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Science News and Current Events for August 01, 2012


Sage launches Mobile Media & Communication journal
SAGE today announced the launch of Mobile Media & Communication in January 2013.
Are Americans ready to solve the weight of the nation?
In a Perspective article appearing in this week's New England Journal of Medicine, public health researchers examine how recommendations in a new report from the Institute of Medicine --
Spouses of breast cancer survivors hold on to hope
University of Alberta researcher finds spouses of breast cancer patients have unique needs to reduce stress, cope with life-and-death struggle.
JAAOS study highlights success of nerve transfer surgery
Because many physicians are unaware of nerve transfer surgery, some patients suffer long-term impairment from nerve injuries that could have been fixed.
Gene technology helps deceive greedy pest insects
Worldwide cabbage farmers have vast problems with the diamond-back moth.
Skin cancer identified for the first time in wild fish populations
Scientists identify melanoma in the coral trout, a species found on the Great Barrier Reef and directly beneath the world's largest hole in the ozone layer.
Getting to the root -- unearthing the plant-microbe quid pro quo
The microbial community or microbiome that inhabits the niches immediately surrounding and inside a plant's root facilitates the shuttling of nutrients and information into and out of the roots within the soil matrix.
UC Riverside faculty member elected fellow of Entomological Society of America
For his outstanding contributions to entomology, Joseph Morse, a professor of entomology at UC Riverside, has been elected a fellow of the Entomological Society of America (ESA), the largest organization in the world serving the professional and scientific needs of entomologists and people in related disciplines.
Scientists discover molecular link between circadian clock disturbances and inflammatory diseases
Scientists have known for some time that throwing off the body's circadian rhythm can negatively affect body chemistry.
Researchers find potential cancer roadblock
By identifying a key protein that tells certain breast cancer cells when and how to move, researchers at Michigan State University hope to better understand the process by which breast cancer spreads, or metastasizes.
Jailhouse phone calls reveal when domestic abusers most likely to attack
An analysis of jailhouse phone calls between men charged with felony domestic violence and their victims allowed researchers for the first time to see exactly what triggered episodes of violent abuse.
Controlling gene expression with hydrogen peroxide 'switches'
Hydrogen peroxide doesn't just come in bottles from the drugstore - the human body makes it as well.
Wrecks and effects
A study by a University of Iowa economist finds that many car race fans do, indeed, watch NASCAR races because they want to see car wrecks, but more of them have been tuning in to see who actually wins the race since the circuit adopted its Chase for the Cup championship series in 2004.
Reluctant electrons enable 'extraordinarily strong' negative refraction
Researchers at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have demonstrated a drastically new way of achieving negative refraction in a metamaterial.
Molecular switch identified that controls key cellular process
In a study published online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, scientists at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research in Oxford discovered a critical molecular switch that regulates autophagy.
Childhood defiance correlated with drug dependence
Children who exhibit oppositional behavior run the risk of becoming addicted to nicotine, cannabis and cocaine whilst Inattention symptoms represent a specific additional risk of nicotine addiction.
JCI early table of contents for Aug. 1, 2012
This release contains summaries and links for the following papers to be published online in the JCI on Aug.
Learning machines scour Twitter in service of bullying research
Hundreds of millions of daily posts on the social networking service Twitter are providing a new window into bullying -- a tough nut to crack for researchers.
Interdisciplinary research leads to reduced construction costs and multiple awards
Mani Golparvar-Fard, an assistant professor of civil and environmental engineering at Virginia Tech, has developed an augmented reality modeling system that automatically analyzes physical progress on large-scale construction projects.
Study identifies barriers to breast health care in Pakistan
Among most women in Pakistan, there is limited awareness of breast cancer occurrence, detection, and screening practices, or the importance of self-breast exams and clinical breast exams, according to a study in the August issue of the Journal of the American College of Radiology.
Brain imaging can predict how intelligent you are, study finds
When it comes to intelligence, what factors distinguish the brains of the exceptionally smart from those of average humans?
Fruit flies on methamphetamine die largely as a result of anorexia
A new study finds that, like humans, fruit flies exposed to methamphetamine drastically reduce their food intake and increase their physical activity.
Electromagnetic 'swamps' don't always bog electrons down
Scientists have designed a simple system to study how electrons travel through energy barriers instead of over them.
In fly DNA, the footprint of a fly virus
In a curious evolutionary twist, several species of a commonly studied fruit fly appear to have incorporated genetic material from a virus into their genomes, according to new research by University at Buffalo biologists.
Sleep affects potency of vaccines
As moms have always known, a good night's sleep is crucial to good health -- and now a new study led by a UCSF researcher shows that poor sleep can reduce the effectiveness of vaccines.
Research: Men respond negatively to depictions of 'ideal masculinity' in ads
The male response to depictions of ideal masculinity in advertising is typically a negative one, which has implications for advertisers and marketers targeting the increasingly fragmented male consumer demographic, according to research co-authored by Cele Otnes, a University of Illinois professor of advertising and of business administration.
Transparent solar cells for windows that generate electricity
Scientists are reporting development of a new transparent solar cell, an advance toward giving windows in homes and other buildings the ability to generate electricity while still allowing people to see outside.
NIH researchers implicate unique cell type in multiple sclerosis
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have found evidence that a unique type of immune cell contributes to multiple sclerosis (MS).
Who influences your vote? It may depend on how soon the election is
Neighbors' lawn signs, public opinion polls and even a conversation in the next restaurant booth can affect how people vote in an election.
HIV-infected T cells help transport the virus throughout the body
A new study has discovered one more way the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exploits the immune system.
CWRU School of Medicine researchers discover gene that permanently stops cancer cell proliferation
Researchers at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have discovered a mutant form of the gene, Chk1, that when expressed in cancer cells, permanently stopped their proliferation and caused cell death without the addition of any chemotherapeutic drugs.
A diet high in choline during pregnancy may mean less stress for baby
New research from Cornell University indicates that pregnant women who increase choline intake in the third trimester of pregnancy may reduce the risk of the baby developing metabolic and chronic stress-related diseases like high blood pressure and diabetes later in life.
Earth's oceans and ecosystems still absorbing about half the greenhouse gases emitted by people
Earth's oceans, forests and other ecosystems continue to soak up about half the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by human activities, even as those emissions have increased, according to a study by University of Colorado and NOAA scientists published August 2 in the journal Nature.
Obese donors increase risk of death for pediatric liver transplant recipients
Children undergoing liver transplantation are at greater risk of graft loss and death from adult organ donors who are severely obese according to research published in the August issue of Liver Transplantation, a journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Americans gaining more weight than they say
Despite the increasing awareness of the problem of obesity in the United States, most Americans don't know whether they are gaining or losing weight, according to new research from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.
Spice ingredient in curry emerges as promising basis for an Alzheimer's disease medicine
The spice compound that gives curry dishes their yellow color and pungent flavor is emerging as a prime candidate for a less expensive treatment for Alzheimer's disease, according to an article in the current edition of Chemical & Engineering News.
Blue light helps tired workers and motorists regulate their internal clocks
Researchers at Université Laval have developed a blue light to help bleary eyed shift workers regulate their internal clocks and get the sleep they need when they need it.
Black gay men worldwide 15 times more likely to have HIV and racial disparity
An international team of researchers, including a scientist at Georgia State University, found that black men who have sex with men (MSM) are more likely to have HIV than other MSM, and that social inequalities play a major role.
Research identifies a promising new therapeutic target for aggressive breast cancer
Scientists at Western University have identified a new therapeutic target for advanced breast cancer which has shown tremendous promise in mouse models.
Drug combo better for common type of metastatic breast cancer, UCI-led study finds
Postmenopausal women with the most common type of metastatic breast cancer now have a new treatment option that lengthens their lives, according a study led by UC Irvine oncologist Dr.
BMC receives $2.67 million to reduce opioid risk in primary care settings
Researchers at Boston Medical Center (BMC) have received a $2.67 million grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) to implement and evaluate a new model of care in primary care settings aimed at decreasing the misuse of and addiction to opioids among patients with chronic pain.
Cut emissions further or face risks of high air pollution, study shows
Most of the world's population will be subject to degraded air quality in 2050 if man-made emissions continue as usual.
Students trading sex for drugs or alcohol happens also in rural B.C.: UBC research
Just over two percent of teens in rural schools who have ever tried alcohol, marijuana or other drugs report they have also traded sex for these substances, according to University of British Columbia research published today in the Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality.
Entomological Society of America names 2012 fellows
The Entomological Society of America has elected ten new fellows of the Society for 2012.
New study by Syracuse University scientists uncovers a reproduction conundrum
When it comes to sperm meeting eggs in sexual reproduction, conventional wisdom holds that the fastest swimming sperm are most likely to succeed in their quest to fertilize eggs.
UCLA-led project aimed at African American couples affected by HIV gets $2.5 million boost
A UCLA-led project to implement a unique HIV intervention program aimed at reducing sexually risky behaviors and promoting healthier living among heterosexual African American couples has received a $2.5 million grant from the National Institute of Mental Health.
Wiley launches new interdisciplinary review WIREs Energy and Environment
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., today announced the launch of a new interdisciplinary review publication, WIREs Energy and Environment, publishing online this month.
NASA sees twin typhoons headed for double China landfall
NASA's Terra satellite captured two tropical cyclones on visible imagery today, Aug.
Tropical climate in the Antarctic
Knowledge of past episodes of global warmth can be used to better understand the relationship between climate change, variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide and the reaction of Earth's biosphere.
Wrinkled surfaces could have widespread applications
A team of researchers at MIT have created wrinkled surfaces with precise sizes and patterns.
Debris flows, landslides, fossil microatolls, paleo-seasonality, and carbonate ore deposits
Two Geology studies focus on debris flows and landslides, one from the point of view of alpine denudation and the other studying and quantifying hazards to human populations.
Change in drug regimen offers new hope in advanced breast cancer
A study co-authored by a Loyola researcher and published in the New England Journal of Medicine is offering new hope to women with advanced breast cancer.
Global health researchers urge integrating de-worming into HIV care in Africa
An estimated 50 percent of the 2.1 million children with HIV infections in sub-Saharan African also have worm infestations.
NIH awards $49.6 million to Weill Cornell
Weill Cornell Medical College has received $49.6 million from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, of the National Institutes of Health, to fund its Clinical and Translational Science Center.
Roots and microbes: Bringing a complex underground ecology into the lab
Beneath the surface of the earth, an influential community of microbes mingles with plant roots.
Substance involved in Alzheimer's can reverse paralysis in mice with multiple sclerosis
A molecule widely assailed as the chief culprit in Alzheimer's disease unexpectedly reverses paralysis and inflammation in several distinct animal models of a different disorder -- multiple sclerosis, Stanford University School of Medicine researchers have found.
Massive data for miniscule communities
It's relatively easy to collect massive amounts of data on microbes.
Difficult to diagnose cases of infectious endocarditis solved with SPECT/CT imaging agent
When combined with standard diagnostic tests, functional imaging procedures have been shown to reduce the rate of misdiagnosed cases of infectious endocarditis.
'They Play, You Pay'
In They Play, You Pay: Why Taxpayers Build Ballparks, Stadiums, and Arenas for Billionaire Owners and Millionaire Players -- a new book from Copernicus -- author James T.
UT Southwestern study suggests new treatment target for deadly brain tumors
A study by UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers published online today in Nature reveals new insight into why the most common, deadly kind of brain tumor in adults recurs and identifies a potential target for future therapies.
Lack of nationwide surveillance may lead to clusters of congenital anomalies going unnoticed
One baby in every 45 was born with a congenital anomaly in 2010 according to the second annual report by the British Isles Network of Congenital Anomaly Registers, published on Thursday.
Anastrozole and fulvestrant combo better than single drug for metastatic breast cancer
Combining two anti-estrogen drugs extends the lives of women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer, according to results of a phase III study by the SWOG clinical trials network.
A direct look at graphene
Berkeley Lab researchers have recorded the first direct observations at microscopic lengths of how electrons and holes respond to a charged impurity in graphene.
Medical complications in hospitalized children: The Canadian Paediatric Adverse Events Study
More children experience complications or unintended injuries, especially related to surgery, in academic hospitals compared with community hospitals, but adverse events in the former are less likely to be preventable, according to the Canadian Paediatric Adverse Events Study published in Canadian Medical Association Journal.
Caffeine may ease Parkinson's symptoms
Caffeine, which is widely consumed around the world in coffee, tea and soft drinks, may help control movement in people suffering from Parkinson's.
Teen survival expectations predict later risk-taking behavior
Some young people's expectations that they will not live long, healthy lives may actually foreshadow such outcomes.
Worldwide increase of air pollution
Atmospheric model calculates changes in air quality over the coming decades.
Researchers discover female spiders produce mating plugs to prevent unwanted sex from males
Scientists at the Smithsonian and their colleagues have discovered a new mechanism of animal mating plug production.
In pilot study, a peptide controls blood sugar in people with congenital hyperinsulinism
A pilot study in adolescents and adults has found that an investigational drug shows promise as the first potential medical treatment for children with the severest type of congenital hyperinsulinism, a rare but potentially devastating disease in which gene mutations cause insulin levels to become dangerously high.
Weight-loss clinic drop-out rates are a huge barrier to treating obesity
More than 1.7 billion people worldwide may be classified as overweight and need appropriate medical or surgical treatment with the goal of sustainable weight loss.
More code cracking
A trio of groundbreaking publications from researchers in Northwestern University's Physical Sciences-Oncology Center report important methodological advances that will enable a better understanding of how gene expression is regulated, both in normal cells and in cancer cells.
How the 'lone wolf' terrorist networks
A mounting global threat is of terrorists who act as
New research reveals extent of poor-quality antimalarial medicines in South American countries
Two articles recently published in Malaria Journal shed new light on the quality of antimalarial medicines circulating in countries in the Amazon Basin in South America.
Adolescents' personalities and coping habits affect social behaviors, MU researcher says
A new study by a University of Missouri human development expert describes how adolescents' developing personalities and coping habits affect their behaviors toward others.
Discovering new uses for old drugs
With the cost of putting a single new drug on the pharmacy shelves topping a staggering one billion dollars, scientists are reporting development of a way to determine if an already-approved drug might be used to treat a different disease.
AAO-sponsored research shows cataract surgery can reduce hip fracture risk
A major study of Medicare beneficiaries showed that risk of hip fractures was significantly reduced in patients who received cataract surgery, compared with patients who did not.
Recurring shoulder instability injuries likely among young athletes playing contact sports
Summer is a peak season for many sports, and with that comes sport-related injuries.
New study finds strong evidence of humans surviving rabies bites without treatment
Challenging conventional wisdom that rabies infections are 100 percent fatal unless immediately treated, scientists studying remote populations in the Peruvian Amazon at risk of rabies from vampire bats found 11 percent of those tested showed protection against the disease, with only one person reporting a prior rabies vaccination.
Pet arrival may help individuals with autism develop prosocial behavior
The introduction of a pet can have a positive effect on autistic children's behavior, as reported in research published Aug.
UCSB autism researchers find that focusing on strengths improves social skills of adolescents
The junior high and high school years are emotionally challenging even under the best of circumstances, but for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), that time can be particularly painful.
Too cool to follow the law
So-called glass-formers are a class of highly viscous liquid materials that have the consistency of honey and turn into brittle glass once cooled to sufficiently low temperatures.
DeLuca of Kessler Foundation receives research award from American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association chose John DeLuca, Ph.D., VP for Research and Training at Kessler Foundation as recipient of the 2012 Roger G.
Early weaning, DDGS feed could cut costs for cattle producers
If the drought forces producers to feed a larger portion of distillers dried grains with solubles, cattle can maintain gains and improve meat quality if the animals are weaned early, a Purdue University scientist has shown.
Artificial butter flavoring ingredient linked to key Alzheimer's disease process
A new study raises concern about chronic exposure of workers in industry to a food flavoring ingredient used to produce the distinctive buttery flavor and aroma of microwave popcorn, margarines, snack foods, candy, baked goods, pet foods and other products.
Breaking the barriers for low-cost energy storage
Scientists have developed an air-breathing battery that uses the chemical energy generated by the oxidation of iron plates that are exposed to the oxygen in the air -- a process similar to rusting.
Mayo Clinic completes first genome-wide analysis of peripheral T-cell lymphomas
Researchers at Mayo Clinic have completed the world's first genome-wide sequencing analysis of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, unlocking the genetic secrets of this poorly understood and highly aggressive cancer of the immune system.
Is it a rock, or is it Jell-O? Defining the architecture of rhomboid enzymes
Johns Hopkins scientists have decoded for the first time the
Test flight over Peru ruins could revolutionize archaeological mapping
Archaeological sites that currently take years to map could be completed in minutes with a new system that uses an unmanned aerial vehicle developed at Vanderbilt University that is currently being tested in Peru.
Springer acquires book portfolio from Canopus Academic Publishing
Effective 16 July 2012, Springer Science+Business Media has acquired the works of Canopus Academic Publishing Ltd.
A drug-screening platform for ALS
Researchers recapitulated ALS abnormalities in motor neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells obtained from familial ALS patients.
Global 'sleeplessness epidemic' affects an estimated 150 million in developing world
Levels of sleep problems in the developing world are approaching those seen in developed nations, linked to an increase in problems like depression and anxiety.
Dartmouth theoretical physicists probe the Majorana mystery
Dartmouth physicists close in on a subatomic particle that could enable the next generation of supercomputers and illuminate the inscrutability of cosmic dark matter.
Improving human immunity to malaria
The deadliest form of malaria is caused the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum.
A promising step forward toward muscular dystrophy treatment
Scientists have reversed symptoms of myotonic muscular dystrophy in mice by eliminating a buildup of toxic RNA in muscle cells.
Earth absorbing more carbon, even as CO2 emissions rise, says CU-Boulder-led study
Despite sharp increases in carbon dioxide emissions by humans in recent decades that are warming the planet, Earth's vegetation and oceans continue to soak up about half of them, according to a surprising new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder.
Upgrading the Internet for the mobile age
A team of researchers at Princeton University has created a new approach to Internet architecture that provides mobility for users and flexibility for datacenters while not requiring any major changes to the current structure of the Internet.
NIH study shows equatorial regions in Brazil less affected by 2009 influenza pandemic
The death toll of the 2009 influenza pandemic in equatorial climates may have been much lower than originally thought, according to a study supported by the National Institutes of Health's Fogarty International Center.
Writing graphics software gets much easier
A new programming language for image-processing algorithms yields code that's much shorter and clearer -- but also faster.
The aging brain is more malleable than previously believed
Neuroscientists are finding that, as we get older, our aging brains are proving surprisingly malleable, and in ways not previously anticipated.
A blue whirlpool in The River
A new image taken with ESO's Very Large Telescope shows the galaxy NGC 1187.
New FDA program adds to tools to curb opiod abuse in United States
With deaths associated with prescription opioids, often sold illegally, now reaching toward 14,000 each year, the authors of a Viewpoint piece in the new issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association say a new risk management plan from the US Food and Drug Administration represents a promising opportunity to cut the amount of addictive prescription drugs in circulation for sale and abuse.
2012 AAPS Annual Meeting and Exposition
Scientists from around the world will gather to share the latest scientific discoveries and industry insights at the 2012 AAPS Annual Meeting and Exposition, Oct.
Strangers on a bus: Study reveals lengths commuters go to avoid each other
You're on the bus, and one of the only free seats is next to you.
New study: Running mechanics, not metabolism, are the key to performance for elite sprinters
Contrary to traditional scientific understanding, sprint and endurance exercise differ fundamentally in the relationship between exercise mechanics, metabolism and performance, according to new research from the University of Montana and Southern Methodist University, Dallas.
State of Michigan adopts NIH's PRB progesterone therapy to combat infant mortality
The Michigan Department of Community Health has unveiled the state's Infant Mortality Reduction Plan, a strategy that includes significant recommendations developed from medical research conducted by the Perinatology Research Branch of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, at the Wayne State University School of Medicine.
A cup of joe may help some Parkinson's disease symptoms
While drinking caffeine each day does not appear to help improve sleepiness among people with Parkinson's disease, it may have a benefit in controlling movement, according to new research published in the Aug.
NASA satellite sees strength in developing Atlantic tropical low
NASA's Aqua satellite spotted some very cold, high, thunderstorms around the center of a tropical low pressure area in the Atlantic Ocean today, indicating that the system is getting stronger and more organized.
Rewarding work for butterflies
Butterflies learn faster when a flower is rewarding than when it is not, and females have the edge over males when it comes to speed of learning with rewards.
13-year Cascadia study complete - and Northwest earthquake risk looms large
A comprehensive analysis of the Cascadia Subduction Zone off the Pacific Northwest coast confirms that The region has had numerous earthquakes over the past 10,000 years, and suggests that the southern Oregon coast may be most vulnerable based on recurrence frequency.
DMP module on heart failure: Current guidelines indicate some need for revision
The aim of the report is to identify those recommendations from current guidelines of high methodological quality that may be relevant for the planned revision of the module
Better student preparation needed for university maths
Moving from sixth form, or college, into higher education can be a challenge for many students, especially those who start mathematically demanding courses.
Improving the oral health of adults with special needs proves challenging
A comprehensive study profiling the oral health of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities found that dental disease persists in this population.

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