Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

September 25, 2011
Salty water and gas sucked into Earth's interior helps unravel planetary evolution
An international team of scientists has provided new insights into the processes behind the evolution of the planet by demonstrating how salty water and gases transfer from the atmosphere into the Earth's interior.

Foam injections for varicose veins better for patients and cheaper, study finds
Foam injections to treat varicose veins cause less pain for patients and could save NHS money compared with a popular alternative treatment, according to researchers at Imperial College London.

City cyclists are at increased risk from lung injury from inhaled soot
People who cycle through London and other major cities have higher levels of black carbon in their airway cells, experts from the UK have shown.

New discoveries in genetics of lung health
Scientists have for the first time discovered sixteen new sections of the genetic code that relate to lung health -- opening up the possibility for better prevention as well as treatment for lung diseases.

Abiraterone acetate improves fatigue in prostate cancer patients, says international clinical trial
Men with prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and that is resistant to hormone therapy suffer less from fatigue if they are treated with a combination of abiraterone acetate and prednisone.

Study puts a new spin on ibuprofen's actions
Ibuprofen, naproxen, and related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) -- the subjects of years of study -- still have some secrets to reveal about how they work.

Bone-strengthening drug gives pain relief in prostate cancer bone metastases
Many prostate cancer patients develop bone metastases, and controlling the pain these cause can be difficult.

Women with breast cancer with no genetic link, are not fully utilizing breast cancer services
Women with a strong family history of breast cancer, but no genetic link, are not consistent in how they perceive their risk or in their efforts to manage the risk, leading some women to not adequately access breast cancer services, a University of Melbourne study has found.

A heart of gold: Better tissue repair after heart attack
A team of physicians, engineers and materials scientists at Children's Hospital Boston and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have used nanotechnology and tiny gold wires to engineer cardiac patches, with cells all beating in time, that could someday help heart attack patients.

Rapid point-of-care CD4 tests significantly reduce patient dropout and almost double
Research in Mozambique has found that the introduction of rapid point-of-care CD4 testing almost halved the number of patients who dropped out before starting antiretroviral therapy, and nearly doubled the number beginning treatment.

Alcohol can reduce asthma risk
Drinking alcohol in moderate quantities can reduce the risk of asthma, according to Danish researchers.

Invasion of genomic parasites triggered modern mammalian pregnancy
Genetic parasites invaded the mammalian genome more than 100 million years ago and dramatically changed the way mammals reproduce -- transforming the uterus in the ancestors of humans and other mammals from the production of eggs to a nurturing home for developing young, a new Yale University study has found.

Breast cancer tumor make-up changes through the course of disease
New research has found that breast cancer tumors change their hormonal status throughout the course of disease, whereas the decision about the most effective treatment for the patient is usually only based on one biopsy of the primary tumor.

Jumping gene enabled key step in corn domestication
In seeking to better understand how teosinte gave rise to corn, a scientific team has pinpointed one of the key genetic changes that paved the way for corn's domestication.

Weizmann Institute scientists discover an organizing principle for our sense of smell
The smell receptors on our olfactory membranes appear to be arranged in a logical pattern -- according to the pleasantness of odors.

Mice stem cells guided into myelinating cells by the trillions
Scientists at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine found a way to rapidly produce pure populations of cells that grow into the protective myelin coating on nerves in mice.

Discovery helps explain why chemo causes drop in platelet numbers
Scientists at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute have identified a way that chemotherapy causes platelet numbers to drop, answering in the process a decade-old question about the formation of platelets, tiny cells that allow blood to clot.

Feathered friends are far from bird-brained when building nests
Nest-building is not just instinctive but is a skill that birds learn from experience, research suggests.

Smaller, faster trials can improve cancer patient survival
Gains in cancer survival over the long term could be improved by running smaller, faster trials with less stringent evidence criteria.

Zoledronic acid reduces the recurrence of breast cancer in post-menopausal women
A trial investigating the use of zoledronic acid to aid chemotherapy for breast cancer has found a significant benefit for post-menopausal women.

'Belly fat' linked to development of asthma
Belly fat, known clinically as central obesity, has been linked to the development of asthma in a new study.

DBS studies show how brain buys time for tough choices
Some people who receive deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease behave impulsively, making quick, often bad, decisions.

Major river basins have enough water to sustainably double food production in the coming decades
While water-related conflicts and shortages abound throughout the rapidly changing societies of Africa, Asia and Latin America, there is clearly sufficient water to sustain food, energy, industrial and environmental needs during the 21st century, according to two special issues of the peer-reviewed journal, Water International, released today at the XIV World Water Congress.

New hope for advanced post-menopausal breast cancer patients resistant to hormonal therapy
Results from a Phase III clinical trial have shown that combining two existing cancer drugs to treat post-menopausal women with advanced breast cancer resistant to hormonal therapy significantly improves outcome.

New diagnostic imaging for lung cancer could prevent unnecessary surgery
A new type of diagnostic imaging -- which can better differentiate benign lung lesions from those which are cancerous -- could be used to prevent unnecessary surgery by enabling more accurate diagnosis of the disease.

Aromatase inhibitor letrozole guards against breast cancer relapse for up to 8 years
Results from the longest-running trial comparing tamoxifen with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole show unequivocally that letrozole continues to prevent breast cancer recurrences and reduce the risk of death in post-menopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer.

Rogue receptor opens door for rare kidney disease
Effects of a particularly devastating human kidney disease may be blunted by making a certain cellular protein receptor much less receptive, according to new research by scientists from North Carolina State University and a number of French universities and hospitals.
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