Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 06, 2011
Distinct AIDS viruses found in cerebrospinal fluid of people with HIV dementia
Scientists led by researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine have discovered that some people diagnosed with HAD have two genetically distinct HIV types in their cerebrospinal fluid, the clear fluid found in the spaces around and inside the brain and spinal cord.

Is chivalry the norm for insects?
The long-standing consensus of why insects stick together after mating has been turned on its head by scientists from the University of Exeter.

Concern over accuracy of suicide rates in England and Wales
The increasing use of

Study first to link mitochondrial dysfunction and alpha-Synuclein multiplication in human fibroblasts
A new study in the Journal of Parkinson's Disease shows for the first time the effects of alpha-Synuclein gene multiplication on mitochondrial function and susceptibility to oxidative stress in human tissue.

Crab pulsar dazzles astronomers with its gamma-ray beams
A thousand years ago, a brilliant beacon of light blazed in the sky, shining brightly enough to be seen even in daytime for almost a month.

Mine-hunting software helping doctors to identify rare cells in human cancer
Medical researchers are demonstrating that Office of Naval Research-funded software developed for finding and recognizing undersea mines can help doctors identify cancer-related cells.

More insight into the secret life of the American teen
UCLA researchers have found that when adolescents argue, with friends, it can spillover and turn into arguments with family.

Vectors of bluetongue get a name
Scientists of the Antwerp Institute of Tropical Medicine have developed a molecular technique to easily and dependably identify the biting midges that spread bluetongue disease.

Place, not race, may be a larger determinant of health disparities
Racial differences in social environments explained a significant portion of disparities typically found in national data.

A living species of aquatic beetle found in 20-million-year-old sediments
A study of an Early Miocene fossil from southern Siberia performed by an international team of researchers, from the National Museum in Prague, Voronezh State University and the Museum of Natural History in London, led to the surprising find that the fossil belongs to a species of aquatic beetles which is still alive today and widely distributed in Eurasia.

Earlier male circumcision may help to slow rates of HIV, HPV transmission in South Africa
According to Anna R. Giuliano, Ph.D., program leader in cancer epidemiology at Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, Fla., and colleagues in the Netherlands, earlier circumcision of males in South Africa may be a positive step in slowing the spread of both HIV and the human papillomavirus.

Sniffing out the brain's predictive power
In the moments before you

Biophysical Society names 2012 Distinguished Service and Emily Gray awardees
The Biophysical Society is pleased to announce the recipients of the 2012 Distinguished Service Award and the Emily M.

Chagas disease may be a threat in South Texas, says researcher
Chagas disease, a tropical parasitic disease that can lead to life-threatening heart and digestive disorders, may be more widespread in Texas than previously thought, according to research from the University of Texas at Austin.

The short goodbye: Weaning foals
How weaning takes place can have a dramatic effect on the length of time required to overcome the shock of separation.

Southern California's tectonic plates revealed in detail
Geologists at Brown University have produced the most detailed picture of southern California's lithosphere, which is crucial to understanding the geological forces that shaped the area.

Children find human-made objects more likely to be owned than natural objects
Children as young as three are likely to say that things made by humans have owners, but that natural objects, such as pine cones and sea shells, are not owned, according to a new study published by the American Psychological Association.

Ancient gene found to control potent antibody response to retroviruses
A researcher at MIT's Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer research has identified a gene that controls the process by which antibodies gain their ability to combat retroviruses.

Ionic liquid catalyst helps turn emissions into fuel
An Illinois research team has succeeded in overcoming one major obstacle to artificial photosynthesis, a promising technology that simultaneously reduces atmospheric carbon dioxide and produces fuel.

Ability to ride a bike can aid differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in any setting
In a new study published today in the Journal of Parkinson's Disease, Japanese researchers report that the ability to ride a bike can differentiate between atypical parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease, regardless of the environment or situations for bicycling.

ASU embarks on next phase of an effort to rapidly assess radiation dose
Arizona State University has announced today it is entering the next phase of a multi-million, multi-institutional research project to develop technologies that would rapidly measure an individual's level of exposure to radiation in the event of a radiological or nuclear incident.

Timing is crucial for family consent in brain dead organ donors
Hearts used in transplants can only be sourced from donors that are brain dead before circulation to their heart has ceased.

Iowa State researchers help detect very-high-energy gamma rays from Crab pulsar
Iowa State University researchers helped design and build the $20 million instrument that allowed astrophysicists to discover the first very-high-energy gamma rays from a pulsar.

UNH researchers: Multibeam sonar can map undersea gas seeps
A technology commonly used to map the bottom of the deep ocean can also detect gas seeps in the water column with remarkably high fidelity, according to scientists from the University of New Hampshire and NOAA.

US ITER contract awarded for ITER early delivery cooling water system equipment
The US ITER Project Office at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has awarded a $13.2 million task order to AREVA Federal Services for fabrication of five drain tanks for the ITER tokamak cooling water system.

A 3-D look at Philippe provided clues of transition into a hurricane
Tropical Storm Philippe took its time to strengthen into a hurricane because of wind shear problems.

Dioxin-like chemical messenger makes brain tumors more aggressive
A research alliance of Heidelberg University Hospital and the German Cancer Research Center, jointly with colleagues of the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research in Leipzig, have discovered a new metabolic pathway which makes malignant brain tumors more aggressive and weakens patients' immune systems.

Incompatible assumptions common in biomedical research
Strong, incompatible views are common in biomedicine but are largely invisible to biomedical experts themselves, creating artificial barriers to effective modeling of complex biological phenomena.

Chlamydia utilizes Trojan horse tactics to infect cells
A novel mechanism has been identified in which Chlamydia trachomatis tricks host cells into taking up the bacteria.

Older cancer survivor population to increase substantially
Over the next decade, the population of cancer survivors over 65 years of age will increase by approximately 42 percent.

New data-mining effort launched to study mental disorders
Chicago will be home to a new $13.75 million project that will apply data mining methods to better understand the genetic and environmental factors behind neuropsychiatric disorders.

Crab Pulsar emits light at highest energies ever detected in a pulsar system, scientists report
An international collaboration of scientists has detected the highest energy gamma rays ever observed from a pulsar, a highly magnetized and rapidly spinning neutron star.

FSU biologists fish for reasons behind endangered grouper's comeback
In the waters along Florida's east and west coasts, Florida State University marine biologists are collecting new data on the once severely overfished Atlantic goliath grouper, a native species that is making a comeback in the southeastern United States after a 21-year moratorium on its capture while remaining critically endangered everywhere else in the world.

Researchers find race disparity in post-hospital arrival homicide deaths at trauma centers
New research based on post-hospital arrival data from US trauma centers finds that even after adjusting for differences in injury severity, gun use, and other likely causes of race difference in death from assault, African-Americans have a significantly higher overall post-scene of injury mortality rate than whites.

Decade of effort yields diabetes susceptibility gene
Ten years of meticulous mouse breeding, screening, and record-keeping have finally paid off for Alan Attie and his lab members.

Friends and family as responsible as health-care professionals for personal health, global survey
Globally, people believe that friends and family have as much responsibility for their personal health as their health-care providers, according to the Edelman Health Barometer 2011.

Young and thin instead of old and bulky
In the central Arctic the proportion of old, thick sea ice has declined significantly.

Lab receives $3 million for BioAMS instrument
Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently received $3 million from the National Institutes of Health to acquire a new biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry instrument.

Nuclear receptors battle it out during metamorphosis in new fruit fly model
Growing up just got more complicated. Thomas Jefferson University biochemistry researchers have shown for the first time that the receptor for a major insect molting hormone doesn't activate and repress genes as once thought.

Diabetes susceptibility gene identified: Tomosyn-2 regulates insulin secretion
A group of researchers from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, has pinpointed a gene that confers diabetes susceptibility in obese mice.

Marijuana use may double the risk of accidents for drivers
A study by Columbia University researchers found that drivers who test positive for marijuana or report driving within three hours of marijuana use are more than twice as likely as other drivers to be involved in motor vehicle crashes.

New method to diagnose sinusitis could reduce use of antibiotics
A new method of diagnosing sinusitis is presented in a new thesis from Lund University.

Hold the phone for vital signs
Worcester Polytechnic Institute researcher Ki Chon is turning smartphones into sophisticated medical monitors able to capture and transmit vital physiological data.

Length of flanking repeat region and timing affect genetic material
In a report published online in the American Journal of Human Genetics, Dr.

NIH launches research program to explore health effects from climate change
A new research program funded by the National Institutes of Health will explore the role that a changing climate has on human health.

ESA To Collaborate with NASA on Solar Science Mission
On October 4, 2011, the European Space Agency announced it's two next science missions, including Solar Orbiter, a spacecraft geared to study the powerful influence of the sun.

Marijuana component could ease pain from chemotherapy drugs
A chemical component of the marijuana plant could prevent the onset of pain associated with drugs used in chemotherapy, particularly in breast cancer patients.

NIST colleagues congratulate Shechtman on Nobel Chemistry Prize
National Institute of Standards and Technology colleagues of Daniel Shechtman have joined others in the scientific community in congratulating him on winning the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Crab pulsar beams most energetic gamma rays ever detected from a pulsar
Astrophysicists have detected pulsed gamma-ray emission from the Crab pulsar at energies far beyond what current theoretical models of pulsars can explain.

Everest expedition suggests nitric oxide benefits for intensive care patients
Joint research from the University of Warwick and UCL shows how research from an Everest expedition looking at the affect of altitude on the body could herald a change in emergency treatment for patients suffering from hypoxia.

Altering present criteria for matching donors and recipients could improve transplant survival
Selecting better matched recipients and donors than is currently required for umbilical-cord blood transplantation could substantially reduce transplant-related deaths.

How fair sanctions are orchestrated in the brain
Scientists from the universities of Zurich and Basel reveal that two frontal regions of the brain need to interact with one another when people punish unfair partners at their own expense.

'Genetic biopsy' of human eggs might help pick the best for IVF
Researchers at Brown University and Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island have developed a way to extract information about gene expression from fertile human egg cells without hurting them.

Astrophysicists spot pulsed radiation from Crab Nebula that wasn't supposed to be there
The VERITAS array of telescopes has detected pulsed gamma rays from the pulsar at the heart of the Crab Nebula that have energies far higher than the common theoretical models can explain.

Australia's endangered bettong reveals how weather effects species distribution
Australian scientists studying the reliability of species distribution models for revealing the response of animals to climate change have focused their research on the endangered marsupial, the northern bettong.

$6.3 million center at UCSF and UC Davis seeks ways to diagnose and prevent osteoarthritis
Funded by a $6.3 million grant from the National Institutes of Health, a new translational research center at the University of California, San Francisco Medical Center and the University of California, Davis will bring together radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, rheumatologists, laboratory scientists, mathematicians and physical therapists under one umbrella with a single purpose: finding new tools for predicting and preventing osteoarthritis in young people and improving care and outcomes for the tens of millions of American adults already suffering from the disease.

National Museum of the American Indian awarded prestigious LEED Green Building Certification
The Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian announced that it has been awarded a LEED Silver rating established by the US Green Building Council and verified by the Green Building Certification Institute.

Detecting glaucoma before it blinds
Early detection and diagnosis of open angle glaucoma important so that treatment can be used in the early stages of the disease developing to prevent or avoid further vision loss.

Carnegie Mellon announces Liskov and Klemmer will receive Katayanagi Prizes in Computer Science
Barbara Liskov, a pioneer in programming languages and distributed systems, and Scott Klemmer, whose human-centered approach is changing the way online systems are designed, are recipients of the fourth annual Katayanagi Prizes in Computer Science.

Scientists identify cause of severe hypoglycemia
Cambridge scientists have identified the cause of a rare, life-threatening form of hypoglycemia.

Labor or conservative? It's all in the eye of the beholder
Scientists have uncovered specific facial characteristics which make MPs look like they belong to one of the two major political parties in Britain.

Study finds liver cancer increasing in low risk countries, decreasing in high risk countries
A new study finds liver cancer incidence rates continue to increase in some low-risk parts of the world such as North America, and are decreasing in some of the highest risk countries of Asia.

Genetic makeup affects testosterone concentrations in men
Genetics play an important role in the variation in, and risk of, low testosterone concentrations in men.

Expression of pluripotency-associated gene marks many types of adult stem cells
Investigators at the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Regenerative Medicine and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute have found that Sox2 -- one of the transcription factors used in the conversion of adult stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells -- is expressed in many adult tissues where it had not been previously observed and that Sox2-expressing cells in those tissues are true adult stem cells that can give rise to all mature cell types in those tissues.

Biophysical Society announces 2012 Society Fellows
The Biophysical Society is delighted to announce its 2012 Society Fellows.

UM Rosenstiel School professor named Fellow of American Meteorological Society
University of Miami Professor and Oceanographer, Lynn

Neural stem cell transplant may tackle diabetes
Researchers in Japan have discovered how a patient's neural stem cells could be used as an alternative source of the beta cells needed for a regenerative treatment for diabetes.

Plant genomes may help next generation respond to climate change
Plants may have the genetic flexibility to respond to climate change.

Study uncovers why anti-rejection drugs for transplant patients cause hypertension
A group of researchers led by scientists at Oregon Health & Science University has discovered the process that may be causing side effects caused by the anti-rejection drugs given to organ transplant patients.

Biochemists identify how tissue cells detect and perfect
Scientists have discovered how cells detect tissue damage and modify their repair properties accordingly.

Bone marrow cells migrate to tumors and can slow their growth
Bone marrow-derived cells participate in the growth and spread of tumors of the breast, brain, lung, and stomach.

People without cars, financial assets less likely to marry: study
A study published this week in the American Journal of Sociology finds that people who lack personal wealth in the form of a car or financial assets are significantly less likely to enter into a first marriage.

Lithium-sulfur battery research receives $5 million from DOE
High energy density batteries that significantly reduce size and improve performance and cell life is the goal of the lithium-sulfur cell technology project led by Penn State and funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

Why does conflict arise when social identity is threatened?
Be it at school, office, the neighborhood or the community people live in, conflicting situations amongst various groups might arise on an almost day to day basis.

The book will never die: Springer to offer book content back
Springer Science+Business Media has started its extensive digitization project, Springer Book Archives.

Archaeologist argues world's oldest temples were not temples at all
Ancient structures uncovered in Turkey and thought to be the world's oldest temples may not have been strictly religious buildings after all, according to an article in the October issue of Current Anthropology.

University of North Carolina cardiologist named 2012 Judah Folkman Award recipient
Cam Patterson, MD, MBA, division chief of cardiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine has been named the recipient of the 2012 North America Vascular Biology Association Judah Folkman Award in Vascular Biology.

How cells sense nutrients and fuel cancer cell growth
mTORC1 is a master control center coordinates many cellular functions by sensing external signals such as nutrients and growth factors and telling cells how to respond.

Study suggests children's food choices are affected by direct advertising and parental influence
Directly advertising food items to children worries many parents and health care providers, and the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychological Association have expressed concern about the negative impact of advertising on children's healthy food choices.

Astronomers find elusive planets in decade-old Hubble data
In a painstaking re-analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images from 1998, astronomers have found visual evidence for two extrasolar planets that went undetected back then.

FDA and NIH announce joint study on tobacco use and risk perceptions
The US Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of Health today announced a joint, large-scale, national study of tobacco users to monitor and assess the behavioral and health impacts of new government tobacco regulations.

Rutgers-affiliated company receives funding for technology to help choose breast cancer treatments
The National Institutes of Health has awarded a Rutgers-affiliated company $207,000 to develop a quick and economical analysis of tissue from breast cancer biopsies.

International partners improve cattle here and in South Africa
A US Department of Agriculture scientist has developed a partnership with colleagues in South Africa that is improving prospects for cattle breeders in that African nation -- and could improve them for breeders around the world.

Among insects, 'chivalry' isn't dead
Some male crickets will apparently put the lives of their mating partners ahead of their own.

Workplace sabotage fueled by envy, unleashed by disengagement: UBC research
University of British Columbia research shows that managers should keep team members connected and engaged to avoid workplace sabotage.

Photo gallery: Applied Optics special issue on 'Light and Color in the Open Air'
Nature creates countless stunning optical phenomena. When captured as images, these phenomena also reveal important scientific insights into the properties of light under normal and extreme natural conditions.

Hear live webcast tonight of top NJIT awardee detailing future of nanotechnology
NJIT Electrical Engineering Professor Haim Grebel, who will be honored tonight by NJIT for his research, will speak in a free, live webcast about the future of nanotechnology and his research.

Extending the effective lifetime of stents
Implanted stents can reopen obstructed arteries, but regrowth of cells into the vessel wall can entail restenosis.

Pregnant mothers at risk from air pollution
A California-based study has looked in detail at air quality and the impact of traffic-related air pollution on premature birth.

Preschool program improves standardized test scores through grade 5
Continued participation in the Harrisburg Preschool Program has led fifth-grade students to score higher on Pennsylvania System of School Assessment literacy and math tests than peers who have not participated in the HPP program, according to the final evaluation of the HPP initiative by the Prevention Research Center at Penn State.

Scripps Research scientists find stem cell reprogramming technique is safer than previously thought
Stem cells made by reprogramming patients' own cells might one day be used as therapies for a host of diseases, but scientists have feared that dangerous mutations within these cells might be caused by current reprogramming techniques.

Office of Naval Research cultivates next generation of talent at Hispanic Engineering Conference
Students will gain new insights about science and technology opportunities with the Department of the Navy at the Hispanic Engineer National Achievement Awards Corporation's 2011 Career Conference, Oct.

Changes in brain function in early HIV infection: A reliable indicator of disease prognosis?
Measurable changes in brain function and communication between brain regions may be a consequence of virus-induced injury during the early stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

NASA's Aqua satellite sees birth of two tropical cyclones in Eastern Pacific
The tropics in the eastern Pacific were quiet for a couple of days after Hurricane Hilary dissipated, and today gave birth to Tropical Depression 10 and Tropical Storm Irwin.

Virtual institutes to support the scientific collaborations of the future
The National Science Foundation today announced Science Across Virtual Institutes, an effort to motivate collaboration among scientists and educators around the globe to spur scientific discovery.
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