Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

February 07, 2012
GLBT adults twice as likely to smoke, half as likely to have plans to quit
A recent study by University of Colorado Cancer Center published in the journal Nicotine and Tobacco Research of 1,633 gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered adults found twice the level of smoking and half the level of plans to quit of non-GLBT adults.

Osteopathic student garners national award for cleft palate research
A College of Osteopathic Medicine student has been awarded the prestigious Ruth L.

Governor Kasich announces 10-fold boost to Ohio's broadband network
Ohio will soon see a ten-fold boost to its broadband network speeds, which will benefit research and job-creating assets statewide.

UT MD Anderson, Texas A&M team up to treat canine lymphoma
A new immunotherapy for companion dogs with advanced-stage non-Hodgkin lymphoma has been shown to improve survival while maintaining quality of life, according to a study published in the journal Scientific Reports.

Pneumonia wonder drug: Zinc saves lives
Respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, are the most common cause of death in children under the age of five.

MIT: New tool for analyzing solar-cell materials
An online tool called

Vitamin D deficiency high among trauma patients
New research presented at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons found that 77 percent of trauma patients had deficient or insufficient levels of vitamin D.

Post surgical phone support improves outcome following knee replacement
Among high-risk Total Knee Replacement patients, those who received telephone support reported significantly higher post-surgical physical activity and function at six months.

Researchers increase understanding of gene's potentially protective role in Parkinson's
University of Alabama researchers have identified how a specific gene protects dopamine-producing neurons from dying in both animal models and in cultures of human neurons, according to a scientific article publishing in the Feb.

Rothman Institute at Jefferson research suggests use of LE strips to diagnose PJI
Rothman Institute at Jefferson joint researchers continue to seek better ways to diagnose and subsequently treat periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in patients following total joint arthroplasty.

Not the black sheep of domestic animals
An international research team has provided an unprecedented in-depth view of the genetic history of sheep, one of the world's most important livestock species.

44 percent of postmenopausal women with distal radius fracture have low levels of vitamin D
Forty-four percent of postmenopausal women with a distal radius fracture have a low level of vitamin D, according to new research presented today at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Southampton leads international research exchange to help patients with anxiety disorders
Researchers from the University of Southampton are leading an international research exchange that aims to develop a greater understanding of anxiety disorders and develop more effective treatments for patients.

Energy department to launch new energy innovation hub focused on advanced batteries and energy storage
Secretary of Energy Steven Chu announced today plans to launch a new Energy Innovation Hub for advanced research on batteries and energy storage with an investment of up to $120 million over five years.

The dark path to antisocial personality disorder
With no lab tests to guide the clinician, psychiatric diagnostics is challenging and controversial.

Counties with thriving small businesses have healthier residents, LSU and Baylor researchers find
Counties and parishes with a greater concentration of small, locally-owned businesses have healthier populations -- with lower rates of mortality, obesity and diabetes -- than do those that rely on large companies with

Planet Under Pressure conference (London, UK, March 26-29)
More than 2,500 leading thinkers in a wide range of global change research areas will present new findings in climate change, environmental geo-engineering, international governance, the future of the oceans and biodiversity, global trade, development, poverty alleviation, food security and more.

More focus on men needed in HIV prevention
Edward Mills of the University of Ottawa, Canada and colleagues argue in this week's PLoS Medicine that the HIV/AIDS response in Africa needs a more balanced approach to gender, so that both men and women are involved in HIV treatment and prevention.

Cleansing the umbilical cord during birth could reduce infections and mortality in babies in resource-poor countries
Two articles published online first by the Lancet suggest that cleansing of the umbilical cord during and after birth could reduce sepsis and mortality in babies in resource-poor countries.

Carsey Institute: Americans' knowledge of polar regions up, but not their concern
Americans' knowledge of facts about the polar regions of the globe has increased since 2006, but this increase in knowledge has not translated into more concern about changing polar environments, according to new research from the Carsey Institute at the University of New Hampshire.

Economic factors impact orthopaedic trauma volume
Economic trends impact orthopaedic trauma volume, according to new research presented today at the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 2012 Annual Meeting.

Top off breakfast with -- chocolate cake?
In a study of nearly 200 clinically obese, non-diabetic adults, professor Daniela Jakubowicz of Tel Aviv University found that a 600-calorie breakfast that includes dessert as well as proteins and carbohydrates can help dieters lose weight and keep it off over the long term.

Scripps research and technion scientists develop biological computer to encrypt and decipher images
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute in California and the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have developed a

Mild cognitive impairment is associated with disability and neuropsychiatric symptoms
In low- and middle-income countries, mild cognitive impairment -- an intermediate state between normal signs of cognitive aging, such as becoming increasingly forgetful, and dementia, which may or may not progress -- is consistently associated with higher disability and with neuropsychiatric symptoms but not with most socio-demographic factors, according to a large study published in this week's PLoS Medicine.

Cirrhosis patients losing muscle mass have a higher death rate
Medical researchers at the University of Alberta reviewed the medical records of more than 100 patients who had a liver scarring condition and discovered those who were losing muscle were more apt to die while waiting for a liver transplant.

Researchers find ovarian cancer risk related to inherited inflammation genes
In a study conducted by researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center and colleagues from 11 other institutions in the Unites States and the United Kingdom, genes that are known to be involved in inflammation were found to be related to risk of ovarian cancer.

BWH Center for LAM Research and Clinical Care awarded $1 million grant from Department of Defense
The Center for LAM Research and Clinical Care at Brigham and Women's Hospital has been awarded a $1 million plus, four-year grant from the US Department of Defense.

New guidelines suggest DVT prophylaxis not appropriate for all patients
New evidence-based guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians recommend considering individual patients' risk of thrombosis when deciding for or against the use of preventive therapies for deep vein thrombosis and venous thromboembolism.

Justifying insurance coverage for orphan drugs
Can insurers justify spending hundreds of thousands of dollars per patient per year on

How early breast tumors become deadly: A small group of molecules might hold the answer
Researchers have discovered a pattern of molecules that differentiate early-stage breast tumors from invasive, life-threatening cancer.

NASA satellite sees tropical storm Cyril a strong, compact storm
Tropical Storm Cyril was known as

Preventing bacteria from falling in with the wrong crowd could help stop gum disease
Stripping some mouth bacteria of their access key to gangs of other pathogenic oral bacteria could help prevent gum disease and tooth loss.

Developing new vaccines for hookworm among topics at UH lecture
Dr. Peter J. Hotez, an internationally recognized clinician and investigator of neglected tropical diseases and vaccine development, will be giving a lecture at the University of Houston from 3 to 4 p.m.

Salk scientists use an old theory to discover new targets in the fight against breast cancer
Reviving a theory first proposed in the late 1800s that the development of organs in the normal embryo and the development of cancers are related, scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies have studied organ development in mice to unravel how breast cancers, and perhaps other cancers, develop in people.

New Kavli Institute announced at the University Of Tokyo
The Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, receives a major endowment from the Kavli Foundation, joining the family of Kavli institutes.

An electronic green thumb
If sensors are supposed to communicate with each other to compare the measured data and to secure them, then, in the future, a network of distributed sensor nodes will aid in that: the network ensures problem-free communication between the sensors.

Competitive soccer linked to increased injuries and menstrual dysfunction in girls
In the US, there are nearly three million youth soccer players, and half of them are female.

Lauren Sciences LLC awarded MJFF grant to develop a V-SmartTM therapeutic for Parkinson's disease
Lauren Sciences LLC, a privately held biotechnology company furthering development of its new V-SmartTM nanovesicle platform technology, announced today the award of a grant from the Michael J.

Modern, low-energy ammunition can cause deep tissue damage
Gunshot injuries are typically categorized as low- or high-energy based on the weapon's missile velocity and mass.

Mechanism of calming hyperactivity by psychostimulant drugs identified
It has long been known that psychostimulant drugs have the paradoxical effect of reducing hyperactivity.

Parents blame child sex abuse victims more if perpetrator is another youth, UNH research shows
Parents are much more likely to blame and doubt their children when their child has been sexually abused by another adolescent instead of an adult, according to new research from the Crimes against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire.

Scientists 'record' magnetic breakthrough
An international team of scientists led by the University of York has demonstrated a revolutionary new way of magnetic recording which will allow information to be processed hundreds of times faster than by current hard drive technology.

Chlorhexidine umbilical cord care can save newborn lives
Cleansing a newborn's umbilical cord with chlorhexidine can reduce an infant's risk of infection and death during the first weeks of life by as much as 20 percent, according to a study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Y-90: Are you ready? -- comprehensive liver tumor treatment course returns
Y-90: Are You Ready? -- an intensive course examining radiation biology, dosimetry, radiation safety, embolotherapy and clinical office management in the use of yttrium-90 in the treatment of cancer -- is being offered by the Society of Interventional Radiology Feb.

Dr. Reza Dana awarded 2012 Chancellor's Award in Neurosciences and Ophthalmology
Mass. Eye and Ear Cornea Service and Refractive Surgery Service Director Reza Dana, M.D., M.P.H., M.Sc., is the recipient of the 2012 Chancellor's Award in Neurosciences and Ophthalmology from Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine at New Orleans.

Molecular path from internal clock to cells controlling rest and activity
The molecular pathway that carries time-of-day signals from the body's internal clock to ultimately guide daily behavior is like a black box, says Amita Sehgal, Ph.D.

Scared of a younger rival? Not for some male songbirds
When mature male white-crowned sparrows duel to win a mate or a nesting territory, a young bird just doesn't get much respect.

Cutting-edge MRI techniques for studying communication within the brain
Innovative magnetic resonance imaging techniques that can measure changes in the microstructure of the white matter likely to affect brain function and the ability of different regions of the brain to communicate are presented in an article in the groundbreaking new neuroscience journal Brain Connectivity, a bimonthly peer-reviewed publication from Mary Ann Liebert Inc.

New study shows Facebook use elevates mood
People visit social networking sites such as Facebook for many reasons, including the positive emotional experience that people enjoy and want to repeat, according to an article in Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, a peer-reviewed journal published by Mary Ann Liebert Inc.

Study identifies steep learning curve for surgeons who perform ACL reconstructions
Patients who have their anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructed by surgeons who have performed less than 60 surgeries are roughly four to five times more likely to undergo a subsequent ACL reconstruction, according to a study by researchers at Hospital for Special Surgery.

Risk of pulmonary embolism greatest during first week following total joint replacement
Anticoagulation treatment for more than seven days following total joint replacement may be unnecessary, according to new research presented today at the American Academy of Orthpaedic Surgeons 2012 Annual Meeting.

A bronze matryoshka doll: The metal in the metal in the metal
Just like in the Russian wooden toy, a hull of 12 copper atoms encases a single tin atom.

Nanoshell whispering galleries improve thin solar panels
Engineers at Stanford have created photovoltaic nanoshells that harness a peculiar physical phenomenon to better trap light in the solar materials.

Study: Breastfeeding can be tougher for women when pregnancy is unplanned
Women who did not plan to get pregnant are much more likely to stop breastfeeding within three months of giving birth, according to a study published in the journal Current Anthropology.

World class to second class? Confronting the risks to US science and innovation
Research!America 2012 National Health Research Forum is a unique interactive gathering of top policy makers.

Transmission of Clostridium difficile in hospitals may not be through contact with infected patients
Contrary to current convention by which infection with the organism Clostridium difficile is regarded as an infection that is acquired by contact with symptomatic patients known to be infected with C. difficile, these may account for only a minority of new cases of the infection.

First industrial-scale foam forming research environment for forest sector
Foam-forming technology gives exciting opportunities to develop new recyclable and lightweight wood fiber products.

Entire genome of extinct human decoded from fossil
The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has completed the genome sequence of a Denisovan, a representative of an Asian group of extinct humans related to Neanderthals.

Fall of Communism changed mathematics in US: New study
The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992 brought an influx of Soviet mathematicians to US institutions, and those scholars' differing areas of specialization have changed the way math is studied and taught in this country, according to new research by University of Notre Dame Economist Kirk Doran and a colleague from Harvard.

Drinking large amounts of soft drinks associated with asthma and COPD
A new study published in the journal Respirology reveals that a high level of soft drink consumption is associated with asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Risk of death from breast cancer higher among older patients
Among postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, increasing age was associated with a higher risk of death from breast cancer, according to a study in the Feb.

Engineers boost computer processor performance by over 20 percent
Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new technique that allows graphics processing units and central processing units on a single chip to collaborate -- boosting processor performance by an average of more than 20 percent.

Quantifying climate impacts: New comprehensive model comparison launched
Climate change has impacts on forests, fields, rivers -- and thereby on humans that breathe, eat and drink.

A therapist in your pocket
A new smartphone intuits when you're depressed and will nudge you to go out with friends.

UC Davis fashion design students use their talents to advocate for women's heart health
A unique partnership broadens the message of the red dress in raising awareness of heart disease as the leading killer of women.

Diabetic kidney failure follows a 'ROCK'y road
A protein kinase known as ROCK1 can exacerbate an important process called fission in the mitochondria, the power plants of cells, leading to diabetic kidney disease, said researchers from Baylor College of Medicine.

EASL publishes first European Clinical Practice Guidelines for Wilson's disease
The first European Clinical Practice Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Wilson's disease are published today by the European Association for the Study of the Liver.

NASA's TRMM satellite measures flooding rains from Australia monsoon
A monsoon trough continues to drench northeastern Australia and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite measured and calculated the rainfall in the region.

Padded headgear, boxing gloves may offer some protection for fighters
The use of padded headgear and gloves reduces the impact that fighters absorb from hits to the head, according to newly published research from Cleveland Clinic.

Carbonized coffee grounds remove foul smells
In research to develop a novel, eco-friendly filter to remove toxic gases from the air, scientists at The City College of New York found that a material made from used coffee grounds can sop up hydrogen sulfide gas, the chemical that makes raw sewage stinky.

UF report: 2011 shark attacks remain steady, deaths highest since 1993
Shark attacks in the US declined in 2011, but worldwide fatalities reached a two-decade high, according to the University of Florida's International Shark Attack File report released today.

Administration of meningococcal vaccine with other routine infant vaccines appears effective
Administration of routine infant immunizations with a vaccine for serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis, a bacterium that is a cause of serious disease such as sepsis and meningitis, was effective against meningococcal strains and produced minimal interference with the response to the routine vaccinations, according to a study in the Feb.

NASA sees cyclone Jasmine's power and new eye
Cyclone Jasmine continues to wind between New Caledonia and Vanuatu and bring cyclone-force winds, heavy rain and very rough surf.

St. Joseph's receives Canada's first whole-body PET/MRI scanner
Today, Lawson Health Research Institute is receiving a new hybrid imaging scanner that combines magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography.

Without second wave of brown fat, young mice can't live without mama
For all those who have wondered where they'd be without their mothers, a study reported Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication, puts a whole new spin on the question.

New insights into how to correct false knowledge
The abundance of false information available on the Internet, in movies and on TV has created a big challenge for educators.

Warning! Collision imminent!
Researchers at The Neuro and the University of Maryland have figured out the mathematical calculations that specific neurons employ in order to inform us of our distance from an object and the 3-D velocities of moving objects and surfaces relative to ourselves.

Metabolic profiles essential for personalizing cancer therapy
One way to tackle a tumor is to take aim at the metabolic reactions that fuel their growth.

Innovation promises expanded roles for microsensors
Researchers have learned how to improve the performance of sensors that use tiny vibrating microcantilevers to detect chemical and biological agents for applications from national security to food processing.

Knee replacement may lower a patient's risk for mortality and heart failure
New research presented at the 2012 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons highlights the benefits of total knee replacement.

Computer order entry systems reduce preventable adverse drug events
New research from Brigham and Women's Hospital examined the impact of a vendor-developed CPOE in five community hospitals in Massachusetts and found that these CPOE systems are effective at reducing drug-related injury and harm.

Brain mechanisms link foods to rising obesity rates
An editorial authored by University of Cincinnati diabetes researchers to be published in the Feb.

Aspirin may prevent DVT and PE in joint replacement patients
Aspirin, along with the use of stockings and a foot pump, are safe and effective therapies in preventing deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in most joint replacement patients, according to research presented today at the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 2012 Annual Meeting.

New DVT guidelines: No evidence to support 'economy class syndrome'
New evidence-based guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians address the many risk factors for developing a deep vein thrombosis, or blood clot, as the result of long-distance travel.

Parkinson's disease: Study of live human neurons reveals the disease's genetic origins
Parkinson's disease researchers at the University at Buffalo have discovered how mutations in the parkin gene cause the disease, which afflicts at least 500,000 Americans and for which there is no cure.

Study evaluates antibiotic option for treating bladder infection in women
Short-term use of the antibiotic cefpodoxime for the treatment of women with uncomplicated cystitis (bladder infection) did not meet criteria for noninferiority for achieving clinical cure compared with ciprofloxacin, a drug in the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics for which there have been concerns about overuse and a resulting increase in resistance rates, according to a study in the Feb.

Treatment for tuberculosis can be guided by patients' genetics
Determining TB treatment based on a patient's sequence at gene called LTA4H could improve outcomes.

Why the middle finger has such a slow connection
Each part of the body has its own nerve cell area in the brain -- we therefore have a map of our bodies in our heads.

Rothman at Jefferson researchers find epidural steroid injections do not benefit spine patients
Researchers at the Rothman Institute at Jefferson examined data on patients being treated for lumbar stenosis and the degenerative spine condition spondylolisthesis and found that patients who received epidural steroid injections had a higher rate of crossover to surgery and fared worse in physical health and bodily pain versus those who did not receive ESI, dispelling their pre-study hypothesis.

Long-term study shows epilepsy surgery improves seizure control and quality of life
While epilepsy surgery is a safe and effective intervention for seizure control, medical therapy remains the more prominent treatment option for those with epilepsy.

Comparing yourself to others can have health impacts
Comparing yourself to others with the same health problem can influence your physical and emotional health, according to researchers who conducted a qualitative synthesis of over 30 studies focusing on the relationship between social comparisons and health.

EARTH: Unearthing Antarctica's mysterious mountains
Buried more than a kilometer beneath the East Antarctica Ice sheet, the Gamburstev Subglacial Mountains have proven to be a geological puzzle for more than five decades.

Rotavirus vaccine not associated with increased risk of intestinal disorder in US infants
Although some data have suggested a possible increased risk of intussusception (when a portion of the small or large intestine slides forward into itself, like a telescope) after administration of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in infants, an analysis that included almost 800,000 doses administered to US infants found no increased risk of this condition following vaccination, according to a study in the Feb.

CD97 gene expression and function correlate with WT1 protein expression and glioma invasiveness
Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University and Old Dominion University have discovered that suppression of Wilms tumor 1 protein (WT1) results in downregulation of CD97 gene expression in three glioblastoma cell lines and reduces the characteristic invasiveness exhibited by glial tumor cells.

Teenage pregnancy is not a racial issue
While researchers have long set to determine if there is a tie between race and teenage pregnancy, according to a new study, equating black teenagers with the problem of teenage pregnancy is a misrepresentation of today's real­ity.

International scientific cooperation to advance image-guided prostate cancer care
To improve early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, ACR, AdMeTech Foundation and ESUR have formed a joint effort to expedite development of standards for the Magnetic Resonance Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System modeled after a successful effort in breast cancer care.

National Quality Forum endorses 2 American College of Surgeons NSQIP measures
Two outcomes-based measures from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program were recently endorsed by the National Quality Forum.
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