Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

July 24, 2012
Colonoscopy screening markedly reduces colorectal cancer incidence and death
A new study found that colonoscopy with polypectomy significantly reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and CRC-related death in the general population.

New national digital repository for social and economic data
Continuing access to the UK's most valuable collection of social and economic data has been secured with a £17 million investment over five years for the UK Data Service.

Mindfulness meditation reduces loneliness in older adults, Carnegie Mellon study shows
For older adults, loneliness is a major risk factor for health problems -- such as cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's -- and death.

Concerns over accuracy of tools to predict risk of repeat offending
Tools designed to predict an individual's risk of repeat offending are not sufficient on their own to inform sentencing and release or discharge decisions, concludes a study published on bmj.com today.

Research discoveries to find commercial reality
Australian researchers will translate their discoveries into commercial products faster thanks to a newly established Queensland Node of the Therapeutic Innovation Australia.

Winners of competition for most innovative skills-focused education models
Results for Development Institute is excited to announce the winners of the 2012 Innovative Secondary Education for Skills Enhancement Competition to uncover innovative, replicable models to equip youth with the skills for success in today's global economy.

Computer science professor from Saarland University wins European Research Award
The European Research Council awarded an

Diets high in salt could deplete calcium in the body: UAlberta research
The scientific community has always wanted to know why people who eat high-salt diets are prone to developing medical problems such as kidney stones and osteoporosis.

How a common fungus knows when to attack
Researchers from Tufts University show how a common fungus can adjust its physiology to become harmful in a host with compromised immune status.

Lace plants explain programmed cell death
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a highly regulated process that occurs in all animals and plants as part of normal development and in response to the environment.

'Weakest links' show greatest gains in relay races
The inferior members of swimming or running relay teams - those athletes who fared poorest in individual races - showed the greatest gains when performing as part of a team, and those gains were even greater during final races as opposed to preliminary races.

Feces fossils yield new insights into ancient diets and 'thrifty genes'
Scientists have long speculated that high diabetes rates among Native Americans may have roots in the evolutionary past.

QM historians discover medieval banking records hidden under coats of arms
A rare accounting document, half-concealed beneath a coat of arms design, has revealed the activities of Italian bankers working in early 15th century London, decades before the capital became a financial powerhouse.

Yoga reduces stress; now it's known why
Researchers at UCLA have shown that practicing a form of yogic meditation for just 12 minutes daily for eight weeks led to a reduction in the biological mechanisms responsible for an increase in the immune system's inflammation response.

Classifying neural circuit dysfunctions using neuroeconomics
Steve Chang, along with colleagues from Duke University, introduces a new classification scheme for psychiatric symptoms based on the state of a dysfunctional neural circuit.

Identifying trending stories on Twitter and optimal temperature for data center computers
Papers on how best to identify trending stories on Twitter and on just how cool computers in data centers need to be kept has won accolades for faculty and students from UTSC's Department of Computer & Mathematical Sciences.

Wyss Institute receives up to $37 million from DARPA to integrate organ chips to mimic the human body
The Wyss Institute will receive up to $37M from DARPA to develop an automated instrument that integrates 10 human organs-on-chips to study complex human physiology outside the body.

Social networking pays off more in the US than Germany
New research from North Carolina State University shows that informal social networks play an important role when it comes to finding jobs in both the United States and Germany, but those networks are significantly more important for high-paying jobs in the United States - which may contribute to economic inequality.

NIH funds development of tissue chips to help predict drug safety
Seventeen National Institutes of Health grants are aimed at creating 3-D chips with living cells and tissues that accurately model the structure and function of human organs such as the lung, liver and heart.

Sports guidelines for long QT syndrome patients may be too strict, Mayo Clinic finds
Participation in competitive sports by people with long QT syndrome -- a genetic abnormality in the heart's electrical system -- has been a matter of debate among physicians.

SEARCH study shows 1-year drop in HIV virus levels in rural Ugandan parish after campaign
Population-wide levels of HIV virus dropped substantially between 2011 and May 2012 in a rural part of southwestern Uganda, the site of two community health campaigns led by doctors at the University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center and Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda.

Vanderbilt-led team to develop 'microbrain' to improve drug testing
Creating a device out of human cells that simulates brain chemistry is the goal of a $2.1 million grant which is part of major new federal initiative to develop a series of

New angioplasty procedure improves blood flow in blocked arteries to extremities
Patients with blocked arteries to their extremities, known as peripheral artery disease or critical limb ischemia, may now find relief from lower leg pain and wounds caused by impaired leg artery circulation with the previously unproven therapy, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

Bringing natural history collections out of the dark
In a special issue of ZooKeys, initiated by the Natural History Museum London, Vince Smith and Vladimir Blagoderov bring together 18 papers by 81 authors to look at progress and prospects for mass digitizing entire natural history collections.

Carnivores: Beware of ticks
If you are a steak lover, enjoy your meat while you can.

Blood sugar diabetes risk for South Asians
New study that finds this ethnic group has higher levels of blood sugar than white Europeans

Male Ontario students show declines in fighting; females show elevated bullying and mental distress
An ongoing survey of Ontario students in grades seven to 12 conducted for the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health shows that while the majority of students have healthy relationships and report overall good mental and physical health, some negative trends, especially among girls, have raised concerns.

Scientists create artificial mother of pearl
Mimicking the way mother of pearl is created in nature, scientists have for the first time synthesized the strong, iridescent coating found on the inside of some mollusks.

Scots link-up with China to boost genetic research
Scots link-up with China to boost genetic research.

A new route for tackling treatment-resistant prostate cancer
Scientists have identified a new treatment target for men with advanced prostate cancer that no longer responds to hormone therapy - a stage of the disease which usually proves lethal.

President Obama selects Rutgers cell biologist Nihal Altan-Bonnet to receive prestigious award
Cell Biologist Nihal Altan-Bonnet, a researcher who has made significant advances in understanding viral replication in infected cells, is one of 96 young scientists to have received this year's Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

DataONE answers the call for new tools to study the Earth in this era of Big Data science
The earth and environmental sciences have become especially data-intensive. As researchers rely on highly calibrated and technologically sophisticated sensors rather than observations to collect data, discovering, integrating and analyzing massive amounts of heterogeneous information become critical to researchers' ability to address complex questions about the environment and the role of human beings in it.

Researchers study vaccine as potential weapon against aggressive brain tumors
Northwestern Brain Tumor Institute is participating in a national glioblastoma clinical trial.

Researchers study knee stress at tissue, cellular levels
A Cleveland Clinic research team is developing virtual models of human knee joints to better understand how tissues and their individual cells react to heavy loads - virtual models that someday can be used to understand damage mechanisms caused by the aging process or by debilitating diseases.

UCSB professor honored for authoritative textbook in chemical engineering
UC Santa Barbara professor Jacob Israelachvili, known as one of the most influential chemical engineers in the modern era, has been honored by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) with the 2012 William H.

ESC says 50 percent of CVD deaths in Europe could be avoided with proper regulation
Up to 50 percent of deaths from cardiovascular disease in Europe could be avoided by implementing population level changes such as taxation and regulation of advertising.

UK research paves way to a scalable device for quantum information processing
Researchers at NPL have demonstrated for the first time a monolithic 3D ion microtrap array which could be scaled up to handle several tens of ion-based quantum bits.

New mine safety center at University of Utah
The University of Utah created a new Center for Mining Safety and Health Excellence to help those who depend on the mining industry, university President David Pershing announced.

How chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increases risk of lung cancer
A University of Colorado Cancer Center study details novel mechanism of increased lung cancer risk due to COPD: long-term oxygen depletion stimulates signals that promote tumor growth.

Clemson researchers transform machine to make runways safer
Clemson researchers redesigned and modified a mobile drill press to retrofit a section of a runway that halts overrun aircraft, ultimately minimizing aircraft damage and passenger injury.

Hitting back at 'wiretapping' parasite
Dodder vines are parasitic plants that suck water, nutrients and information from other plants as they spread over them.

Reducing traffic at 2008 Olympics yielded large cut in CO2
China's efforts to reduce pollution for the Beijing Olympics has enabled scientists to quantify traffic impacts on carbon dioxide emissions.

New drug could treat Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis and brain injury
A new class of drug developed at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine shows early promise of being a one-size-fits-all therapy for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis and traumatic brain injury by reducing inflammation in the brain.

Fine tuning cardiac ablation could lead to quicker results for patients with arrhythmias
University of Michigan heart researchers are examining a new method for cardiac ablation that could help patients get closer to an arrhythmia-free life without repeat hospital visits.

Researchers developing bioadhesive gel to protect women from HIV and HSV infections
A new grant awarded to SRI International from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases will support the development of a topical microbicide gel for drug delivery.

Greater availability of neurosurgeons could reduce risk of death from motor vehicle accidents
Researchers at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center have found an association between increasing the distribution of neurosurgeons throughout the United States and decreasing the risk of death from motor vehicle accidents (MVAs).

Wayne State develops better understanding of memory retrieval between children and adults
Neuroscientists from Wayne State University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are taking a deeper look into how the brain mechanisms for memory retrieval differ between adults and children.

Professor's essay is 1 of 10 in special issue of Daedalus
Bren professor David Tilman's essay on the role of biodiversity in environmental sustainability is one of only ten essays in a new volume of the journal Daedalus, titled

Women who give birth after age 30 lower their risk of endometrial cancer
Compared to younger women, those who last give birth at age 30 or older decrease their risk of endometrial cancer, those who last give birth after 40 by nearly half.

Bend or stretch? How stressful is hyperflexion of horses' necks?
The best position of the horse's head during training has been extensively debated, largely without any scientific evidence: Should the neck be fully extended forwards and downwards or should it be

Mount Sinai researchers discover new target for vaccine development in abundant immune cells
White blood cells called neutrophils, which are the first line of defense against infection, play an unexpected role by boosting antibody production, according to research led by Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

Undergrads invent cell phone screener to combat anemia in developing world
Biomedical engineering students have invented a way to use cell phones in developing nations to identify pregnant women with dangerous anemia.

NASA's sighting of hot towers indicated Typhoon Vicente's rapid intensification
Rapid intensification of tropical cyclones is still somewhat of a mystery to forecasters, but one marker that NASA scientists confirmed is when

Feces fossils lend new insights into connection between Native-Americans, diabetes
A new analysis suggests Natives'

Citizen scientists needed for SF State's 'ZomBee Watch'
The San Francisco State University researchers who accidentally discovered

To understand childhood obesity, researchers look to inactive, fat rats
A new article reviews dozens of studies on animal models of childhood obesity, suggesting that these models contribute knowledge impossible to attain from human research.

Stanford Engineering's Jaramillo wins Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers
The White House recognizes assistant professor in chemical engineering for innovations in solar hydrogen production.

Stanford-Penn State scientists use microbes to make 'clean' methane
Microbes that convert electricity into methane gas could become an important source of renewable energy, according to scientists from Stanford and Pennsylvania State universities.

Same adaptations evolve across different insects
For years, scientists have questioned whether evolution is predictable, or whether chance events make such predictability unlikely.

Olympic Games: RUB economists are daring to forecast the medals table
Even before the XXX Olympic Games really get started in London on July 27, economists of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have dared to forecast the final medals table without taking into consideration the training status of the participating athletes.

Some harmful effects of light at night can be reversed
Chronic exposure to dim light at night can lead to depressive symptoms in rodents -- but these negative effects can be reversed simply by returning to a standard light-dark cycle, a new study suggests.

GPS can now measure ice melt, change in Greenland over months rather than years
Researchers have found a way to use GPS to measure short-term changes in the rate of ice loss on Greenland - and reveal a surprising link between the ice and the atmosphere above it.

New research determines how a single brain trauma may lead to Alzheimer's disease
A study, performed in mice and utilizing post-mortem samples of brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease, found that a single event of a moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury can disrupt proteins that regulate an enzyme associated with Alzheimer's.

Call to innovators: ONR's Naval S&T Partnership Conference registration opens
The Office of Naval Research opened online registration July 24 for its biennial Naval Science and Technology Partnership Conference, to take place this fall.

Study reveals substantial misdiagnosis of malaria in parts of Asia
Substantial over-diagnosis and mistreatment of malaria is evident in south and central Asia, warns a study published on bmj.com today.

New publication examines effect of early drug administration on Alzheimer's animal model
In a study published June 25 in the Journal of Neuroscience, a collaborative team of researchers led by Linda J.

Red potato chips: Segmentation cues can substantially decrease food intake
To test the effect of food segmentation, 98 college students were given tubes of stacked potato chips to munch on while watching a movie in class.

New method to find novel connections from gene to gene, drug to drug and between scientists
Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine have developed a new computational method that will make it easier for scientists to identify and prioritize genes, drug targets, and strategies for repositioning drugs that are already on the market.

Tropical plankton invade Arctic waters
For the first time, scientists have identified tropical and subtropical species of marine protozoa living in the Arctic Ocean.

Phase III trial of dapivirine ring begins in Africa: New HIV prevention approach for women
A large clinical trial testing the long-term safety and effectiveness of a new approach for preventing HIV in women -- a vaginal ring used once a month -- is now underway in Africa, researchers announced today at AIDS 2012.

Super Bags to thwart rice wastage now available to Filipino farmers
An airtight, reusable plastic bag that protects stored rice from moisture, pests, and rats, and keeps rice seeds viable, is now available to Filipino farmers in almost 200 retail stores nationwide.

Physicists study the classics for hidden truths
The truth behind some of the world's most famous historical myths, including Homer's epic, the Iliad, has been bolstered by two researchers who have analyzed the relationships between the myths' characters and compared them to real-life social networks.

Under the right conditions, peptide blocks HIV infection at multiple points along the way
Using model cell lines, a research group at Emory University showed that human neutrophil peptide 1 effectively prevented HIV entry into cells in multiple ways.

NCEAS' DataONE streamlines search and analysis of massive amounts of ecological data
In response to the growing need for a way to easily access and analyze massive amounts of heterogeneous data in the fields of earth and environmental sciences, UC Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, a core partner in a joint effort to streamline such research, presents DataONE, the Data Observation Network for Earth.

Use of sunbeds leads to 3000+ cases of melanoma a year in Europe and 'tougher actions' are needed
Of 63,942 new cases of cutaneous melanoma (a form of skin cancer) diagnosed each year in Europe an estimated 3,438 (5.4 percent) are related to sunbed use.

More gold -- and other minerals -- in them thar hills?
Despite advances in mining technology, mountain ranges prove notoriously difficult environments in the hunt for valuable minerals.

University of Texas Medical Branch selected to manage Center for Polar Medical Operations
Effective immediately, the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston will manage medical operations for the United States Antarctic Program.

Satellites see unprecedented Greenland ice sheet surface melt
For several days this month, Greenland's surface ice cover melted over a larger area than at any time in more than 30 years of satellite observations.

Researchers find driver of breast cancer stem cell metastasis
Researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have found that a cancer gene linked to aggressive spread of the disease promotes breast cancer stem cells.

House funding bill will delay research progress and place new burdens on NIH
The fiscal year 2013 appropriations bill adopted by the House Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies Subcommittee on July 18 fails short of the needed investment in biomedical research at the National Institutes of Health and will delay efforts to improve the well-being of our nation's citizens, reduce human suffering, and protect the nation against new and emerging health threats.

Pulling CO2 from air vital, say researchers
Emerging techniques to pull carbon dioxide from the air and store it away to stabilize the climate may become increasingly important as the planet tips into a state of potentially dangerous warming, researchers from Columbia University's Earth Institute argue in a paper to be published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Human papillomavirus types do not replace others after large-scale vaccination
Their new work is reported in the June 18, 2012, early online issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

'Control-Alt-Hack' game lets players try their hand at computer security
Do you have what it takes to be an ethical hacker?

Blue Ribbon Panel unveils findings on logistical improvements to support Antarctic science
Today, the 12-member US Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel, commissioned by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and the National Science Foundation released their report, 'More and Better Science in Antarctica through Increased Logistical Effectiveness.' The report is a comprehensive document based on several months of research, containing numerous specific recommendations for the US logistics system for improved support of scientific research in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean.

Active forest management to reduce fire could help protect northern spotted owl
The northern spotted owl, a threatened species in the Pacific Northwest, would actually benefit in the long run from active management of the forest lands that form its primary habitat and are increasingly vulnerable to stand-replacing fire.

Spillways can divert sand from river to rebuild wetlands
Researchers could have a new method to rebuild wetlands of the Louisiana delta, thanks to a chance finding during severe flooding of the Mississippi River.

Novel pig model may be useful for human cancer studies
A naturally occurring line of immunodeficient pigs can support the growth of human tumors injected under their skin, offering a promising new large animal model for studying human cancers and testing new drugs and treatment strategies.

A quarter of our very elderly have undiagnosed treatable heart problems, research reveals
The very oldest in our society are missing out on simple heart treatments which can prolong and improve their quality of life, Newcastle heart experts say.

New probe provides vital assist in brain cancer surgery
A new probe developed collaboratively at Norris Cotton Cancer Center and Dartmouth College's Thayer School of Engineering uses an innovative fluorescence-reading technology to help brain surgeons distinguish cancerous tissue from normal tissue.

EARTH: 2012
Dec. 21, 2012 -- the purported last day of a 5,125-year cycle in the Mesoamerican calendar -- has been added to an endless list of days when the world has been expected to end.

Element Six synthetic diamond protects CERN particle detectors in Higgs boson experiments
Element Six, the world leader in synthetic diamond supermaterials, is proud to announce that its highest purity synthetic diamond is an integral part of the CERN LHC CMS and ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring Systems, used in the recent experiments which revealed the discovery of a new particle consistent with Higgs boson.
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