Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 28, 2012
Inequality dates back to the Stone Age
Hereditary inequality began over 7,000 years ago in the early Neolithic era, with new evidence showing that farmers buried with tools had access to better land than those buried without.

Analyzing disease transmission at the community level
Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have found evidence of a role for neighborhood immunity in determining risk of dengue infection.

Aggressively controlling glucose levels may not reduce kidney failure in Type 2 diabetes
Yale School of Medicine researchers have found that intensively controlling glucose (glycemic) levels in Type 2 diabetes patients may not reduce the risk of kidney failure.

Young investigators recognized for research excellence at Sao Paolo meeting
On May 27, 2012, the International Osteoporosis Foundation presented prestigious awards to five young researchers from Argentina and Brazil in recognition of their outstanding work.

Family values
In early human evolution, when faithful females began to choose good providers as mates, pair-bonding replaced promiscuity, laying the foundation for the emergence of the institution of the modern family, a new study finds.

Mobile technology, remote coaching, financial incentives may help improve diet, activity level
The diet and activity levels of patients may be improved through use of mobile technology, remote coaching and financial incentives, according to a report of a randomized controlled trial published in the May 28 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, a JAMA Network publication.

Policy of including smokers in donor pool improves survival rates for patients on lung transplant waiting lists and should be continued
New research shows that lung transplant patients who receive the lungs of smokers have a better overall chance of survival than those who remain on waiting lists, despite the fact that they tend to survive for a shorter period after transplantation than those who receive the lungs of non-smokers.

Meta-analysis examines intensive glycemic control, renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes
A review of data from seven clinical trials suggests that intensive glucose control is associated with reduced risk of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria (conditions characterized by excessive levels of protein in the urine usually resulting from damage to the filtering units of the kidneys), according to a report published in the May 28 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, a JAMA Network publication.

NIH-funded study examines use of mobile technology to improve diet and physical activity behavior
A new study, supported in part by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health, suggests that a combination of mobile technology and remote coaching holds promise in encouraging healthier eating and physical activity behavior in adults.

Groundwater depletion in semiarid regions of Texas and California threatens US food security
The nation's food supply may be vulnerable to rapid groundwater depletion from irrigated agriculture, according to a new study published online in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

PCB can increase risk of abdominal fat
There is a correlation between high levels of the environmental toxin PCB and the distribution of body fat to the abdomen.

New stem cell technique promises abundance of key heart cells
Cardiomyocytes, the workhorse cells that make up the beating heart, can now be made cheaply and abundantly in the laboratory.

Antiretroviral treatment for preventing HIV infection: an evidence review for physicians
While immediate post-exposure treatment for suspected HIV is critical, pre-exposure preventive treatment is a newer method that may be effective for people in high-risk groups, states a review of evidence published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Embargoed news from Annals of Internal Medicine
Below is information about two articles being published in the May 29 online issue of Annals of Internal Medicine.

Targeting tuberculosis 'hotspots' could have widespread benefit
Reducing tuberculosis transmission in geographic

Researchers have created glasses that indicate obstacles to patients with visual handicaps
Researchers at Universidad Carlos III in Madrid have developed a system that can be built into virtual reality goggles that help patients with moderate visual impairment move around their surroundings.

U of M study finds titan cells protect Cryptococcus
Giant cells called

VTT researcher finds explanation for friction
Friction is a key phenomenon in applied physics, whose origin has been studied for centuries.

NYU physicists devise method for building artificial tissue
New York University physicists have developed a method that models biological cell-to-cell adhesion that could also have industrial applications.

Study provides new insights into structure of heart muscle fibers
A study led by researchers from McGill University provides new insights into the structure of muscle tissue in the heart -- a finding that promises to contribute to the study of heart diseases and to the engineering of artificial heart tissue.

Marine reserves provide baby bonus to fisheries
An international team of scientists has gathered the first conclusive evidence that marine reserves can help restock exploited fish populations on neighboring reefs which are open to both commercial and recreational fishing.

1 size doesn't fit all when treating blood pressure in people with diabetes, VA/U-M study suggests
Aiming for & incentivizing strict BP control for all patients means some are being over-treated -- but an individualized approach could help

Climate change led to collapse of ancient Indus civilization, study finds
A new study combining the latest archaeological evidence with state-of-the-art geoscience technologies provides evidence that climate change was a key ingredient in the collapse of the great Indus or Harappan civilization almost 4000 years ago.

Working with solvents tied to cognitive problems for less-educated people
Exposure to solvents at work may be associated with reduced thinking skills later in life for those who have less than a high school education, according to a study published in the May 29, 2012, print issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

Blowing in the wind: How hidden flower features are crucial for bees
As gardeners get busy filling tubs and borders with colorful bedding plants, scientists at the Universities of Cambridge and Bristol have discovered more about what makes flowers attractive to bees rather than humans.

Less couch time equals fewer cookies
Simply changing one bad health habit has a domino effect on others, a new study reports.

Earlier detection of bone loss may be in future
Scientists at Arizona State University and NASA are developing a new approach to the medical challenge of detecting bone loss by applying a technique that originated in the Earth sciences.

Engineered microvessels provide a 3-D test bed for human diseases
Bioengineers have developed the first structure to grow small human blood vessels, creating a 3-D test bed that offers a better way to study disease, test drugs and perhaps someday grow human tissues for transplant.

CryoSat goes to sea
CryoSat was launched in 2010 to measure sea-ice thickness in the Arctic, but data from the Earth-observing satellite have also been exploited for other studies.
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