MSNP to improve the tumor biodistribution and protected delivery of doxorubicin to a cancer xenograft in a nude mice model.

Project aims to fuse top-down, bottom-up approaches in systems biology
The National Institutes of Health has awarded Virginia Tech computer science, biology, and bioinformatics researchers a $2.13 million grant to develop new systems biology approaches to study cells, one of the most basic units of life.

Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for ongoing post-therapy GI complications
Patients who received therapy for cancer during childhood have an increased risk of developing gastrointestinal complications later in life.

Low-dose chest CT effective in reducing radiation for evaluation of cardiothoracic surgery patients
Recent studies have shown that a 64-detector CT angiography utilizing prospective electrocardiographic (ECG) gating produces a quality image but considerably reduced patient radiation dose when compared to retrospective ECG gating, according to research being presented at the 2011 American Roentgen Ray Society's annual meeting.

GRAPHENE-CA appointed an EU Future Emerging Technology flagship pilot
A coordination action on graphene will be funded by the European Commission to develop plans for a 10-year, 1,000 million euro FET flagship.

2 views of a lopsided galaxy
The Meathook Galaxy, or NGC 2442, has a dramatically lopsided shape.

Fall in deaths related to child abuse suggests improvement in child protection services
The number of children dying a violent death has fallen substantially in England and Wales over the past 30 years, reveals research published ahead of print in Archives of Disease in Childhood.

TGen licenses first drug for patient use in clinical care
The Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) has licensed its first drug, a unique compound that targets cancer tumors by modifying the actions of proteins.

Supernova and star birth in the Meathook Galaxy
The Meathook Galaxy, or NGC 2442, has a dramatically lopsided shape.

Seeing the trees and missing the forest
The phenomenon known as holistic processing is best known in faces.

New route to map brain fat
Mapping the fat distribution of the healthy human brain is a key step in understanding neurological diseases, in general, and the neurodegeneration that accompanies Alzheimer's disease in particular.

Researchers discover protein that could help prevent the spread of cancer
A protein capable of halting the spread of breast cancer cells could lead to a therapy for preventing or limiting the spread of the disease.

Night owls at risk for weight gain and bad diet
Staying up late every night and sleeping in is a habit that could put you at risk for gaining weight.

Getting to the HIV test: It takes a village
New research shows that when community mobilization activities and post-test psychosocial support services were added to easily accessible HIV counseling and testing programs, rates of initial and repeat testing in these communities improved significantly, compared with areas that were offered only clinic-based voluntary counseling and testing.

Ohio State surgeons rebuild pelvis of cancer patient
In a rare and medically remarkable operation, a multi-disciplinary team of surgeons at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center -- Arthur G.

Breast shields better at reducing dose than posteriorly centered partial CT, study finds
The use of breast shields is the technique of choice to protect the breasts of women from radiation exposure while undergoing chest CT examinations, according to a new study.

New UTHealth trial aimed at helping pregnant women stop smoking
A clinical trial to test the safety and efficacy of a medication that could help pregnant women stop smoking has begun enrollment at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

U of A study finds ways to help end dry mouth in cancer patients
For patients suffering from cancer in the mouth or throat, a recent study shows that a treatment called submandibular gland transfer will assist in preventing a radiation-induced condition called xerostomia.

Researchers train in technology to treat cancer and strengthen security
Improved treatment for cancer and stronger homeland security will be among the goals of a new UK-wide center of excellence for training the next generation of researchers to use laser-operated accelerator devices.

Increases in peripheral arterial disease revascularization correlates with screening growth
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an indicator for coronary and carotid arterial disease and carries inherent risks of claudication and amputation.

New evidence that caffeine is a healthful antioxidant in coffee
Scientists are reporting an in-depth analysis of how the caffeine in coffee, tea and other foods seems to protect against conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and heart disease on the most fundamental levels.

A vaccine 'revolution' aims for safer, cheaper treatments
An innovative way of making vaccines at the University of Central Florida has attracted the support of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for its potential to make vaccines less expensive, more effective and needle free.

New mitochondrial control mechanism discovered
Scientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Aging, Germany, have discovered a new component of mitochondria that plays a key part in their function.

FASEB develops extensive online resource to connect researchers and suppliers
The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology is excited to announce last month's launch of the newest online tool aimed at bridging the gap between the more than 100,000 members of FASEB's 23 member societies and biomedical supply companies.

Sense of justice built into the brain
A new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden shows that the brain has built-in mechanisms that trigger an automatic reaction to someone who refuses to share.

Battle scars found on an ancient sea monster
Scars on the jaw of a 120-million-year-old marine reptile suggest that life might not have been easy in the ancient polar oceans.

Physical and emotional health of older couples linked for better or worse, study finds
A study of older married couples that gives new meaning to the matrimonial adage

Schools need collaboration, not packaged solutions, for best mental health programs
Experts in school mental health agree that a large investment of money, time and training has been made to develop and disseminate school mental health programs that have been tested and proven to work.

Race in America
Four Northwestern University scholars authored or co-authored three essays in

Undergraduate institutions should play larger research role
Biology educators at primarily undergraduate colleges and universities argue for coordinating networks to expand and improve ecological teaching and research at such institutions.

Penn State to focus on obesity prevention training
Sustainable, comprehensive and problem-based training to prevent child obesity will now be possible thanks to a $4.5 million, five-year grant from the US Department of Agriculture.

Weizmann Institute scientists discover: A protein that contributes to obesity
Weizmann Institute scientists have added another piece to the obesity puzzle, showing how and why a certain protein that is active in a small part of the brain contributes to weight gain.

Positive effects of depression
Sadness, apathy, preoccupation. These traits come to mind when people think about depression, the world's most frequently diagnosed mental disorder.

PaperPhone prototype opens door to next generation of flexible, interactive computing
A potentially major advance in interactive computing and flexible technology has been made through a collaborative effort involving researchers at the Human Media Lab at Queen's University in Canada and Arizona State University engineers.

Children conceived in winter have a greater risk of autism, study finds
An examination of the birth records of the more than seven million children born in the state of California during the 1990s and early 2000s has found a clear link between the month in which a child is conceived and the risk of that child later receiving a diagnosis of autism.

New research suggests dramatic shift in understanding of personalized medicine
Researchers at Mount Sinai School of Medicine have made a critical discovery that may lead scientists to abandon the use of broad conventional ethnic labels -- African-American, Hispanic, and Caucasian -- to estimate a patient's genetic risk for disease.

INFORMS health care conference highlights increased role of math modeling in health systems
The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS) will host its first conference on health care in Montreal this June.

Damaged hearts pump better when fueled with fats
Contrary to what we've been told, eliminating or severely limiting fats from the diet may not be beneficial to cardiac function in patients suffering from heart failure, a study at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine reports.

Grant funds next phase in bringing healthier sorghum closer to underserved communities
The Donald Danforth Plant Science Center and DuPont today announced a $4 million grant from the Howard G.

USGS economic analysis updated for the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska
The US Geological Survey assessment on the economic recoverability of undiscovered, conventional oil and gas resources within the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and adjacent state waters is now available.

For small business owners, consultation means fewer missteps
New research from the University of Cincinnati emphasizes that consultation with outside advisors mitigates small business owners' mistakes.

Regional politicians in Spain are more disassociated from central government than other countries
Researchers from the Autonomous University of Barcelona and the University of Valencia have looked into the dominant career patterns of regional politicians in Spain, France and the United Kingdom.

Natural protection against radiation
In the midst of ongoing concerns about radiation exposure from the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan, scientists are reporting that a substance similar to resveratrol -- an antioxidant found in red wine, grapes and nuts -- could protect against radiation sickness.

'Most adults with autism go undiagnosed' -- new findings
University of Leicester researchers present further evidence from first ever general population survey of autism in adulthood.

Revolutionary new paper computer shows flexible future for smartphones and tablets
The world's first interactive paper computer is set to revolutionize the world of interactive computing.

Is there a 'tiger mother' effect?
Valerie Ramey analyzed data in the American Time Use Survey and discovered that Asian high school and college students out-study all other groups.

Systematic effort helps hospital raise employee flu vaccination rates
A systematic effort to improve flu vaccination rates for health-care workers has increased flu vaccinations rates from 59 percent to 77 percent at the University Health System (UHS) in San Antonio.

MIT: New method found for controlling conductivity
A team of researchers at MIT has found a way to manipulate both the thermal conductivity and the electrical conductivity of materials simply by changing the external conditions, such as the surrounding temperature.

MDCT arthrography accurately identifies
MDCT arthrography is better than MR arthrography for diagnosing glenoid rim osseous lesions, lesions that have been identified as potential causes of recurrence after shoulder surgery, according to a new study.

Asthma pill more user friendly than inhalers -- and no less effective
A rarely prescribed asthma drug is easier to use and just as effective as conventional treatment with inhalers, according to a new study led by the University of East Anglia.

MARC travel awards announced for GSA Mouse Genetics Conference
FASEB MARC (Minority Access to Research Careers) Program has announced the travel award recipients for the 2011 Genetics Society of America Mouse Genetics conference in Washington, D.C., from June 22-25, 2011.

New woes for silicones in cosmetics and personal care products
At a time when cosmetics, shampoos, skin creams, and other personal care products already are going green -- with manufacturers switching to plant-derived extracts and other natural ingredients -- government regulators in Canada are adding to the woes of the silicone-based ingredients long used in these products.

Blood test for Alzheimer's
A new blood test that will diagnose Alzheimer's disease may soon hit the market, thanks to an innovative study from the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre.

Newly discovered plant fossil reveals more than age
Over 100 million years ago, the understory of late Mesozoic forests was dominated by a diverse group of plants of the class Equisetopsida.

Comprehensive study finds no link between XMRV retrovirus and chronic fatigue syndrome
New findings from University of Utah School of Medicine researchers show that the retrovirus called XMRV is not present in the blood of patients who have chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).

HHMI helps summer institute expand to regional sites
New funding from HHMI will be used to scale up a successful summer program that aims to enable thousands of college and university science faculty to receive intensive professional development designed to improve undergraduate biology education.

Cola detectives test natural flavoring claims for pricey soft drinks
Scientists are reporting development and successful testing of a new way to determine whether cola drinks -- advertised as being made with natural ingredients and sold at premium prices -- really do contain natural flavoring.

The private market for tuberculosis drugs
The private TB drug market, which has irregular practices that could be driving treatment failures and the emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis, is now shown to be as large as the public market.

Chesapeake Bay program's 2-year milestones improve upon past strategies, but accounting of progress remains a challenge
A new report from the National Research Council assesses the framework used by these partners for tracking pollution control practices and their two-year milestone strategy, which complements longer-term efforts to comply with the total maximum daily load of pollutants that the EPA allows in the Chesapeake Bay.

Caltech researchers pinpoint brain region that influences gambling decisions
When a group of gamblers gather around a roulette table, individual players are likely to have different reasons for betting on certain numbers.

ASPB members elected to National Academy of Sciences
Several members of the American Society of Plant Biologists have been elected as members or foreign associates of the US National Academy of Sciences in recognition of their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research.

A new research report shows effects of climate change in the Arctic are more extensive than expected
A much reduced covering of snow, shorter winter season and thawing tundra.

Estimated costs of environmental disease in children at $76.6 billion per year
In three new studies published in the May issue of the journal Health Affairs, Mount Sinai School of Medicine researchers reveal the staggering economic impact of toxic chemicals and air pollutants in the environment, and propose new legislation to mandate testing of new chemicals and also those already on the market.

Age alone should be used to screen for heart attacks and strokes, say experts
Using age alone to identify those at risk of heart disease or stroke could replace current screening methods without diminishing effectiveness, according to a groundbreaking study published today in the open-access journal PLoS ONE.

US must strengthen efforts to restrict chemicals that threaten health, say researchers
The Environmental Protection Agency, stymied by the outdated Toxic Substances Control Act, must seek partners in academia to help evaluate the risks of industrial chemicals on the market today, say Sarah A.

The big picture on complexity
How to get the job done when a task is shared between several teams scattered around the world?

Exercise protects the heart via nitric oxide
Exercise both reduces the risk of a heart attack and protects the heart from injury if a heart attack does occur.

K-RITH awards grants to foster teamwork among South African TB/HIV scientists
The KwaZulu-Natal Research Institute for Tuberculosis and HIV (K-RITH) has awarded a total of 1.7 million rand ($248,000) to 18 South African scientists and students to help build new tuberculosis and HIV research collaborations throughout South Africa.

Data evaluates rehospitalization and cost burden of AFib/atrial flutter
Two studies to be presented this week address the often-overlooked costs associated with atrial fibrillation (AFib), the most common form of cardiac arrhythmia.
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