Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

June 29, 2011
Latest guide on child and adolescent psychiatry
The 4th edition of the

Getting an accurate read on Parkinson's
Through the use of a new statistical algorithm, Dr. Chava Peretz of Tel Aviv University traced drug use as reflected in the records of a major Israeli HMO.

Natural gases a therapy for heart disease?
Research carried out by scientists from the Peninsula Medical School at the University of Exeter and the National University of Singapore has analyzed the complex

Researchers look for ingredients of happiness around the world
In a new study, researchers at the University of Illinois put Maslow's

Scientists use 'optogenetics' to control reward-seeking behavior
The findings suggest that therapeutics targeting the path between two critical brain regions, the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens, represent potential treatments for addiction and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

American Chemical Society podcast: Tiny generator powers wireless device
Imagine a new genre of tiny implantable sensors, airborne and stationary surveillance cameras and sensors that operate without batteries on energy collected from the motion of a heart beat and have wireless communications capability.

A war inside: Saving veterans from suicide
After weathering the stresses of military life and the terrors of combat, soldiers find themselves overwhelmed by the transition back into civilian life.

Blocking molecular target could make more cancers treatable with PARP inhibitors
Researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have demonstrated a molecular strategy they say could make a much larger variety of tumors treatable with PARP inhibitors, a promising new class of cancer drugs.

Natural-born consumers
How might a company determine which elements of an advertisement are universally valid and which are culture-specific?

At small scales, tug-of-war between electrons can lead to magnetism
At the smallest scales, magnetism may not work quite the way scientists expected, according to a recent paper in Physical Review Letters by Rafał Oszwałdowski and Igor Zutic of the University at Buffalo and Andre Petukhov of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology.

Study confirms CT lung cancer screens save lives; other analyses underway
A new report confirms an initial announcement by the National Cancer Institute of a 20-percent reduction in lung cancer deaths in heavy smokers by using helical low-dose CT screening versus X-rays.

A role for glia in the progression of Rett syndrome
A paper published online today in Nature reveals that glia play a key role in preventing the progression of the most prominent Rett Syndrome symptoms displayed by mouse models of the disease: lethality, irregular breathing and apneas, hypoactivity and decreased dendritic complexity.

U of M researchers contribute to global plant database, expanding ecosystems research
A new database of plants' traits will help scientists around the world learn more about how climate change is affecting ecosystems.

Rutgers study: Third of N.J. immigrant children, many adult newcomers lack health insurance
One-third of immigrant children and more than 70 percent of foreign-born, non-elderly adults living in New Jersey five years or less lack health coverage, a Rutgers statewide survey finds.

Shortening time between CPR and shocks improves cardiac-arrest survival
Reducing the intervals between giving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and an electronic defibrillator shock after cardiac arrest significantly improves survival, according to UT Southwestern Medical Center emergency medicine doctors involved in an international study.

Junior doctors clueless about what to do during major incidents
Junior doctors have no idea what they should be doing when a major incident, such as a terrorist attack or transport disaster, occurs, reveals research published in the online journal BMJ Open.

Magazine recognizes ONR as leader in workplace diversity for 4th time
For the fourth consecutive year, Diversity/Careers in Engineering & Information Technology magazine named the Office of Naval Research as a

Dyslexia linked to difficulties in perceiving rhythmic patterns in music
Children with dyslexia find it difficult to count the number of syllables in spoken words or to determine whether words rhyme.

European research effort improves understanding of impacts of aerosols on climate
Atmospheric aerosol particles have been masking the true rate of greenhouse gas induced global warming during the industrial period.

Osteoarthritis incidence significantly higher among US military personnel
New research shows significantly higher osteoarthritis (OA) incidence rates in military populations than among comparable age groups in the general population.

Leverhulme Trust award Leicester academic funding to study anti-apartheid protest
Gavin Brown, a University of Leicester geography lecturer who, as a teenager, took part in the anti-apartheid Non-Stop Picket outside the South African Embassy in London between 1986-1990 and announced to the crowd that Nelson Mandela had been released from gaol, has been awarded a Research Project Grant from the Leverhulme Trust for a project called

Global warming could alter the US premium wine industry in 30 years, says Stanford study
Higher temperatures could significantly impact California and other premium wine-growing regions of the United States in the next 30 years, according to a new study led by Stanford University climate scientists.

Genetic 'conductor' involved with new brain cell production in adults
A team of North Carolina State University researchers has discovered more about how a gene connected to the production of new brain cells in adults does its job.

Text message support for smokers doubles quit rates
Mobile phones could hold the key to people giving up smoking after a program involving sending motivational and supportive text messages to smokers doubled quit rates at six months.

Study shows 20 percent reduction in lung cancer mortality with low-dose CT vs chest X-ray
Scientists have found a 20 percent reduction in deaths from lung cancer among current or former heavy smokers who were screened with low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) versus those screened by chest X-ray.

New therapy for childhood neuroblastoma proves feasible and safe
A new treatment option may soon be available for children with neuroblastoma according to research published in the July issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

The Cancer Genome Atlas completes detailed ovarian cancer analysis
An analysis of genomic changes in ovarian cancer has provided the most comprehensive and integrated view of cancer genes for any cancer type to date.

Outpatient electronic prescribing systems don't cut out common mistakes
Outpatient electronic prescribing systems don't cut out the common mistakes made in manual systems, suggests research published online in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association.

Scientists identify order of mutations that lead to cancer
Findings represent a critical step in personalizing cancer treatments. Some early aberrations are required for development of later abnormalities.

Gardening to go: UH architecture professors introduce GroPODS
The innovative minds at UH Green Building Components have developed a solution for growing gardens in apartments and non-green business and residential spaces.

GOES satellites see ash still spewing from Chilean volcano
The Puyehue-Cordon volcano in Chile continues to spew ash that is still disrupting travel as far as Australia and New Zealand this week.

New 2010 impact factors -- Cell Press journals deliver top class performances
Whether it's the established, leading journals, or the youngest rising stars, when it comes to impact factors Cell Press has delivered a top class performance, once again.

Pinpointing the origin of corpses, fingering fake cheese and more -- with 'isoscapes'
An emerging field of science termed

AAAS Board: Attacks on climate researchers inhibit free exchange of scientific ideas
Reports of personal attacks on climate scientists, including harassment, legal challenges and even death threats, have created a hostile environment that inhibits the free exchange of scientific findings and makes it difficult for factual information to reach policymakers and the public, the Board of Directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science says in a statement of concern.

Clocking Neptune's spin
By tracking atmospheric features on Neptune, a UA planetary scientist has accurately determined the planet's rotation, a feat that had not been previously achieved for any of the gas planets in our solar system except Jupiter.

Workplace mental health disability leave recurs sooner than physical health leave, CAMH study shows
The recurrence of an employee's medical leave of absence from work tends to happen much sooner with a mental health leave than a physical one, a Centre for Addiction and Mental Health study shows.

Astronomers discover universe's most distant quasar
A scientist at the University of Nottingham is part of a team of astronomers which has discovered the most distant quasar to date -- a development that could help further our understanding of a universe still in its infancy following the Big Bang.

Sequence of ovarian genome identifies predominant gene mutations, points to possible treatment
The genome of the most common form of ovarian cancer is characterized by a few common gene mutations but also surprisingly frequent structural changes in the genome itself, said members of the Cancer Genome Atlas, including the Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center, that sequenced and analyzed more than 300 such tumors.

Men play post-op catch-up
Although women generally have worse knee function and more severe symptoms before undergoing surgery for knee replacement than men, they recover faster after the operation.

New salmonella-based 'clean vaccines' aid the fight against infectious disease
Qingke Kong and his colleagues at the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, have developed a technique to make recombinant attenuated salmonella vaccines safer and more effective.

CT scans unleash a breakthrough in catching early stage lung cancer
The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is the first scientific study that provides clear evidence that CT screening significantly reduces the death rate due to lung cancer.

UCSF-led team decodes evolution of skin and ovarian cancer cells
A team of researchers led by scientists at the University of California, San Francisco has developed a way to uncover the evolution of human cancer cells, determining the order in which mutations emerge in them as they wend their way from a normal, healthy state into invasive, malignant masses.

Studying solar wind
An international team of scientists, including Dr. Chris Coath from the University of Bristol, have measured oxygen isotopes in solar wind, captured by NASA's Genesis mission, to infer the isotopic composition of the sun, and, by inference, the solar system as a whole.

Scientists at UC3M are participating in research on the robotic hand of the future
Researchers at Carlos III University of Madrid's Robotics lab are participating in the international research project known as HANDLE.

Tripping the fluid dynamic: The physics of Jackson Pollock
The abstract expressionist paintings of Jackson Pollock reveal that the American artist was an intuitive master of the laws that govern the flow of liquids under gravity, according to a multidisciplinary team of researchers from Boston College and Harvard.

Study on football: Women get up faster
When women play football (soccer), the individual interruptions, for instance for substitutions or to cheer a goal, are a lot shorter than when men play.

New home for world-leading Scottish institute
Global challenges such as preventing the spread of infectious diseases and feeding a growing population are to be tackled at a new £60 ($96) million institute which opens June 29, 2011.

EUREKA invested over 300 million euros in industrial initiatives over the past year
During the course of Israel's Chairmanship year, European R&D leaders agreed to invest over 300 million euros in industrial initiatives.

Case Western Reserve researchers identify HIV-inhibiting mechanism
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have discovered a long-sought cellular factor that works to inhibit HIV infection of myeloid cells, a subset of white blood cells that display antigens and hence are important for the body's immune response against viruses and other pathogens.

UT MD Anderson debuts lung cancer screening program
Current and former heavy smokers can now be screened more effectively for lung cancer.

Research finding suggests way to make bladder cancer cells more susceptible to chemotherapy
Researchers at the UC Davis Cancer Center have discovered a way of sensitizing muscle-invasive bladder cancer cells so that they succumb to the toxic effects of chemotherapy.

IASLC welcomes publication of CT screening results from National Lung Screening Trial
The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer today welcomed the publication of positive results of the National Lung Screening Trial.

New fossils demonstrate that powerful eyes evolved in a twinkling
Palaeontologists have uncovered half-a-billion-year-old fossils demonstrating that primitive animals had excellent vision.

The promise of stem cell-based gene therapy
Sophisticated genetic tools and techniques for achieving targeted gene delivery and high gene expression levels in bone marrow will drive the successful application of gene therapy to treat a broad range of diseases.

New rapid test tells difference between bacterial and viral infections
Scientists are reporting development and successful testing of a rapid and accurate test to tell the difference between bacterial and viral infections.

Scientists develop method to determine order of mutations that lead to cancer
Zeroing in on the early cell mutations that enable a cancer to grow is one of the best ways to find a personalized therapy to stop it.

Lung cancer screening trial shows screening with CT scans reduces lung cancer deaths
Results of the National Lung Screening Trial published online in the June 30 New England Journal of Medicine report a twenty percent reduction in lung cancer deaths among participants screened with CT scans versus those screened with chest X-ray.

SIB launches next generation ExPASy, an entry portal to indispensable bioinformatics resources
The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics just launched the new generation of ExPASy, a web portal which offers a point of entry to more than 120 SIB bioinformatics resources.

New smartphone app automatically tags photos
So much for tagging photographs with names, locations and activities yourself -- a new cell phone application can take care of that for you.

Betting on good luck and 4-leaf clovers
Research led by the University of Cambridge has found a link between impulsivity and flawed reasoning (such as believing in superstitious rituals and luck) in problem gamblers.

Georgia residents: Investment in global health research is vital to state's economy
Nearly three-quarters of Georgia residents think spending money on research to improve health globally is important for economic development in Georgia, according to a new statewide poll commissioned by Research!America.

Lehigh University leads Department of Defense MURI grant for atomic-scale interphase research
The ultimate goal of the $7.5 million, DoD-funded project is to create an entirely new class of materials that exhibit the hardness of a ceramic and superior toughness of metal.

ESC calls for greater awareness of potential for adverse events from bleeding as a result of PCI
The position paper, published today in the European Heart Journal, summarizes current knowledge regarding the epidemiology of bleeding in ACS and PCI, and provides a European perspective on management strategies to minimize the extent of bleeding and subsequent adverse consequences.

UC Riverside to host international meeting on how game theory can benefit natural resources
UC Riverside is hosting a meeting that will address issues related to terrorism, pollution, international environmental agreements, trade, climate change, and fisheries.

'Atlas of European Millipedes' published by Pensoft
The first in a series of three books which will, for the first time ever, show the distribution of Europe's more than 1,500 species of millipedes.

Money and mimicry
We rely on money in our day-to-day life and it is constantly in our minds.

Trial is first to show with biochemical verification that motivational text messaging strategy doubles smoking quit rates
A study published online first and in this week's Lancet shows that smokers are twice as likely to quit their habit when receiving motivational text messages compared with those receiving placebo texts.

Western researchers can predict future actions from human brain activity
Bringing the real world into the brain scanner, researchers at The University of Western Ontario from the Centre for Brain and Mind can now determine the action a person was planning, mere moments before that action is actually executed.

'Transport Phenomena and Membrane Digestion in Small Intestinal Mucosa' by Pensoft
The philosophy of this monograph is to apply an interdisciplinary approach and thus outline the latest advances in such areas as absorption mechanisms of nutrients (sugars, amino acids, dipeptides) and membrane digestion in the small intestine of vertebrates.

Diabetes drug may prevent or delay development of polycystic ovary syndrome
A recent study accepted for publication in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism found that early, prolonged treatment with the diabetes drug metformin may prevent or delay the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescence.

Growing plants on oil-contaminated land
What happens when there is an oil spill on land?

Farm animal disease to increase with climate change
Scientists at the University of Liverpool have shown that recent climate change could have caused a serious infectious disease in farm animals to spread through Europe.

IOM report calls for cultural transformation of attitudes toward pain and its prevention and management
Every year, at least 116 million adult Americans experience chronic pain, a condition that costs the nation between $560 billion and $635 billion annually.

NASA/NOAA GOES-13 satellite movie shows how Tropical Storm Arlene formed
Have you ever seen a low pressure area develop into a full-fledged tropical storm?

'Sensing skin' could monitor the health of concrete infrastructure continually and inexpensively
Civil engineers at MIT and physicists at the University of Potsdam have designed a new method for the electronic, continual monitoring of concrete infrastructure.

'Odd couple' binary makes dual gamma-ray flares
In December 2010, a pair of mismatched stars in the southern constellation Crux whisked past each other at a distance closer than Venus orbits the sun.

How safe is mist netting? First large-scale study into bird capture technique evaluates the risks
Capturing birds using mist nets in order to study behavior, movement or the demographics of a species is one of the most common research techniques in ornithology; yet until now there have been no large scale studies into the risks mist nets pose to birds.

Culture influences people's response to climate change
How people choose to consume resources and use contraception influences their responses to climate change, according to a team of psychologists.

Recycling: A new source of indispensible 'rare earth' materials mined mainly in China
That axiom of sustainability --

Fungus farming ant genome reveals insight into adaptation of social behavior
The development of agriculture was a significant event in human cultural evolution, but we are not the only organisms to have adopted an agricultural way of life.

Green facades are the future
Green facades and roofs are a current trend in building.

UBC researchers invent new drug delivery device to treat diabetes-related vision loss
A team of engineers and scientists at the University of British Columbia has developed a device that can be implanted behind the eye for controlled and on-demand release of drugs to treat retinal damage caused by diabetes.

Girl's Puberty Book Project provides an international model for promoting female health in Africa
The onset of puberty is a critical moment for reaching girls with health messages and information, and the stakes are particularly high in countries where the HIV/AIDS epidemic rages and where threats to female reproductive health abound.

Scientists develop sensitive skin for robots
Robots will soon be able to feel heat or gentle touching on their surfaces.

Ecological Society of America announces 2011 award recipients
The Ecological Society of America will present seven awards to distinguished ecologists at its 96th Annual Meeting from Aug.

Scientists shed light on the private lives of electrons
A Princeton researcher and his international collaborators have used lasers to peek into the complex relationship between a single electron and its environment, a breakthrough that could aid the development of quantum computers.

ConocoPhillips donates $1 million to UH and its Energy Research Park
ConocoPhillips is donating $1 million to the University of Houston and the emerging UH Energy Research Park, a collection of the university's preeminent energy research and education programs.

Towards harmonized environmental information in Europe
Arranging a cross-border emergency rescue, preventing major environmental damage or comparing energy consumption of buildings in different countries will soon be faster and easier thanks to improved data sharing in the EU.

Most distant quasar found
A team of European astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope and a host of other telescopes to discover and study the most distant quasar found to date.

Drink-fueled memory blackouts among students predict future injury risk
The higher the number of drink-fueled memory blackouts a student experiences, the greater is his/her risk of sustaining a future injury while under the influence, reveals research published online in Injury Prevention.

World's premier international congress in cardiovascular medicine
The scientific program for this year's ESC Congress, which will take place in Paris from Aug.

Grand Challenges Canada announces innovative rising stars in global health
To mark Canada Day, Grand Challenges Canada announces Canada's

Finding showing human ancestor older than previously thought offers new insights into evolution
Modern humans never co-existed with Homo erectus -- a finding counter to previous hypotheses of human evolution -- new excavations in Indonesia and dating analyses show.

Moving microscopic vision into another new dimension
Scientists who pioneered a revolutionary 3-D microscope technique are now describing an extension of that technology into a new dimension that promises sweeping applications in medicine, biological research, and development of new electronic devices.

Public prefers limited informed consent process for biobanks
A University of Iowa study examined people's preferences with respect to whether and how informed consent should be obtained for the collection and use of tissue samples for research.

Screening with low-dose spiral CT scanning reduces lung cancer deaths by 20 percent
Current or heavy smokers who were screened with low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) scanning had a 20 percent reduction in deaths from lung cancer than did those who were screened by chest X-ray, according to results from a decade-long, large clinical trial that involved more than 53,000 people. is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to