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Science News | Science Current Events | Brightsurf | August 29, 2011


What's really in that luscious chocolate aroma?
The mouth-watering aroma of roasted cocoa beans -- key ingredient for chocolate -- emerges from substances that individually smell like potato chips, cooked meat, peaches, raw beef fat, human sweat, earth and an improbable palate of other distinctly un-cocoa-like aromas.
CABG still preferred over PCI in patients with triple vessel disease
Results from CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2 show that percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was associated with significantly higher risk for serious adverse events in patients with triple vessel disease than coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Monitoring ground-level ozone from space
Satellite views of the Midwestern United States show that ozone levels above 50 parts per billion along the ground could reduce soybean yields by at least 10 percent, costing more than $1 billion in lost crop production, according to US Department of Agriculture scientists.
A mouse model brings new perspectives on Lafora disease
Using a mouse model, researchers at IRB Barcelona have demonstrated a link between abnormal sugar accumulation and the neuronal degeneration characteristic of Lafora disease.
Virus attacks childhood cancers
Researchers from Yale University are looking to a virus from the same family as the rabies virus to fight a form of cancer primarily found in children and young adults.
Wastewater recycling can multiply greenhouse gas emissions
Despite evidence that some wastewater treatments multiply nitrous oxide emissions, researchers say planners need to look at the big picture.
Gender differences in clinical presentation and outcome of transcatheter aortic valve implantation
Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is increasing in frequency as the population ages.
Discovery in cardiology: A medication reduces heart volume
As guest speaker at the European Society of Cardiology's Congress currently under way, Dr.
UGA symposium explores extreme microbes' bioenergy potential
Experts on microorganisms that thrive in extreme environments will convene at the University of Georgia for 'Extremophiles: Key to Bioenergy?' -- a two-day symposium at the UGA Center for Continuing Education Conference Center and Hotel, Sept.
2,000-year-old burial box could reveal location of the family of Caiaphas
Professor Yuval Goren of Tel Aviv University has authenticated an inscription on an ancient ossuary thought to come from a burial site at the legendary location of the battle between David and Goliath.
Flexible electronics hold promise for consumer applications
New research from Wake Forest University has advanced the field of plastic-based flexible electronics by developing, for the first time, an extremely large molecule that is stable, possesses excellent electrical properties, and inexpensive to produce.
Withdrawing life support for traumatic brain injuries needs cautious approach
Death following severe traumatic brain injury is associated with a highly variable incidence of withdrawal of life support at the end of life, finds a new study in CMAJ.
Death from above: Parasite wasps attacking ants from the air filmed for the first time
Flight attacks of small parasitoid wasps (no larger than 2 mm in size) on ant workers have been filmed by Jose Maria Gomez Duran from Madrid.
Scientist creates new hypothesis on ocean acidification
A Researcher at the Hawai'i Institute of Marine Biology, an organized research unit in the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology has come up with a new explanation for the effects of ocean acidification on coral reefs.
Remote ICD monitoring a 'safe alternative' to conventional follow up
Device management using a home monitoring system with daily telemetry in patients with ICDs (implantable cardioverter defibrilators) is a safe alternative to conventional monitoring and could decrease the number of inappropriate shocks, according to results of the ECOST study, a multi-center randomized trial performed in France.
European women live longer than men, but not better
European women live longer than men, because of both biological and behavioral advantages, but women's longer lives are not necessarily healthy lives.
Mysteries of ozone depletion continue 25 years after the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole
Even after many decades of studying ozone and its loss from our atmosphere, plenty of mysteries and surprises remain, including an unexpected loss of ozone over the Arctic this past winter, an authority on the topic said here today.
Public disclosure of clinical trial results by Health Canada should be mandatory
Health Canada is not prevented by law from publicly disclosing safety and efficacy data from clinical trials, pharmaceuticals, biologics and medical devices and should be more transparent, states an analysis in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).
What was that again? A mathematical model of language incorporates the need for repetition
Human language can appear to be a chaotic and confusing jumble of words.
Don't be afraid: very old patients treated with Vitamin K antagonists, if adequately managed, benefit from anticoagulation
Results of the EPICA Study (Elderly Patients followed by Italian Centers for Anticoagulation Study), were presented at the ESC Congress 2011 today.
Elite cross-country skiing linked to increased risk of subsequent arrhythmias
A Swedish study presented at the ESC Congress 2011 today, found a higher incidence of arrhythmias in cross-country skiers with a long history of endurance training.
Scientists develop new technologies for understanding bacterial infections
Understanding how bacteria infect cells is crucial to preventing countless human diseases.
It's official -- chocolate linked to heart health
High levels of chocolate consumption might be associated with a one third reduction in the risk of developing heart disease, finds a study published on bmj.com today.
NASA eyes 2 more Atlantic tropical cyclones while Irene drenches Canada
While the remnants of Hurricane Irene drench Quebec and Newfoundland, Canada today, NASA satellites are keeping tabs on two other tropical cyclones in the Atlantic: Tropical Storm Jose and newly formed Tropical Depression 12.
The brittleness of aging bones -- more than a loss of bone mass
A Berkeley Lab study shows that at microscopic dimensions, the age-related loss of bone quality can be every bit as important as the loss of quantity in the susceptibility of bone to fracturing.
Lack of research into widely used acne treatments could be limiting their effectiveness
There are many products that are publicized as cures for acne, often at considerable expense to both consumers and the health-care system, but there is very little evidence of which ones work best and for whom.
Tiny wires change behavior at nanoscale
Thin gold wires often used in high-end electronic applications are wonderfully flexible as well as conductive.
From mild-mannered to killer plague
How did a bacterium that causes mild stomach irritation rapidly evolve into a deadly assassin responsible for the most devastating pandemics in human history?
Weight loss without the hunger: Cornell scientists say eat a lighter lunch
Losing weight without a grumbling stomach or expensive liquid diet can be as simple as eating a lighter lunch, finds a new Cornell University study to be published in the October issue of the journal Appetite.
Magnetic memories manipulated by voltage, not heat
Using voltage to encode magnetic data could lead to smaller, faster memory devices -- but not if heat is doing all the work.
Study examines how couples' collaborative dialogue may assist in a spouse's memory
Effective memory is a key ability for independent living in later life, and a new Iowa State University study is among the first to report that social partners can help extend memory.
NASA continues tracking soaking remnants of Hurricane Irene into Canada
Hurricane Irene left a trail of devastation and heavy rainfall in its wake from the Caribbean to the US east coast and is now a depression dumping heavy rains in eastern Canada before it heads into the Atlantic.
Illinois-UC Berkeley discovery turns seaweed into biofuel in half the time
University of Illinois scientists have engineered a new strain of yeast that converts seaweed into biofuel in half the time it took just months ago.
2011 AAO-HNSF poster presentations
The 2011 Annual Meeting & OTO EXPO of the American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Foundation (AAO-HNSF), the largest meeting of ear, nose, and throat doctors in the world, will convene Sept.
Study: Simple teaching tool boosts student reading performance
Research from North Carolina State University shows that utilizing a freely available literacy tool results in significant advances in fundamental reading skills for elementary school students, without requiring schools to drastically overhaul existing programs.
St. John Hospital 1st in Michigan to enroll patient in worldwide drug-coated balloon trial
Physicians at St. John Hospital and Medical Center have enrolled the first patient in Michigan in LEVANT2, a global, multi-center, randomized clinical trial evaluating the safety and effectiveness of the Moxy Drug Coated Balloon for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease.
Cigarette smoking causes more arterial damage in women than in men
The harmful effects of tobacco smoke on atherosclerosis, one of the driving forces of cardiovascular disease, are greater in women than in men.
The effect of eplerenone vs. placebo on cardiovascular mortality
Today results from a new sub-analysis of the EMPHASIS-HF study showed significant reductions in death and hospitalization for five pre-defined high-risk patient sub-groups with chronic heart failure (CHF) and mild symptoms treated with eplerenone in addition to standard therapy versus those treated with placebo and standard therapy.
Astrophysicists report first simulation to create a Milky Way-like galaxy
After nine months of number-crunching on a powerful supercomputer, a beautiful spiral galaxy matching our own Milky Way emerged from a computer simulation of the physics involved in galaxy formation and evolution.
Testing the water for bioenergy crops
Water use has been left out analysis of converting cropland from corn to higher-yield biofuel crops like miscanthus or switchgrass.
Hurricane Irene: Scientists collect water quality and climate change data from huge storm
While Hurricane Irene had officials along the East Coast preparing for mass evacuations, scientists at the Stroud Water Research Center and the University of Delaware were grabbing their best data collection tools and heading straight for the storm's path.
Fear of 'gray tsunami' overblown: UBC research
Fears that Canada's aging population could lead to skyrocketing health care costs and doctor shortages may be greatly exaggerated.
St. Michael's echocardiology lab awarded international seal of approval
The Echocardiography and Vascular Laboratory at St. Michael's Hospital has been recognized for its commitment to quality patient care and testing for heart and vascular disease.
Potential benefits of remote follow-up of ICD patients
Results from the EVATEL (EVAluation of TELe follow-up) trial are the first in Europe to demonstrate potential safety and efficacy benefits from the remote follow-up of ICD patients.
Panda poop may be a treasure trove of microbes for making biofuels
Panda poop contains bacteria with potent effects in breaking down plant material in the way needed to tap biomass as a major new source of
Virginia Tech researcher to study wireless network incompatibility issues, improve service
Yaling Yanag will systematically and rigorously categorize and analyze coexistence restrictions of cross-layer designs in wireless networks and intends to create restriction-compliant protocol designs.
New microscope might see beneath skin in 4-D
Other devices can take 3-D pictures of tissue below the surface of skin, but this new microscope adds an extra dimension: a spectroscopic
Scientists find new drug candidates for set of protein-folding diseases
Collaborating researchers at Stanford University and the Scripps Research Institute have identified chemical compounds that show promise as potential therapeutics for a set of medical conditions caused by the abnormal clumping together of a protein known as transthyretin.
Alley to receive first Schneider Award
Richard B. Alley, Evan Pugh Professor of Geosciences, Penn State, will be the first recipient of the Stephen H.
Playing highly competitive video games may lead to aggressive behavior
While most research into video games and aggressive behavior has focused on violent games, competitiveness may be the main video game characteristic that influences aggression, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.
It's official -- chocolate linked to heart health
High levels of chocolate consumption might be associated with a one third reduction in the risk of developing heart disease, finds a study published on bmj.com today.
Clinical outcomes in PCI patients given sirolimus-eluting and everolimus-eluting stents
The second generation drug-eluting stent, everolimus-eluting stent (EES), has consistently demonstrated superior clinical outcomes in randomised controlled trials over the first generation drug-eluting stent, paclitaxel-eluting stent.
The American Ceramic Society selects Marshall, Niihara as 2011 Distinguish Life Members
ACerS selects Marshall, Niihara as 2011 Distinguish Life Members.
Leisure-time physical activity increases the risk of atrial fibrillation in men
A Norwegian survey carried out between 1974 and 2003 showed that there was a graded independent increase in the risk of AF with increasing levels of physical activity in a population-based study among men with ostensibly no other heart disease.
Groundbreaking health informatics book shows health-care infrastructure solutions
University of Illinois professor Bruce Schatz, a faculty member at the Institute for Genomic Biology, has co-authored a groundbreaking book on Health Informatics, based on his popular computer science course.
Cycling fast: vigorous daily exercise recommended for a longer life
A study conducted among cyclists in Copenhagen, Denmark showed that it is the relative intensity and not the duration of cycling which is of most importance in relation to all-cause mortality and even more pronounced for coronary heart disease mortality.
Vaccine linked to 'bleeding calf syndrome'
Research published in BioMed Central's open access journal Veterinary Research links bleeding calf syndrome to anti-MHC class I antibodies, produced by the mother in response to contamination of vaccine against Bovine viral diarrhea virus with proteins released by the production process.
Wayne State start-up company NextCAT awarded nearly $500,000 from NSF for Phase II SBIR
NextCAT, Inc., a Wayne State University startup company, has received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award from the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the amount of $498,830.
Scientists put a new spin on traditional information technology
Is it time for a communications paradigm shift? Scientists calculate that encoding and sending information via electron spin, instead of voltage changes, may mean tiny chips could transmit more information and consume less power.
New perspectives on sensory mechanisms
The latest perspectives in General Physiology series examines the mechanisms of visual, aural, olfactory and tactile processes that inform us about the environment.
Bilingual babies' vocabulary linked to early brain differentiation
Researchers at the University of Washington are investigating the brain mechanisms that contribute to infants' prowess at learning languages, with the hope that the findings could boost bilingualism in adults, too.
STOP-VT: A multi-center trial to evaluate catheter RF ablation with magnetic navigation for ischemic ventricular tachycardia
Results from the STOP-VT Study (Study to Obliterate Persistent Ventricular Tachycardia) were presented at the ESC Congress 2011 today.
Discontinuation of smokeless tobacco after myocardial infarction linked to improved survival
In this prospective cohort study, presented today at the ESC Congress 2011, discontinuation of smokeless tobacco after a myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with a lower risk of subsequent mortality.
MRI predicts survival in locally advanced rectal cancer
Summary of study being published online Aug. 29, 2011, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology finding that using MRI prior to surgery to gauge the effectiveness of pre-surgery treatment for advanced rectal cancer correlates with both overall and disease-free survival
UCLA memory fitness program improves memory abilities of oldest adults
A new UCLA study has found that a memory fitness program offered to older adults in their senior living communities helped improve their ability to recognize and recall words, benefiting their verbal learning and retention.
How an 'evolutionary playground' brings plant genes together
Plants produce a vast array of natural products, many of which we find useful for making things such as drugs.
Differences in cell response could explain higher rates of hypertension in African-Americans
Kinesiology professor Michael Brown has found that differences in the way African-American cells respond to inflammation could be a cause of higher rates of hypertension among this group.
University of Houston hosts book symposium on 'Making War and Minting Christians,' Sept. 8
The University of Houston department of history will host a symposium featuring a new book by UH professor Todd Romero,
Aging authorities differ on tweaks to Social Security's benefit structure
Experts agree that financial constraints and an aging population will require America to modify its Social Security system, but some also find that pushing back the eligibility age could be a major concern for those who rely on the program the most.
Putting the squeeze on fruit with 'pascalization' boosts healthful antioxidant levels
Scientists are reporting new evidence that a century-old food preservation technology, finding a new life amid 21st century concerns about food safety and nutrition, more than doubles the levels of certain healthful natural antioxidants in fruit.
New salts for chemical soups
Organozinc reagents are an important class of organometallic compounds with a wide range of applications.
Time trends in STEMI -- improved treatment and outcome but gender gap persists
In spite of an increased attention to gender differences in treatment of myocardial infarctions, focus on adherence to guidelines and a change in predominant therapy, the gender difference in treatment and mortality regarding the big infarctions -- STEMI -- has not diminished from 1998-2000 to 2004-2006.
Poor sleep quality increases risk of high blood pressure
A reduced level of dreamless, deep sleep is a powerful predictor for developing high blood pressure in older men.
Research aims to starve breast cancer cells
The most common breast cancer uses the most efficient, powerful food delivery system known in human cells and blocking that system kills it, researchers report.
New discovery sheds light on the ecosystem of young galaxies
A team of scientists, led by Michael Rauch from the Carnegie Observatories, has discovered a distant galaxy that may help elucidate two fundamental questions of galaxy formation: How galaxies take in matter and how they give off energetic radiation.
Foods rich in protein, dairy products help dieters preserve muscle and lose belly fat: study
New research suggests a higher-protein, lower-carbohydrate energy-restricted diet has a major positive impact on body composition, trimming belly fat and increasing lean muscle, particularly when the proteins come from dairy products.

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