Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

October 17, 2011
Bacteria associated with stomach ulcers not detected in enlarged adenoids in children
Bacteria that cause stomach inflammation and ulcers were not detectable in tissue from inflamed and enlarged adenoids in children, according to a report in the October issue of Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Immune peacekeepers discovered
There are more bacteria living on our skin and in our gut than cells in our body.

JCI online early table of contents: Oct. 17, 2011
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, October 17, 2011, in the JCI: Broccoli-based compound beats drug resistance in lung disease; Linking high levels of blood glucose to complications of diabetes; The bell Toll's for asthma; How to enhance the immune response to HIV; Inhibiting the protein calpain: a breath of fresh air in pulmonary hypertension; and others.

BIDMC gerontologist Sharon K. Inouye, M.D., M.P.H., elected to Institute of Medicine
Sharon K. Inouye, M.D., M.P.H., a faculty member in the Division of Gerontology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Director of the Aging Brain Center in the Institute for Aging Research at Hebrew SeniorLife and professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, has been elected to the Institute of Medicine.

UT professor elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies
George Georgiou, a professor at the University of Texas at Austin whose technology developments in the engineering, medical, biochemical and cellular fields could help treat tens of thousands of patients with diseases such as cancer and osteoporosis, has been elected as a member of the Institute of Medicine.

Clustered hurricanes reduce impact on ecosystems
New research has found that hurricane activity is

Marjorie A. Perry receives NJIT Alumni Achievement Award
Marjorie Perry, president and CEO of MZM Construction and Management, a Newark-based company, recently received one of six annual NJIT Alumni Achievement Awards.

Low birthweight infants five times more likely to have autism
Autism researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing have found a link between low birthweight and children diagnosed with autism, reporting premature infants are five times more likely to have autism than children born at normal weight.

Teachers, children mistake candy for medicine in study
More than one in four kindergarten children, and one in five teachers, had difficulty distinguishing between medicine and candy in new research conducted by two, now seventh-grade students, who presented their findings on Monday, Oct.

Independent research teams identify first infectious agent associated with colon cancer
For the first time, a specific microorganism has been found to be associated with human colorectal cancer.

Battery research: Bionics reduces filling time
The latest development by engineers of KIT is inspired by nature.

Chinese-Americans don't overborrow, MU study finds
Rui Yao, an assistant professor of personal financial planning in the College of Human Environmental Sciences at the University of Missouri, found that while 72 percent of Chinese-American households hold a mortgage, only five percent of those households have outstanding auto loans, and only three percent have any other type of consumer debt.

High rate of false-positives with annual mammogram
During a decade of receiving mammograms, more than half of cancer-free women will be among those summoned back for more testing because of false-positive results, and about one in 12 will be referred for a biopsy.

Avoiding bias in medical research
A new statistical approach to address the problem of bias in self-reporting has been developed by a team at Washington State University in Pullman.

Amorphous diamond, a new super-hard form of carbon created under ultrahigh pressure
A new form of carbon that rivals diamonds in its hardness, but has an amorphous structure similar to glass, has been produced under ultrahigh pressure in laboratory experiments.

Pilot study looks at medication safety in US homes
Nearly 30 percent of homes with young children have acetaminophen products stored unsafely, and nearly all homes included at least one expired medication, according to a research abstract presented Monday, Oct.

Bioengineering to repair and generate healthy skin
Scientists at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid are participating in research to study how to make use of the potential for auto regeneration of stem skills from skin, in order to create, in the laboratory, a patient's entire cutaneous surface by means of a combination of biological engineering and tissue engineering techniques.

Caltech awarded $12.6 million for new Institute for Quantum Information and Matter
The California Institute of Technology has been awarded $12.6 million in funding over the next five years by the National Science Foundation to create a new Physics Frontiers Center.

Pediatric cancer and palliative care: parental preferences compared with health-care professionals
Parents of children in the palliative stage of cancer favour aggressive chemotherapy over supportive care compared with health care professionals, states an article in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Women, men and the bedroom
In the racy television hit show,

Muscling toward a longer life: Genetic aging pathway identified in flies
Researchers have identified a set of genes that act in muscles to modulate aging and resistance to stress in fruit flies.

NJIT researcher testing micro-electronic stimulators for spinal cord injuries
A new wireless device to help victims of spinal cord injury is receiving attention in the research community.

Study identifies scenarios that precede at-home pool drownings of young children
Very young children who live in a home with a swimming pool are at risk of drowning, a leading cause of injury death among toddlers.

Some hair professionals report looking for skin cancer lesions on customers' scalp, neck and face
In a survey of hair professionals, some reported that they look at customers' face, scalp and neck for suspicious skin lesions, according to a report in the October issue of Archives of Dermatology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

2011 a banner year for young striped bass in Virginia
Preliminary results from a 2011 survey conducted by researchers at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) reveal a strong class of young-of-year striped bass will enter Chesapeake Bay's adult population in 2012.

Caresses enjoyable vicariously, too
It is well-known that we humans enjoy sensual caresses, but the brain reacts just as strongly to seeing another person being caressed, reveals research from the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

New provincial atlas; information on lab testing key to managing diabetes among Albertans
A report released by the Alberta Diabetes Surveillance System shows a need for more teamwork among patients and their health-care providers and more effective use of medical records to aid Albertans with getting the laboratory tests necessary to help manage and prevent long-term complications of the disease.

$10 million grant supports biological sciences team at University of Nevada, Reno
A multi-disciplinary 5-year project at the University of Nevada, Reno and University of Nevada School of Medicine has received $10 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health.

Researchers discover that same gene has opposite effects in prostate, breast cancers
Researchers at Cleveland Clinic have discovered that a gene - known as an androgen receptor (AR) - is found in both prostate and breast cancers yet has opposite effects on these diseases.

Hebrew SeniorLife's Dr. Sharon K. Inouye elected to Institute of Medicine
The Institute for Aging Research at Hebrew SeniorLife today announced Sharon K.

Joslin study finds clue to birth defects in babies of mothers with diabetes
In a paper published today in Diabetologia, a team at Joslin Diabetes Center, headed by Mary R.

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease appear to be at increased risk for post-operative DVT, PE
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease undergoing surgery may be more likely to develop deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism following surgical procedures, according to a study published Online First by Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Multiple riders, lack of helmet use, and faster ATVs contribute to pediatric injuries
Two research abstracts, presented on Monday, Oct. 17 at the American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference and Exhibition in Boston, provide insights into the potential causes of ATV crashes as well as much-needed safety precautions.

Laboratory on wheels
Electric and hybrid vehicles will be conquering the cities: cars, bicycles, buses and trains.

Examining rice genes for rice blast resistance
US Department of Agriculture scientists have characterized the molecular mechanism behind some plants' ability to resist rice blast, a fungal disease that affects cereal grain crops such as rice, wheat, rye and barley and can cause yield losses of up to 30 percent.

More surgery in early-stage laryngeal cancer treatment; more chemoradiation for advanced-stage
The use of surgery to treat early-stage laryngeal cancer is increasing in the United States, and chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy is being used increasingly to treat patients in an advanced stage of the disease, according to a report in the October issue of Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Low-income dads support breastfeeding
Preliminary research suggests that fathers of low-income children support breastfeeding but are unsure how to influence or help their child's mother (their partner) with breastfeeding, according to new research presented Monday, Oct.

Low birthweight infants have five times rate of autism
Autism researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing have found a link between low birthweight and children diagnosed with autism, reporting premature infants are five times more likely to have autism than children born at normal weights.

Embargoed news from Annals of Internal Medicine
Below is information about articles being published in the Oct.

Sea levels will continue to rise for 500 years
Rising sea levels in the coming centuries is perhaps one of the most catastrophic consequences of rising temperatures.

New national research center for bowel disease in London will be a UK first
A national research center for bowel disease is to be set up in London to bring the Cinderella area of medicine to the forefront of surgical innovation.

Incidence of non-fatal pediatric firearm injuries in the US higher than previously estimated
From 1999 to 2007, there were 185,950 emergency department visits in the U.S. for firearm injuries in children aged 0 to 19 years.

Undergoing bariatric surgery associated with obese family members adopting healthier lifestyles
Having an obese family member undergo gastric bypass surgery for weight loss appears to be associated with additional benefits of weight loss and improved healthy behaviors of obese family members, according to a report in the October issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

Tree-dwelling animals were the first to fly, new research suggests
A six-legged, 25 gram robot has been fitted with flapping wings in order to gain an insight into the evolution of early birds and insects.

Salk breathes new life into fight against primary killer of premature infants
A discovery by scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies might explain why some premature infants fail to respond to existing treatments for a deadly respiratory distress syndrome and offers clues for new ways to treat the breathing disorder.

Could hypertension drugs help people with Alzheimer's?
A University of Bristol study has looked at whether certain types of drugs used to treat high blood pressure, also called hypertension, might have beneficial effects in reducing the number of new cases of Alzheimer's disease each year.

Researchers find possible link between bacterium and colon cancer
Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Broad Institute have found strikingly high levels of a bacterium in colorectal cancers, a sign that it might contribute to the disease and potentially be a key to diagnosing, preventing, and treating it.

The value of subjective and objective evaluations of teacher effectiveness
A study conducted by Columbia Business School's Jonah Rockoff, which was recently published in Labor Economics, found that subjective evaluations are comparable with and complementary to objective measures of teacher effectiveness taken from a teacher's first year in the classroom.

Antiviral drugs may slow Alzheimer's progression
Antiviral drugs used to target the herpes virus could be effective at slowing the progression of Alzheimer's disease, a new study shows.

Malaria elimination maps highlight progress and prospects
A new global atlas charts prospects for malaria elimination by offering the first full-color, detailed depiction of a disease now declining in many parts of the globe.

Act now to tackle the health and security threat of climate change, say experts
Climate change poses an immediate, grave and escalating threat to the health and security of people around the globe and must be tackled urgently, warned leading experts at a high-level meeting hosted by the BMJ in London today.

Canada needs to adopt a national suicide prevention strategy
Canada needs to adopt a national suicide prevention strategy, and physicians can play a key role in the strategy, states an analysis in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) (pre-embargo link only) http://www.cmaj.ca/site/embargo/cmaj111008.pdf.

Good housekeeping maintains a healthy liver
Differences in the levels of two key metabolic enzymes may explain why some people are more susceptible to liver damage, according to a study in the Oct.

50 years of cereal leaf beetle management research
A new, open-access article in the Journal of Integrated Pest Management provides a review of cereal leaf beetle biology, past and present management practices, and current research being conducted.

Peggy Lillis Foundation honors Dr. Sherwood Gorbach for career combating C. diff infection
The Peggy Lillis Memorial Foundation will present Dr. Sherwood Gorbach with an achievement award at their annual benefit to recognize his nearly four decades of visionary research and pursuit of new treatments for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection.

Genomic sequence and comparison of 2 macaques reveal new insights into biomedical research
The South China Center for Innovative Pharmaceuticals, Sun Yat-Sen University, and BGI, the world's largest genomic organization, announced that they were among the research organizations from China, the US and the UK comprising an international research group that completed the genome sequence and comparison of two non-human primate animal models -- the Chinese rhesus macaque and the cynomolgus.

Food without preservatives -- thanks to self-cleaning equipment
Eclairs and other pastries should taste light and fluffy. If the pastry dough contains too many microorganisms, though, it will not rise in the oven.

Nourishing protein slows brain disease
A nourishing protein that promotes the growth of neurons and blood vessels appears to stop the progression of a genetic disease that causes degeneration of the cerebellum, according to new preclinical Northwestern Medicine research.

Hybrid construction vehicle emissions to be analyzed
Scientists at the University of California, Riverside's Center for Environmental Research and Technology have received a $2 million contract for a first-of-its-kind study of hybrid construction vehicles.

Associating your car with your identity can lead to aggressive driving
A new study by a Temple University Fox School of Business professor finds those who view their car as an extension of themselves have stronger aggressive driving tendencies.

Profanity in TV and video games linked to teen aggression
Two-hundred and twenty-three middle school students completed surveys on their aggression, preferred media, time spent viewing media, perceived aggression in their favorite shows and games, beliefs about profanity and profanity use.

UNH: 1 in 4 children exposed to some form of family violence
More than one in four children have been exposed to physical violence between their parents at some time, one in nine of them during the past year, according to new research from the University of New Hampshire Crimes against Children Research Center.

Civil engineer who helped maintain Panama Canal receives NJIT Alum Award
George Nechwort, Sr., has helped to maintain the Panama Canal, supervise construction of pipelines, power plants and refinery process units, and direct major bridge and highway projects.

Links in the chain: Global carbon emissions and consumption
It is difficult to measure accurately each nation's contribution of carbon dioxide to the Earth's atmosphere.

UGA study suggests key to avoiding ankle re-injury may be in the hips and knees
Nearly all active people suffer ankle sprains at some point in their lives, and a new University of Georgia study suggests that the different ways people move their hip and knee joints may influence the risk of re-injury.

Queen's University political studies professor wins Trudeau Fellowship
Queen's University political studies professor John McGarry has been named one of four recipients of the prestigious $225,000 Trudeau Fellowship.

Sleep disruption for breastfed babies is temporary
While breastfed babies initially awaken more during the night for feedings, their sleep patterns -- falling asleep, staying asleep and total sleep time -- stabilize in later infancy and become comparable to non-breastfed babies, according to an abstract presented Monday, Oct.

A team for an emergency
Earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes -- natural disasters always catch us by surprise, no matter how many early warning systems are in place.

Pecan ipmPIPE: Harnessing the Internet for stakeholders in production agriculture
A new, open-access article in the Journal of Integrated Pest Management examines the Pecan Pest Information Platform for Extension and education (PIPE).

New record voltage for organic solar cells opens the tech to consumer electronics
Molecular Solar Ltd., a spinout company from the University of Warwick, has achieved a significant breakthrough in the performance of solar photovoltaic cells.

Robert W. Block, MD, FAAP, addresses the American Academy of Pediatrics
On Monday, Oct. 17, Robert W. Block, MD, FAAP, will begin his new term as the 2011-2012 president of the American Academy of Pediatrics with an address at the AAP National Conference and Exhibition at the Boston Convention & Exhibition Center.

AVS 58th International Symposium and Exhibition: Highlights and media registration
The AVS 58th International Symposium & Exhibition will be held Oct.

Reversing aging
Technology developed by researchers at the University of Texas at Austin could significantly reduce the time and cost to finding a cure for Alzheimer's disease and help answer one of the greatest biological questions: why do we age?

Harvard Medical School launches major initiative to address crisis in drug development
Taking aim at the alarming slowdown in the development of new and lifesaving drugs, Harvard Medical School is launching an Initiative in Systems Pharmacology, a comprehensive strategy to transform drug discovery by convening biologists, chemists, pharmacologists, physicists, computer scientists and clinicians to explore together how drugs work in complex systems.

$1.7 million NIH grant to Wayne State prepares girls to study for health-related fields
Wayne State University faculty are collaborating on a federally funded effort to minimize health disparities nationwide by increasing the number of local high school girls, particularly those of color, who enter college prepared to study health-related science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines.

Dads, community health care workers' roles in supporting low-income moms with breast feeding
Two new studies from University Hospitals Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital highlight some obstacles to increasing the breastfeeding rate in a low-income, inner-city population and identifying methods to address this disparity.

BGU professor receives US National Distinguished International Science Award for substance abuse work
Established in 1995, RADAR's research focuses on substance use and related problems among Israeli and former Soviet Union-origin youth and adults.

Study shows unexpected effect of climate change on body size for many different species
The study by the National University of Singapore shows that organisms from primary producers to top predators are shrinking in size in response to climate change.

Research examines approaches to treating substance abuse among African-Americans
A nationally honored University of Cincinnati doctoral student's research is published this month by the American Psychological Association.

Dark matter mystery deepens
Like all galaxies, our Milky Way is home to a strange substance called dark matter.

New method of growing high-quality graphene promising for next-gen technology
Making waves as the material that will revolutionize electronics, graphene -- composed of a single layer of carbon atoms -- has nonetheless been challenging to produce in a way that will be practical for innovative electronics applications.

Trudeau Institute reports new approach to treating Listeria infections
Research underway at the Trudeau Institute could lead to new treatments for people sickened by Listeria and other sepsis-causing bacteria.

Drug tracked in tissue
When a new drug is developed, the manufacturer must be able to show that it reaches its intended goal in the body's tissue, and only that goal.

Halo effect: Family members of gastric-bypass patients also lose weight, Stanford study finds
Family members of patients who have undergone surgery for weight loss may also shed several pounds themselves, as well as eat healthier and exercise more, according to a new study by researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine.

Genomatix to partner in $41 million European epigenomics consortium
Genomatix is among the 41 partners of the BLUEPRINT epigenome consortium funded by the European Commission as a high-impact project within its seventh framework program.

Meet Concordia's first Trudeau Fellow
As a professor in the Concordia University Department of History, Ronald Rudin's research has examined questions of Quebec and Acadian identity from centuries past.

Gene variant leads to better memory via increased brain activation
Carriers of the so-called KIBRA T allele have better memories than those who don't have this gene variant.

Broccoli-based compound beats drug resistance in lung disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disease that gets progressively worse over time.

Biomarker-guided heart failure treatment significantly reduces complications
Adding regular testing for blood levels of a biomarker of cardiac distress to standard care for the most common form of heart failure may significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular complications, a new study finds.

Protein family key to aging, cancer
A protein linked to aging may act as a tumor suppressor, and loss of this protein leads to gender-specific tumor development in mice, according to research by investigators at Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center and the National Institutes of Health.

Obese women have higher risk of suffering breast cancer
A total of 524 women with breast cancer participated in the study.

New study reinforces need for continued infant sleep campaigns to prevent SIDS
New research reinforces the need for continued public education programs that encourage parents to place their infants to sleep in the supine (back) position in a safe crib or bassinet, to prevent an estimated 4,600 annual Sudden Unintended Infant Deaths, of which 50 percent are classified as Sudden Death Syndrome.

Archaeologists find blade production earlier than originally thought
Dr. Ran Barkai and colleagues at Tel Aviv University reports that large numbers of long, slender cutting tools were discovered at the Qesem Cave outside Tel Aviv.

Farmland floods do not raise levels of potentially harmful flame retardants in milk
As millions of acres of farmland in the US Midwest and South recover from Mississippi River flooding, scientists report that river flooding can increase levels of potentially harmful flame retardants in farm soils.

Wearable depth-sensing projection system makes any surface capable of multitouch interaction
OmniTouch, a wearable projection system developed by researchers at Microsoft Research and Carnegie Mellon University, enables users to turn pads of paper, walls or even their own hands, arms and legs into graphical, interactive surfaces.

Einstein College of Medicine receives $5.7 million for developmental disabilities research
The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, part of the National Institutes of Health, has awarded researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University $5.7 million to fund the Rose F.

Lung cancer patients with diabetes show prolonged survival
Lung cancer patients with diabetes tend to live longer than patients without diabetes, according to a Norwegian study published in the November issue of the Journal of Thoracic Oncology, the official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer.

UT Southwestern biochemist receives new NIH Early Independence Award
Dr. Randal Halfmann, a research scientist at UT Southwestern Medical Center, is one of 10 investigators selected for the first National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director's Early Independence Awards.

Protecting the brain when energy runs low
Researchers from the Universities of Leeds, Edinburgh and Dundee have shed new light on the way that the brain protects itself from harm when 'running on empty.'

Robotic bug gets wings, sheds light on evolution of flight
When UC Berkeley engineers outfitted a six-legged robotic bug with wings in an effort to improve its mobility, they unexpectedly shed some light on the evolution of flight.

US rivers and streams saturated with carbon
Rivers and streams in the United States are releasing enough carbon into the atmosphere to fuel 3.4 million car trips to the moon, according to Yale researchers in Nature Geoscience.

Study shows that new DNA test to identify Down syndrome in pregnancy is ready for clinical use
A new DNA-based prenatal blood test that can strikingly reduce the number of risky diagnostic procedures needed to identify a pregnancy with Down syndrome is ready to be introduced into clinical practice.

University of Nevada, Reno video game project to offer exercise for blind children
A research project at the University of Nevada, Reno has received a $410,220 grant to explore how video exercise games can be played without using visual feedback so the visually impaired, especially adolescents, can improve their health through increased activity.

Omega-3 fatty acids shown to prevent or slow progression of osteoarthritis
New research has shown for the first time that omega-3 in fish oil could

Impurity atoms introduce waves of disorder in exotic electronic material
Scientists reveal how substituting just a few atoms can cause widespread disruption of the delicate electron interactions that give a particular

New research links common RNA modification to obesity
An international research team has discovered that a pervasive human RNA modification provides the physiological underpinning of the genetic regulatory process that contributes to obesity and type II diabetes.

Genetic study of cave millipedes reveals isolated populations and ancient divergence between species
Cave millipedes of the genus Tetracion are found on the southern Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee and Alabama, USA.

Discovery helps explain progression of Lou Gehrig's disease, offers new therapy approach
Researchers have discovered a previously unknown type of neural cell that appears to be closely linked to the progression of amytrophic lateral sclerosis, or Lou Gehrig's disease, that they believe will provide an important new approach to therapies.

Innovation at Regenstrief: Leveraging novel ideas to improve health care
Integrating some of the best new practices of industry into the strengths of the academic research process, the Regenstrief Institute is launching an initiative to encourage and propel innovation.

Study identifies molecules used by certain species of seaweed to harm corals
Scientists for the first time have identified and mapped the chemical structure of molecules used by certain species of marine seaweed to kill or inhibit the growth of reef-building coral.

Protein is potential new treatment target for adult pulmonary hypertension
A protein critical to development appears to have a grave impact on lungs exposed to smoking and air pollution, researchers report.

Futurist Dr. Michio Kaku to deliver keynote address at TCT 2011 in San Francisco, Calif.
Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics is the annual scientific symposium of the Cardiovascular Research Foundation.

Rates of suicide attempts and hospitalizations in children and adolescents
Although children and adolescents in the child welfare system are at increased risk of attempted suicide compared with the general population, rates are highest before they enter care then begin to decline, states an article in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Protein that fuels lethal breast cancer growth emerges as potential new drug target
A protein in the nucleus of breast cancer cells that plays a role in fueling the growth of aggressive tumors may be a good target for new drugs, reports a research team at the Duke Cancer Institute.

Diamonds, silver and the quest for single photons
Building on earlier work showing how nanowires carved in impurity-laden diamond crystal can efficiently emit individual photons, researchers have developed a scalable manufacturing process to craft arrays of miniature, silver-plated-diamond posts that enable even greater photon control.

Electromobility: New components going for a test run
The future belongs to electrical cars -- that's what most experts think.

Now you can determine the solar efficiency of your roof
It is becoming more and more common to install solar panels on roofs in order to obtain green electricity, but not all roofs are equally suitable.
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