Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 10, 2012
Drug fails to curb heart bypass complications, but surgery gets safer
A drug designed to shield the heart from injury during bypass surgery failed to reduce deaths, strokes and other serious events among patients at high risk of complications, according to a large, prospective study lead by researchers at Duke University Medical Center.

First-of-its-kind approach nanomedicine design effectively targets cancer with decreased toxicity
BWH is the first to report a new approach that integrates rational drug design with supramolecular nanochemistry in cancer treatment.

UC Davis study finds stray-bullet shootings frequently harm women and children
Most people killed or wounded in stray-bullet shootings were unaware of events leading to the gunfire that caused their injuries, and nearly one-third of the victims were children and nearly half were female, according to a new nationwide study examining an often-overlooked form of gun violence.

Hubble unmasks ghost galaxies
Astronomers have puzzled over why some puny, extremely faint dwarf galaxies spotted in our Milky Way galaxy's back yard contain so few stars.

Investigating the impact of treatment on new HIV infections: New PLoS collection
Is it possible to cut HIV transmission by using antiretroviral treatment?

NIH study shows the deaf brain processes touch differently
People who are born deaf process the sense of touch differently than people who are born with normal hearing, according to research funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation grants fellowship awards to 21 top young scientists
The Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation, a nonprofit organization focused on supporting innovative early career researchers, named 21 new Damon Runyon Fellows at its spring Fellowship Award Committee review.

Kendall L. Carder named recipient of the Jerlov Award
The Oceanography Society is pleased to announce that Professor Kendall L.

Why do low-income couples marry less and divorce more?
People with lower incomes value the institution of marriage just as much as those with higher incomes and have similar romantic standards for marriage, according to a new study published in the Journal of Marriage and Family.

Should we sleep more to lose weight?
Epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between short sleep duration and metabolic dysfunctions like obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Mapping out growth for the UK space sector: UK Space Agency publishes its Civil Space Strategy
The 'Civil Space Strategy' setting out the direction for the UK space sector over the next four years has been launched today, Tuesday 10th July, at the Farnborough International Airshow.

Not so happy: King penguins stressed by human presence
King penguins tolerate some, but not all, human interference. Research published in BioMed Central's open access journal, BMC Ecology, investigates the adjustment of a king penguin colony on the protected Possession island in the subantarctic Crozet Archipelago to over 50 years of constant human disturbance.

New curriculum teaches internal medicine residents high value, cost-conscious care principles
The American College of Physicians and the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine today unveiled a high value, cost-conscious care curriculum to help train internal medicine residents about how to avoid overuse and misuse of tests and treatments that do not improve outcomes and may cause harms.

Evolutionary block cipher against multidimensional linear and differential cryptanalysis
Differing from known cryptosystems, the evolutionary cryptosystem features dynamically alterable and increasingly cryptographically strong encryption/decryption algorithms.

Rare glimpse into the origin of species
A new species of monkey flower has been discovered in Scotland.

Hubble unmasks ghost galaxies
Astronomers have used the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope to study some of the smallest and faintest galaxies in our cosmic neighborhood.

More sustainable integrated vector management strategies are needed for malaria control
Insecticide resistance is threatening the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bed nets and indoor insecticide sprays to control adult mosquito vectors, and so more sustainable integrated management strategies that use optimal suites of control tactics are needed.

New book inspires children to protect dugongs
Australia's children are being enlisted in the fight to save dugongs from the multiple threats of coastal development, climate change, and environmental pollution, thanks to the creative mind of marine biologist Dr.

Transferable knowledge and skills key to success in education and work; report calls for efforts to incorporate 'deeper learning' into curriculum
Educational and business leaders want today's students both to master school subjects and to excel in areas such as problem solving, critical thinking, and communication -- abilities often referred to by such labels as

New coral reef crustacean described and named after late reggae performer Bob Marley
President Barack Obama has one. Comedian Stephen Colbert has one.

Climate change may lead to fewer but more violent thunderstorms
Scientists are working hard to identify just how climate change will impact weather around the world.

Waste to watts: Improving microbial fuel cells
Some of the planet's tiniest inhabitants may help address two of society's biggest environmental challenges: How to deal with the vast quantities of organic waste produced and where to find clean, renewable energy.

Supporting patient autonomy is critical to improving health
Knowing that we should make a lifestyle change to improve our health and actually making that lifestyle change are two very different things.

NOAA plankton surveys, second longest in the North Atlantic, add to new global effort
NOAA's Northeast Fisheries Science Center uses volunteer commercial cargo vessels as sampling platforms to continue plankton surveys begun decades ago as members of the new Global Alliance of Continuous Plankton Recorder Surveys.

Not all brand-consumer relationships are created equal, says University of Toronto study
Not all brand-consumer relationships are created equal. Marketers who realize this will be in a better position to retain customers and improve the perceptions of consumers who are unhappy with a brand's service or product, says a new paper from the University of Toronto.

Researchers develop new possibilities for solar power
Two Queen's researchers have contributed to a significant breakthrough in solar technology.

Blood-brain barrier less permeable in newborns than adults after acute stroke
The ability for substances to pass through the blood-brain barrier is increased after adult stroke, but not after neonatal stroke, according to a new study the UCSF that will be published July 11 in the Journal of Neuroscience.

Interactive personal health records increase clinical preventive services
Patients who use an interactive personal health record are almost twice as likely to be up to date with clinical preventive services as those who do not, according to a new study led by Alex Krist, M.D., M.P.H., research member of the Cancer Prevention and Control program at Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center.

Tobacco use more prevalent among African-American adolescents living in public housing communities
A recent study by a University of Missouri researcher found that African-American youths who live in public housing communities are 2.3 times more likely to use tobacco than other African-American youths.

Melanoma-promoting gene discovered
Black skin cancer, also known as melanoma, is particularly aggressive and becoming increasingly common in Switzerland.

Researchers developing new multiple sclerosis drug that can be taken orally
The Department of Defense has awarded SRI International a one-year grant to develop a novel therapy for multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune nervous system disease that affects about 400,000 people in the United States and more than two million people worldwide.

How tumor cells create their own pathways
Metastasis occurs when tumor cells

ONR sensor and software suite hunts down more than 600 suspect boats
A new sensor and software suite sponsored by the Office of Naval Research recently returned from West Africa after helping partner nations track and identify target vessels of interest as part of an international maritime security operation, officials announced July 10.

Metamolecules that switch handedness at light-speed
A multi-institutional team of researchers that included Berkeley Lab scientists has created the first artificial molecules whose chirality can be rapidly switched from a right-handed to a left-handed orientation with a beam of light.

Abiraterone: Indication of considerable added benefit in certain patients
There is an indication of a considerable added benefit of abiraterone in patients with metastatic prostate cancer who are not eligible for further treatment with docetaxel.

SEPM announces 4 medalists for 2013
Each year the Society awards science medals for outstanding works in areas within sedimentary geology.

Dangerous caregivers for elderly
A troubling new national study finds many agencies place potentially dangerous and vastly unqualified caregivers in the homes of vulnerable elderly people.

Scientists at the Mainz University Medical Center gain new insights into Taspase1 function
Scientists at the University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany identified a novel strategy to target the oncologically relevant protein-cleaving enzyme Taspase1.

Reward sensitivity increases food 'wanting' following television 'junk food' commercials
Global obesity rates have been partly attributed to the easy access of cheap, high calorie food.

Symposium: Protein-Folding Diseases: Models & Mechanisms
Organized by Susan Lindquist and Vivian Siegel (The Broad Institute, and Editor-in-Chief of Disease Models & Mechanisms), this one-day symposium will focus on how misfolded proteins contribute to disease and disease processes at the cellular and whole-organism level, highlighting the diverse biological models that can be used to address this issue.

Administration of regulating agent prior to CABG surgery does not appear to improve outcomes
Among intermediate- to high-risk patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery, administration of the agent acadesine to regulate adenosine (a naturally occurring chemical that dilates blood flow and can improve coronary blood flow and perfusion) did not reduce all-cause death, nonfatal stroke, or need for mechanical support for ventricular dysfunction, for approximately a month after surgery, according to a study in the July 11 issue of JAMA.

Searching genomic data faster
In the latest issue of Nature Biotechnology, MIT and Harvard University researchers describe a new algorithm that drastically reduces the time it takes to find a particular gene sequence in a database of genomes.

Levels of hepatitis C virus higher among African-Americans and males
Epidemiologists have determined that levels of hepatitis C virus (HCV) found among injection drug users (IDUs) were higher in individuals who are male or African-American even after differences in other factors were considered.

The magnetic sense
Migratory birds and fish use the Earth's magnetic field to find their way.

Copper making salmon prone to predators
Minute amounts of copper from brake linings and mining operations can affect salmon to where they are easily eaten by predators, says a Washington State University researcher.

Doctors overlook chemical illnesses, study finds
Chemical intolerance contributes to the illnesses of one in five patients but the condition seldom figures in their diagnosis, according to clinical research released July 9.

Liver stiffness predicts liver failure, cancer and mortality in cirrhotic patients
Researchers from Spain established that liver stiffness, measured by transient elastography, is an independent predictor of liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, and mortality in cirrhotic patients coinfected with the human immunodeficiency virus or acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and hepatitis C virus.

New survey shows patient concerns and misinformation impede treatment of menopausal women
The Endocrine Society commissioned Lake Research Partners to conduct a national survey of 424 internal medicine, family practice and OB/GYN physicians about their attitudes and experiences related to treating menopausal symptoms.

Gastric bypass surgery alters gut microbiota profile along the intestine
Changes in gut microbiota may be responsible for the metabolic changes seen after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery.

First seabed sonar to measure marine energy effect on environment and wildlife
UK scientists will measure the effect on the marine environment and wildlife of devices that harness tide and wave energy using sonar technology that has, for the first time, been successfully deployed on the seabed.

Subtle goal reminders, known as primes, can offset hedonic effects of food and facilitate health behavior
Research on the non-conscious processes underlying the common difficulties in weight control has shown that palatable food cues can activate reward expectations and a hedonic eating goal, facilitating overeating.

23andMe acquires CureTogether, Inc.
23andMe acquisition of CureTogether, Inc. provides complementary technology and talent, improving 23andMe's ability to gather research data and expanding customers' online interactions as they explore their DNA through health and traits reports and genetic ancestry information.

Multiple pieces of food are more rewarding than an equicaloric single piece of food in both animals and humans
Previous work by E.J. Capaldi and colleagues (1989) investigated preference by showing that rats trained in a T-maze preferred four pellets of 75 mg each (totaling 300 mg) to a single, 300 mg pellet of food.

Ordinary chickens may be extraordinary in fighting cancer, says Texas A&M researcher
The common barnyard chicken could provide some very uncommon clues for fighting off diseases and might even offer new ways to attack cancer, according to a team of international researchers that includes a Texas A&M University professor.

Researchers develop secure protocol for linking data registries for HPV surveillance
Dr. Khaled El-Emam and his team at the CHEO Research Institute have developed a secure protocol that allows the linking of individual patient records without revealing personal information, which has been published in PLoS ONE.

Federally funded clinics for low-income patients as effective as private practices
Federally Qualified Health Centers and

Receiving chemotherapy following removal of type of cancer near pancreas may improve survival
Patients who had surgery for periampullary cancer (a variety of types of cancer that are located in and near the head of the pancreas, including an area called the ampulla where the bile duct joins up with the pancreatic duct to empty their secretions into the upper small intestine) and received chemotherapy had a statistically significant survival benefit, compared to patients who did not receive chemotherapy, after adjusting for prognostic variables, according to a study in the July 11 issue of JAMA.

Preclinical development shows promise to treat hearing loss with Usher syndrome III
A new study published in the July 11 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience details the development of the first mouse model engineered to carry the most common mutation in Usher syndrome III causative gene (Clarin-1) in North America.

Police officer stress creates significant health risks, study finds
The daily psychological stresses that police officers experience in their work put them at significantly higher risk than the general population for a host of long-term physical and mental health effects.

Fewer iron supplements during pregnancy work just as well for preventing anemia
Taking iron supplements one to three times a week instead of every day is just as effective at preventing anemia in pregnant women, according to the findings of a new Cochrane systematic review.

Tecnalia is advancing the sustainable development of threatened villages in rural Europe
Tecnalia is participating with 11 other institutions from eleven countries from all over Europe in the HISTCAPE project to save these threatened places.

Satellite sees 2 tropical cyclones chase Tropical Storm Daniel
A panoramic satellite image shows an active eastern Pacific Ocean with three tropical systems that appear to be chasing each other.

Potential cause of HIV-associated dementia revealed
Researchers appear to have solved the mystery of why some patients infected with HIV, who are using antiretroviral therapy and show no signs of AIDS, develop serious depression as well as profound problems with memory, learning, and motor function.

Springer launches new open access journal with Tsinghua University Press
Springer and Tsinghua University Press will jointly publish the new SpringerOpen journal Journal of Advanced Ceramics.

Weight gain after quitting smoking higher than previously thought
Giving up smoking is associated with an average weight gain of four-five kg after 12 months, most of which occurs within the first three months of quitting, finds a study published on bmj.com today.

Cancer screening rates comparable for those with and without rheumatoid arthritis
New research reveals that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients do not receive fewer cancer screening tests than the general population.

Despite benefit, hospitals not always alerted of incoming stroke patients
Stroke patients receive faster treatment when emergency medical services (EMS) personnel notify hospitals a possible stroke patient is en route.

No matter the drilling method, natural gas is a much-needed tool to battle global warming
No matter how you drill it, using natural gas as an energy source is a smart move in the battle against global climate change and a good transition step on the road toward low-carbon energy from wind, solar and nuclear power.

Webcast: Public forum with North America's environment ministers on community, ecosystem resilience
Visit www.cec.org/webcast tomorrow for a dialogue on community and ecosystem resilience in North America with Commission for Environmental Cooperation Council members: Canadian Environment Minister Peter Kent, Mexican Environment Secretary Juan Elvira Quesada and US Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Lisa P.

IU physicists, IT personnel contribute to success of Higgs boson search
The announcement last week that scientists have observed a new particle that may be the elusive Higgs boson spelled success for Indiana University researchers who worked for years on a massive experiment that detected the particle.

Can robots improve patient care in the ICU?
Remote presence robots are used in intensive care units to help critical care physicians supplement on-site patient visits and maintain more frequent patient interactions.

Cancer Cell article shows first evidence for targeting of Pol I as new approach to cancer therapy
Published in Cancer Cell, findings show that Cylene's Pol I inhibitor, CX-5461, selectively destroys cancer by activating p53 in malignant but not in normal cells.

Moderate drinking may reduce risk of rheumatoid arthritis
Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, suggests a study published on bmj.com today.

That time of the month ... to shop
Researchers at Concordia University are taking a new look at the menstrual cycle by investigating what these monthly hormonal fluctuations mean when it comes to consumer consumption.

Metastatic breast cancer: Bevacizumab slows progression, but has no impact on survival
The cancer drug bevacizumab (AvastinĀ®) offers only a modest benefit in delaying disease progression in patients with advanced stage breast cancer, according to a systematic review by Cochrane researchers.

U-M researchers identify new genetic cause for chronic kidney disease
A new single-gene cause of chronic kidney disease has been discovered that implicates a disease mechanism not previously believed to be related, according to research from the University of Michigan.

Study examines risk of poor birth outcomes following H1N1 vaccination
In studies examining the risk of adverse outcomes after receipt of the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine, infants exposed to the vaccine in utero did not have a significantly increased risk of major birth defects, preterm birth, or fetal growth restriction; while in another, study researchers found a small increased risk in adults of the nervous system disorder, Guillain-Barre syndrome, during the four to eight weeks after vaccination, according to two studies in the July 11 issue of JAMA.

Cyberwarfare, conservation and disease prevention could benefit from MU researcher's network model
A computer model developed at the University of Missouri could help military strategists devise the most damaging cyber attacks as well as guard America's critical infrastructure.

Researchers take hibiscus efforts to commercialization
Commercialization of winter-hardy hibiscuses from the Texas AgriLife Research program at Vernon could become a reality within the next year, according to Dr.

Ferroelectricity on the nanoscale
A research effort led by Berkeley Lab scientists has brought some clarity to the here-to-fore confusing physics of ferroelectric nanomaterials, pointing the way to multi-terabyte-per-square-inch of non-volatile computer memory chips.

Community health centers compare well with private practices, Stanford researcher finds
Government-funded community health centers, which serve low-income and uninsured patients, provide better care than do private practices, a researcher at the Stanford University School of Medicine has found.

New biofuel process dramatically improves energy recovery
A new biofuel production process created by Michigan State University researchers produces energy more than 20 times higher than existing methods.

Customs and Border Protection official to speak at IEEE Homeland Security Conference
US Customs and Border Protection official Mark S. Borkowski will will discuss border security technologies and outcomes at the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security.

Mental health concerns should be integrated with development in LMICs
In a new article published this week that forms part of the PLoS Medicine series on Global Mental Health Practice, Shoba Raja and colleagues report their case study of implementing the

The old primates' club: Even male monkeys ride their fathers' coattails to success
The significant advantages enjoyed by the male offspring of long-reigning alpha male capuchin monkeys evoke the good old boys' network enjoyed by human males, suggests a new study by a UCLA primatologist.

Lauren Sciences LLC's research team at Ben-Gurion University awarded Campbell Foundation grant to develop a V-Smart therapeutic for neuro-HIV
Lauren Sciences LLC, a privately held biotechnology company furthering development of its new V-Smart nanovesicle platform technology, announced today the award of a grant from the Campbell Foundation to its research team at Ben-Gurion University.

Leading physicists gather at Chapman University in August to honor physicist Yakir Aharonov
Chapman University will honor its world-renowned physicist Yakir Aharonov, Ph.D., winner of the National Medal of Science.

Weight gain induced by high-fat diet increases active-period sleep and sleep fragmentation
Obesity is characterized by excess daytime sleep. It is unknown if body weight (BW) gain by high-fat diet (HFD) alters sleep patterns.

UMass Amherst researchers unravel secrets of parasites' replication
A group of diseases that kill millions of people each year can't be touched by antibiotics, and some treatment is so harsh the patient can't survive it.

Rising carbon dioxide in atmosphere also speeds carbon loss from forest soils, IU-led research finds
Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide accelerate carbon cycling and soil carbon loss in forests, new research led by an Indiana University biologist has found.

Sociologists to explore real utopias at annual meeting in Denver, August 17-20
The conference will feature nearly 600 sessions and over 3,200 studies covering such timely topics as health and health care, the 2012 presidential election, the

From turbines to Tetricus: Engineering technology reveals secrets of Roman coins
Archaeologists and engineers from the University of Southampton are collaborating with the British Museum to examine buried Roman coins using the latest X-ray imaging technology.

GEN reports on growth of tissue engineering revenues
More than half (52 percent) of the companies comprising the tissue engineering and stem cell industries are revenue-generating, compared to about 21 percent four years ago, reports Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News.

Tiny magnetic particles may help assess heart treatments
An initial human study shows magnetic particles can track cells as they move through the body.

Contraceptive use averts 272,000 maternal deaths worldwide
Contraceptive use likely prevents more than 272,000 maternal deaths from childbirth each year, according to a new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Evidence for emergency obstetric referral interventions in developing countries is limited
In this week's PLoS Medicine, Julia Hussein from the University of Aberdeen in Scotland and colleagues assess the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions that aim to help pregnant women reach health facilities during an emergency in developing country settings.

Toward achieving 1 million times increase in computing efficiency
Northwestern University researchers have created an entirely new family of logic circuits based on magnetic semiconductor devices.

Drugs used to treat HIV also reduce risk of HIV infection
People at high risk of HIV infection can reduce their risk of acquiring the disease by taking antiretroviral drugs, according to Cochrane researchers.

University of Minnesota licenses Clinical Decision Support technology
Clinical Decision Support technology developed by University of Minnesota researchers will enable healthcare providers to improve preventative care, communication and coordination among clinicians, researchers, and patients.

UI researchers develop technique to help pollution forecasters see past clouds
University of Iowa scientists have created a technique to help satellites

White LEDs directly on paper
Imagine a white luminous curtain waving in the breeze. Or wallpaper that lights up your room with perfect white light.

Grassroots approach to conservation developed
A new strategy to manage invasive species and achieve broader conservation goals is being tested in the Grand River Grasslands, an area within the North American tallgrass prairie ecoregion.

Netherlands euthanasia and assisted suicide rates in 2010 comparable to rates before legalization
2010 rates of euthanasia and assisted suicide in the Netherlands were comparable to levels before the practices were legalized in 2002, according to new research published Online First in the Lancet and conducted by a Dutch research team from Erasmus MC University Medical Centre, Rotterdam; VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam; Statistics Netherlands, the Hague; and Utrecht's University Medical Centre.

Multiracial youths show similar vulnerability to peer pressure as whites
Experts have thought that multiracial adolescents, the fastest growing youth group in the United States, use drugs and engage in violence more than their single-race peers.

H1N1 vaccine associated with small but significant risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome
In studies examining the risk of adverse outcomes after receipt of the influenza A(H1N1) vaccine, infants exposed to the vaccine in utero did not have a significantly increased risk of major birth defects, preterm birth, or fetal growth restriction; while in another, study researchers found a small increased risk in adults of the nervous system disorder, Guillain-Barre syndrome, during the four to eight weeks after vaccination, according to two studies in the July 11 issue of JAMA.

Do people want to know if they are at risk for Alzheimer's disease?
Genetic tests exist to identify risk for the rare inherited form of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to predict susceptibility to the more common, late-onset form of AD, but do people want to know, and how do they react?

Nutrient mixture improves memory in patients with early Alzheimer's
A clinical trial of an Alzheimer's disease treatment developed at MIT has found that the nutrient cocktail can improve memory in patients with early Alzheimer's.

Greater diet-induced obesity in rats consuming sugar solution during the inactive period
Overeating is associated with the development of obesity. However, not only the amount, but also the timing of caloric intake could be an important contributor to obesity.

New CDC study on racial disparities in infant mortality published in Journal of Women's Health
Improving access to health care for minority women of childbearing age could improve pregnancy outcomes and reduce racial differences in infant mortality, according to an article in Journal of Women's Health.

F1000 Research partners with figshare to provide smart ways of accessing data
The new figshare widget acts as a window within the body of the F1000 Research article (much like a YouTube video window), and allows users to preview accompanying data files to help them decide whether to download the data itself.

NASA gets a cold stare from Emilia's eye
NASA's Aqua satellite got a cold stare from Emilia. Infrared satellite data revealed that cloud top temperatures around Hurricane Emilia's eye were bitter cold.

AOSSM presents annual research awards
In order to recognize and encourage cutting-edge research in key areas of orthopaedic sports medicine, the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine will present ten research awards and seven grants during its Annual Meeting, July 12-15 in Baltimore, Md.

Study reveals new mechanism that might promote cancer's growth and spread in the body
Researchers have discovered a previously unknown mechanism that promotes the growth and spread of cancer.
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