Brightsurf Science News & Current Events

May 14, 2013
Mental health and NCDs
Non-communicable diseases and mental disorders each constitute a huge portion of the worldwide health care burden, and often occur together, so they should be addressed together.

ASPS supports new legislation to ensure women are aware of all breast cancer treatment options
The American Society of Plastic Surgeons announced its strong support of the

New drug enhances radiation treatment for brain cancer in preclinical studies
A novel drug may help increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy for the most deadly form of brain cancer, report scientists at Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center.

Women's immune systems remain younger for longer
Women's immune systems age more slowly than men's, suggests research in BioMed Central's open access journal Immunity & Ageing.

What impacts whether African Americans call 9-1-1 immediately for stroke symptoms?
African-Americans know the signs of stroke, but concerns about medical cost, ambulance response time and unfamiliarity with the need for prompt hospital care impacted whether they called 9-1-1 immediately.

Vijay Tiwari awarded the Bruno Speck Award 2013
Dr Vijay Tiwari, a Group Leader at the Institute of Molecular Biology in Mainz, has been awarded the Bruno Speck Award by the Swiss Foundation of Haematological Research.

Carnegie Mellon partners with Human Rights Data Analysis Group to improve Syrian casualty reporting
Carnegie Mellon University's Center for Human Rights Science is partnering with the Human Rights Data Analysis Group to improve mass casualty estimation and will start with the ongoing uprising in Syria.

Center for Clinical and Translational Science awards new pilot grants
The University of Illinois at Chicago's Center for Clinical and Translational Science has selected six research projects to receive pilot grants in 2013.

'Practicing Sustainability' chosen for a silver Nautilus Book Award
Practicing Sustainability, published by Springer, has been selected as a silver-award winner of the 2013 Nautilus Book Awards, in the

OU professor recipient of grant from the Simons Foundation Fellows Program in Theoretical Physics
A University of Oklahoma physics professor is the recipient of a grant from the Simons Foundation Fellows Program in Theoretical Physics.

Benefit of cycle helmet laws to reduce head injuries still uncertain
The benefit of helmet legislation to reduce admissions to hospital for head injuries is

Treatment with 2 osteoporosis drugs better at increasing bone density than single-drug therapy
A combination of two FDA-approved osteoporosis drugs with different mechanisms of action was found to increase bone density better than treatment with either drug alone in a small clinical trial.

Newly described type of immune cell and T cells share similar path to maturity
Innate lymphoid cells protect boundary tissues such as the skin, lung, and the gut from microbial onslaught.

Scientists uncover the fundamental property of astatine, the rarest atom on Earth
An international team of scientists, including a University of York researcher, has carried out ground-breaking experiments to investigate the atomic structure of astatine, the rarest naturally occurring element on Earth.

New program successful in reducing service and substance use among frequent health care users
A program co-led by St. Michael's Hospital could be the next widely used model to treat patients who are frequent users of the health care system and have severe addictions, often complicated by homelessness and mental health problems.

Ognjen Miljanic first from UH to be selected a Cottrell Scholar
Ognjen Miljanic, assistant professor of chemistry, is the first University of Houston faculty member to be selected as a 2013 Cottrell Scholar.

Carnegie Mellon to present Leslie Ungerleider with Andrew Carnegie Prize in Mind and Brain Sciences
Carnegie Mellon University will award the first Andrew Carnegie Prize in Mind and Brain Sciences to Leslie G.

New principle may help explain why nature is quantum
One question researchers have yet to answer is why nature picked quantum physics, in all its weird glory, as a sensible way to behave.

CWRU researcher searches for global views of nurses' end-of-life care for patients
Nurses will use extreme measures to save their patients and parents; but if they were dying, they prefer less aggressive ones for themselves, according to results from an international survey on nurses' end-of-life preferences.

Can breastfeeding protect against ADHD?
A new study suggests that breastfeeding may protect against the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder later in childhood.

American Chemical Society podcast: Green chemistry mobile app
The latest episode in the American Chemical Society's award-winning Global Challenges/Chemistry Solutions podcast series describes the first mobile application to foster wider use of the environmentally friendly and sustainable principles of green chemistry.

When green means danger: A stunning new species of palm-pitviper from Honduras
A remarkable new species of bright green palm-viper has been discovered in a threatened cloud forest in Honduras, and is named to honor grassroots conservationist Mario Guifarro, who was assassinated in 2007.

Playing at pirate games
The results of a large-scale, analysis of BitTorrent file-sharing of computer games, focusing on using open methodologies are to be published in the International Journal of Advanced Media and Communication and bust some of the common myths about digital piracy.

Fossil saved from mule track revolutionizes understanding of ancient dolphin-like marine reptile
An international team of scientists have revealed a new species of ichthyosaur (a dolphin-like marine reptile from the age of dinosaurs) from Iraq, which revolutionizes our understanding of the evolution and extinction of these ancient marine reptiles.

The UPV/EHUs IXA Group helps to improve the use of the colossal digital library Europeana
Automatic language processing is essential to be able to select information properly in any Internet search.

UCLA study shows warming in central China greater than most climate models indicated
New data from Central China reveal that temperatures have risen 10 to 14 degrees Fahrenheit over the last 20,000 years in this region, an increase two to four times greater than what many scientists previously thought.

BMJ calls for new and stronger partnerships to improve healthcare
Today the BMJ calls for doctors and patients to join together as partners to improve healthcare.

TGen and Riddell announce partnership for biomarker study of concussive injuries
Head protection plays a vital role in the health and safety of any athlete participating in helmeted sports.

Male testosterone levels increase when victorious in competition against rivals, but not friends
A University of Missouri study has found that testosterone levels during group competition are modulated depending on the relationships among the competitors and may be related to the formation of alliances in warfare.

The search for an early biomarker to fight atherosclerosis
The Journal of the American Heart Association published the conclusive results from a study directed by Dr.

Cooling ocean temperature could buy more time for coral reefs
Limiting the amount of warming experienced by the world's oceans in the future could buy some time for tropical coral reefs, say researchers from the University of Bristol.

University of Miami study: Companies in states with weaker economies provide investing opportunity
Companies located in more economically-troubled states provide a greater opportunity for investors than companies in other states according to new research by the University of Miami School of Business Administration.

Relationship troubles? Some sad music might help you feel better
Consumers experiencing relationship problems are more likely to prefer aesthetic experiences that reflect their negative mood, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

Engineered biomaterial could improve success of medical implants
Expensive, state-of-the-art medical devices and surgeries often are thwarted by the body's natural response to attack something in the tissue that appears foreign.

Corals turn to algae for stored food when times get tough
Researchers at EPFL present new evidence for the crucial role of algae in the survival of their coral hosts.

3 X-class flares in 24 hours
The sun emitted a third significant solar flare in under 24 hours, peaking at 9:11 p.m.

First analysis of dental therapists finds increase in access for children, low-income adults
A new report assessing the economic viability of services provided by practicing midlevel dental providers in the US shows that they are expanding preventive dental care to people who need it most: children and those who can't afford care.

LLNL and Cool Earth Solar receive $1.7 million for renewable energy demonstration project
The California Energy Commission has awarded $1.7 million to a partnership between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Cool Earth Solar Inc. to conduct a community-scale renewable energy integration demonstration project at the Livermore Valley Open Campus.

But what does it do?
It is now easier to pinpoint exactly what molecules a phosphatase -- a type of protein that's essential for cells to react to their environment -- acts upon in human cells, thanks to the free online database DEPOD, created by EMBL scientists.

Scientists find extensive glacial retreat in Mount Everest region
Researchers taking a new look at the snow and ice covering Mount Everest and the national park that surrounds it are finding abundant evidence that the world's tallest peak is shedding its frozen cloak.

Brazil crack user study finds critical need for intervention
A Brazilian investigative team, collaborating with a Simon Fraser University researcher, is citing an urgent need for targeted interventions among young crack users in cities throughout Brazil, identified as the world's biggest crack market, and further research to better address the problem.

Fish oil may stall effects of junk food on brain
Data from more than 180 research papers suggests fish oils could minimise the effects that junk food can have on the brain, a review by researchers at the University of Liverpool has shown.

Illusion of control: Why sports fans prefer 'lucky' products
Consumers engage in superstitious behavior when they want to achieve something but don't have the power to make it happen, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

Do potatoes grow on vines? A review of the wild relatives of some favorite food plants
Solanum is is well-known for its agriculturally important species such as potatoes, tomatoes and eggplants, but also has many species that are less well known.

Trying to be happier works when listening to upbeat music
Recent research at the University of Missouri discovered that an individual can indeed successfully try to be happier, especially when cheery music aids the process.

New BUSM study explores providers' perceptions of parental concerns about HPV vaccination
A new Boston University School of Medicine study has found that low-income and minority parents may be more receptive to vaccinating their daughters against Human Papillomavirus, while white, middle-class parents are more likely to defer the vaccination.

Multilingual survey research: Do poor translations cause bias?
Survey results may be biased in multilingual research if consumers are unfamiliar with translated terms, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

Crop rotation with nematode-resistant wheat can protect tomatoes
A resistant strain of wheat can reduce nematode numbers in the soil and protect the next rotation of tomato plants.

Study evaluates long-term effectiveness of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse
Results after seven years of follow-up suggest that women considering abdominal sacrocolpopexy (surgery for pelvic organ prolapse [POP]) should be counseled that this procedure effectively provides relief from POP symptoms; however, the anatomic support deteriorates over time; and that adding an anti-incontinence procedure decreases, but does not eliminate the risk of stress urinary incontinence, and mesh erosion can be a problem, according to a study in the May 15 issue of JAMA.

Wireless signals could transform brain trauma diagnostics
New technology developed at UC Berkeley is using wireless signals to provide real-time, non-invasive diagnoses of brain swelling or bleeding.

Alzheimer's markers predict start of mental decline
Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have helped identify many of the biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease that could potentially predict which patients will develop the disorder later in life.

Microbes capture, store, and release nitrogen to feed reef-building coral
Microscopic algae that live within reef-forming corals scoop up available nitrogen, store the excess in crystal form, and slowly feed it to the coral as needed, according to a study published in mBio.

Bacterium counteracts 'coffee ring effect'
Ever notice how a dried coffee stain has a thicker outer rim, while the middle of the stain remains almost unsoiled?

Flower power fights orchard pests
Washington State University researchers have found they can control one of fruit growers' more severe pests, aphids, with a remarkably benign tool: flowers.

First precise MEMS output measurement technique unveiled
The commercial application of MEMS, or micro-electro-mechanical systems, will receive a major boost today following the presentation of a brand new way to accurately measure the power requirements and outputs of all existing and future devices.

Digital mammography cancer detection rates may vary significantly
Digital direct radiography is significantly more effective than computed radiography at detecting breast cancer, according to a new study.

Asymptomatic carriage of M. pneumoniae common in children
The bacterium M. pneumoniae is carried at high rates in the upper respiratory tracts of healthy children and usual diagnostic tests cannot differentiate between such asymptomatic carriage and actual respiratory tract infection, according to a study by Dutch researchers published in this week's PLOS Medicine.

Advertising product results? Put images closer together
Consumers believe a product is more effective when images of the product and its desired outcome are placed closer together in advertisements, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

Non-communicable diseases account for half of adult female deaths in rural Bangladesh
A study conducted by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that non-communicable diseases accounted for 48 percent of 1,107 investigated female deaths in rural Bangladesh between 2002 and 2007.

Cutting-edge bacteria research leads to more effective treatment of complex infections
Bacteria play a huge role when inflammations attack our body.

Brain-imaging study links cannabinoid receptors to post-traumatic stress disorder
In a first-of-its-kind effort to illuminate the biochemical impact of trauma, researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center have discovered a connection between the quantity of cannabinoid receptors in the human brain, known as CB1 receptors, and post-traumatic stress disorder, the chronic, disabling condition that can plague trauma victims with flashbacks, nightmares and emotional instability.

Making gold green: New non-toxic method for mining gold
Northwestern University scientists have struck gold in the laboratory. They have discovered an inexpensive and environmentally benign method that uses simple cornstarch -- instead of cyanide -- to isolate gold from raw materials in a selective manner.

What is the role of double-stranded RNA in antiviral host defense systems?
Animals, insects, and plants use a variety of sensing mechanisms to detect invading pathogens such as viruses.

NRL's MIGHTI slated for launch on ICON mission
A Naval Research Laboratory instrument designed to study the Earth's thermosphere is part of a satellite mission that NASA has selected to move forward into development (Phase B), with launch expected in 2017.

Rotavirus vaccine developed in India demonstrates strong efficacy
The Government of India's Department of Biotechnology and Bharat Biotech announced positive results from a Phase III clinical trial of a rotavirus vaccine developed and manufactured in India.

Nearly 50 percent increase in ICU admissions, new study says
A study released today by George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services researchers offers an in-depth look at hospitals nationwide and admissions to intensive care units (ICU).

Using clay to grow bone
In new research published online May 13, 2013 in Advanced Materials, researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital are the first to report that synthetic silicate nanoplatelets (also known as layered clay) can induce stem cells to become bone cells without the need of additional bone-inducing factors.

Penn research helps paint finer picture of massive 1700 earthquake
In 1700, a massive earthquake struck the west coast of North America, but a lack of local documentation has made studying this historic event challenging.

IT industry ignores silver surfers at its peril
Hardware and software vendors are foolish to ignore the needs of the growing population of older computer and information technology users, the so-called

Primary care physicians vital to complete care of prostate cancer patients
Androgen deprivation therapy is a common and effective treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

New software spots, isolates cyber-attacks to protect networked control systems
Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a software algorithm that detects and isolates cyber-attacks on networked control systems -- which are used to coordinate transportation, power and other infrastructure across the United States.

Untangling the tree of life
Vanderbilt phylogeneticists examined the reasons why large-scale tree-of-life studies are producing contradictory results and have proposed a suite of novel techniques to resolve the conflicts.

Human disease leptospirosis identified in new species, the banded mongoose, in Africa
Leptospirosis is the world's most common illness transmitted to humans by animals.

Cognitive training improves executive function in breast cancer survivors
Women whose breast cancer had been treated with chemotherapy demonstrated improved executive function, such as cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency and processing speed after using exercises developed by Lumosity, the leading online cognitive training program.

Studies support population-based efforts to lower excessive dietary sodium intakes
Recent studies that examine links between sodium consumption and health outcomes support recommendations to lower sodium intake from the very high levels some Americans consume now, but evidence from these studies does not support reduction in sodium intake to below 2,300 mg per day, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine.

Comorbidities should be factor in prostate biopsy choice, UCI study finds
UC Irvine Health urologists and health policy experts report in a new study that two written assessments that identify existing comorbidities -- the patient-reported Total Illness Burden Index for Prostate Cancer and the physician-reported Charlson Comorbidity Index -- can successfully target prostate patients who would not benefit from biopsy to discover possible cancer.

Slim women have a greater risk of developing endometriosis than obese women
Women with a lean body shape have a greater risk of developing endometriosis than women who are morbidly obese, according to the largest prospective study to investigate the link.

Sulfate aerosols cool climate less than assumed
The life span of cloud-forming sulfate particles in the air is shorter than assumed due to a sulfur dioxide oxidation pathway which has been neglected in climate models so far.

The migration of early modern musicians as Europe's identity-forming factor
Hundreds of musicians traveled and migrated across Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Pitt chemists demonstrate nanoscale alloys so bright they could have potential medical applications
Alloys like bronze and steel have been transformational for centuries, yielding top-of-the-line machines necessary for industry.

Widespread but neglected disease a health threat in Africa, Virginia Tech researchers say
Virginia Tech researchers have identified leptospirosis as a significant health threat in Botswana.

Local community group activities may help reduce neonatal mortality in Vietnam
Community groups in rural Vietnam comprised of local health workers, politicians and laywomen (Maternal and Newborn Health Groups) set up to tackle challenges to maternal and neonatal health may reduce the neonatal death rate after three years and increase antenatal care attendance, according to a study by researchers from Sweden and Vietnam published in this week's PLOS Medicine.

Massage therapy shown to improve stress response in preterm infants
A study published recently in Early Human Development, conducted by University of Louisville School of Nursing researcher Sandra Smith, Ph.D., and her team at the University of Utah, found massage therapy that involved moderate pressure and stroking of the soft tissues followed by flexing and extending the joints of the arms and legs increased heart rate variability in male, but not in female preterm infants.

Getting a grip on sleep
All mammals sleep, as do birds and some insects. However, how this basic function is regulated by the brain remains unclear.

Racial minorities live on the front lines of heat risk, study finds
Some racial groups are more likely to bear the brunt of extreme heat waves because of where they live, finds a new UC Berkeley study.

Learning to recycle: Does political ideology matter?
Some targeted messages based on political orientation are more effective at persuading consumers to recycle, according to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

University of Maryland Medical Center launches genetic-testing program for cardiac patients
Patients with coronary artery disease who undergo treatment at the University of Maryland Medical Center now can receive long-term therapy based on information found in their genes.

Implementation research and child diarrhea
While considerable recent progress has been made against childhood diarrheal diseases, the number of children dying from diarrhoea remains unacceptably high.

Passenger car drivers are more likely to die in crashes with SUVs, regardless of crash ratings
Most consumers who are shopping for a new car depend on good crash safety ratings as an indicator of how well the car will perform in a crash.

New osteoporosis drug combination outperforms current alternatives
The combination of the bone-building (anabolic) drug teriparatide and denosumab (a targeted therapy to stop bone loss) increases bone mineral density more than either drug alone and better than previously reported with any available treatment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, according to new research published Online First in The Lancet.

Seekers of past Honduran, Mexican civilizations to speak Wednesday, 15 May, at Meeting of Americas
A high-tech archeological exploration team of scientists and a filmmaker, who announced a year ago that they had glimpsed remnants of what might be a fabled ancient city in the Honduran rain forests, plans to speak about the team's discoveries Wednesday morning, 15 May, at the 2013 Meeting of the Americas in Cancún, Mexico, and to show previously undisclosed images of apparent archeological sites.

Saudi Arabia looks to NREL for solar monitoring expertise
Saudi Arabia is planning to move aggressively into renewable energy, with plans to install more solar and wind power in the next 20 years than the rest of the world has installed to date.

Hysterectomy does not increase risk of cardiovascular disease
Having a hysterectomy with or without ovary removal in mid-life does not increase a woman's risk of cardiovascular disease compared to women who reach natural menopause, contrary to many previously reported studies, according to research published online today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Where, when will thunderstorms strike Colorado's Front Range, adjacent Great Plains?
To better predict where and when spring thunderstorms rip across Colorado's Front Range and the adjacent Great Plains, researchers are launching a major field project this week with high-flying aircraft and fine-grained computer simulations.

Dual chamber ICDs show higher risk of complications
Even though patients receiving an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention often receive a dual-chamber ICD, an analysis that included more than 32,000 patients receiving an ICD without indications for pacing finds that the use of a dual-chamber device compared with a single-chamber device was associated with a higher risk of device-related complications and similar 1-year mortality and hospitalization outcomes, according to a study in the May 15 issue of JAMA.

A better way to prevent child abuse
New research at The University of Nottingham is calling for changes to a government scheme which engages community nurses in the prevention of child abuse and neglect in the home as part of a maternal and child health care program.

Surgery for common woman's condition may not be effective over long-term
The initial success rates of the most durable surgery for a common condition in women declines over the long-term, according to data published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

NJIT computer scientist publishes new algorithm cluster to data mine health records
The time may be fast approaching for researchers to take better advantage of the vast amount of valuable patient information available from US electronic health records.

Same musicians: Brand new tune
Stowers investigators discover how an unusual interplay of signaling pathways shapes a critical eye structure.

UC Riverside scientists discovering new uses for tiny carbon nanotubes
Nanotubes are stronger than steel and smaller than any element of silicon-based electronics.

£5.6m national collaboration to develop the next generation of computing systems
A national collaboration of electronic engineers and computer scientists is aiming to develop the next generation of energy-efficient computing systems.

Dual chamber defibrillators pose higher risk of complications
A device commonly used to treat dangerous heart rhythms may cause more issues for patients than a simpler version of the same device.

Wayne State researcher's technique helps robotic vehicles find their way
In a paper recently published in the journal IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Weisong Shi, Ph.D., associate professor of computer science in the College of Engineering, describes his development of a technique called LOBOT that provides accurate, real-time, 3-D positions in both indoor and outdoor environments.

Cardio and weight training reduces access to health care in seniors
Forget apples -- lifting weights and doing cardio can also keep the doctors away, according a new study by researchers at the University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute.

Community groups and neonatal mortality in Vietnam
Community groups in rural Vietnam comprised of local health workers, politicians and laywomen (Maternal and Newborn Health Groups) set up to tackle challenges to maternal and neonatal health may reduce the neonatal death rate after three years and increase antenatal care attendance, according to a study by researchers from Sweden and Vietnam published in this week's PLOS Medicine.

Mining the botulinum genome
Scientists at the Institute of Food Research have been mining the genome of C. botulinum to uncover new information about the toxin genes that produce the potent toxin behind botulism.

Study finds 'owning' a darker skin can positively impact racial bias
Scientists from Royal Holloway University have found that when white Caucasians are under the illusion that they have a dark skin, their racial bias changes in a positive way.

Study IDs key protein for cell death
Findings may offer a new way to kill cancer cells by forcing them into an alternative programmed-death pathway.
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